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Hemiptarsenus Westwood, 1833 comparative
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Body elongate. Clypeal margin truncate. Toruli very high on
face, at or above center of face; scape exceeding vertex
at least slightly (scape slightly exceeds vertex in some other genera). Flagellum with 4
or 5 funicular segments; basal 3 flagellomeres branched in males. Notauli incomplete;
mesosoma elongate and dorsoventrally flattened; axillae only slightly advanced anteriad of
scutellar margin. Forewing and costal cell unusually long and narrow:
forewing at least 2.6x longer than broad and costal cell 7-15x longer than broad; some
females brachypterous. Scutellum without submedian or sublateral grooves. Propodeum of two
distinct types: long and flat, slightly longer than broad in some
species, but in others 2x or more broader than long; median carina and plicae present or
absent; sometimes with raised median panels, especially in forms where propodeum is <3x
broader than long. Legs elongate. Compare with: Sympiesis, Notanisomorphella,
1a-b: Hemiptarsenus forewing (left), and profile of female (right)
2a: Hemiptarsenus dorsal view of species with long propodeum
3a: Hemiptarsenus habitus of species with short propodeum
of leaf-miners (mostly Diptera).
described species. Simply defined (scape exceeding vertex, body and forewing elongate),
this genus is problematic in that many of its most common species are easily confused with
certain species of Sympiesis. It seems likely that it renders Sympiesis paraphyletic
in one or more ways, and may itself be polyphyletic. In this light, the synonymy of Notanisomorpha
with Hemiptarsenus may prove to be a bad move. Many Pnigalio species
also have an elongate scape, and may be confused with Hemiptarsenus at first
Scape not exceeding vertex by >1.5x its own width. If scape slightly
exceeding vertex then propodeum >2x broader than long. Forewing
usually <2.6x longer than broad, costal cell usually <7x longer than broad.
Pnigalio: Propodeum almost always with
carinate costula. If not, then forewing <2.6x longer than broad and costal cell <7x
longer than broad.
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Boucek, Z. 1959. A study of central European Eulophidae, 1:
Eulophinae (Hymenoptera). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae. 33:
Boucek, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). A
biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species.
CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Schauff, M.E. & J. LaSalle. 1993. Nomenclatural notes on genera
of North American Eulophidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Proceedings of the
Entomological Society of Washington. 95(3): 488-503.
Image credits: 1a: Boucek (1988).