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Dicladocerus Westwood, 1832 comparative
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Flagellar formula 2,3,3 in females, 1,4,2 in males; flagellum with 2
branches in males (on basal pair of postanellar flagellomeres). Notauli
incomplete or ending in anterior half of axilla far from scutellar margin; mesoscutal
midlobe setae paired or indistinct; scutellum almost always with straight,
parallel submedian grooves indicated by change in sculpture,
sometimes indistinct. Postmarginal vein longer than stigmal vein, sometimes >2x stigmal
vein length, shorter than marginal vein; uncus arising more than its own length
from apex of stigmal vein. Propodeum with median carina and complete or
incomplete plicae that are frequently raised, 'step-like' in that they separate raised
median panels from the sunken paraspiracular area of the propodeum. Compare with: Necremnus,
1a-b: Dicladocerus epinotiae Yoshimoto mesosoma (left), and D.
nearcticus Yoshimoto propodeum (right)
2a-b: Dicladocerus forewing (left), and male antenna (right)
described species. Males not confusable with any other genus if the antennae are present
and undamaged. Females may be very difficult to identify to genus if the submedian
scutellar grooves are not apparent, and can resemble a Necremnus with a
too-long, too-developed propodeum and elongate stigma.
Necremnus (females): Scutellum without
submedian grooves. Propodeum usually without plicae. Postmarginal vein at most 1.7x
stigmal vein length, uncus rarely arising distinctly more than its own length from apex of
stigmal vein [known exceptions: N. metalarus (Walker)]. All female Dicladocerus
that I am aware of with faint submedian scutellar grooves have plicae or plical
ridges delimiting median panels that are slightly to sharply raised above the lateral
areas of the propodeum, and in nearly all species of Dicladocerus the uncus is
separated from the stigmal apex by more than its own length. Necremnus propodealis Boucek
is notable as a species of Necremnus with a strong median carina and step-like
plicae, but in that species the uncus is separated by its own length from the stigmal
apex. This still leaves a few species of Dicladocerus in which females cannot be
separated from Necremnus females. This problem is compounded by the fact that
some Necremnus specimens have very faint submedian scutellar grooves. Separation
of these two poorly known genera is problematic, and cannot be fully accomplished at this
Notanisomorphella: Flagellum with 4
funicular segments. Males with 3 antennal branches. Never with longitudinal scutellar
grooves. Uncus arising about its own length from stigmal apex.
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Graham, M.W.R. de V. 1963. Additions and corrections to the British
list of Eulophidae (Hym., Chalcidoidea). Transactions of the Society for British
Entomology. 15(9): 167-275.
Yoshimoto, C. 1976. Revision of the genus Dicladocerus
(Eulophidae: Chalcidoidea) of America north of Mexico, with particular reference to
species attacking larch casebearer (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae). Canadian Entomologist.
Image credits: 1a-b, 2a: Yoshimoto (1976). 2b: Graham (1963).