Notanisomorphella: Propodeum with complete "step-like" plicae (enclosed median panels of propodeum sharply elevated above lateral areas) immediately medial to spiracles; median panels large, shiny or reticulate. Pnigalio never have raised median propodeal panels in combination with lack of a costula.
Sympiesis: Setae on mesoscutal midlobe usually arranged in regular longitudinal rows (if not then propodeum uniformly reticulate, without median carina or plicae). Plicae extending as straight diagonal lines from spiracle to propodeal nucha, usually incomplete or absent; median carina present or absent. Distinguished from the rare Pnigalio without a costula by propodeal shape and features, and less reliably by arrangement of mesoscutal setae. All Pnigalio have a median carina and plicae, while Sympiesis rarely have both. Most Sympiesis have mesoscutal setae arranged in distinct rows, but many do not, and this character should never be used as the sole character separating these genera. The shape of the plicae is especially valuable when distinguishing these two genera, as they arise between the median carina and the spiracles in Pnigalio and almost always proceed more or less straight posteriad until they meet the costula, at which point they begin converging strongly, such that there is a corner where the plicae meet the costula. In the exceptions, they are straight and diverge posteriorly. In Sympiesis, the plicae, when present, arise nearly adjacent to the spiracles and proceed as essentially straight diagonal lines to the nucha (convergent posteriorly).
Hemiptarsenus: Toruli very high on face, far above lower eye margin; scape exceeding vertex (scape slightly exceeds vertex in some other genera). Forewing and costal cell unusually long and narrow: forewing at least 2.6x longer than broad and costal cell 7-15x longer than broad; some females brachypterous. Propodeum with or without median carina and plicae, never with a costula; sometimes with raised median panels, especially in forms where propodeum is <1.75x broader than long. Legs elongate. Not resembling Pnigalio in any way except body shape and sculpture in some, and propodeal sculpture is always sufficient to separate these genera.
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Miller, C.D.F. 1970. The Nearctic species of Pnigalio and Sympiesis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 68.
Yoshimoto, C. 1983. Review of North American Pnigalio Schrank (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Canadian Entomologist. 115: 971-1000.
Image credits: 1a, 3a-b: Yoshimoto (1983). 1b-c, 2a-b, 4a: Miller (1970).