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3. Flagellum (a1, a2) 3- or 4-segmented, including an elongate club. Petiole (b1), broadly joined to propodeum (about the same width as propodeum); gaster never petiolate. Submarginal vein with 1 dorsal seta (c1: s). Very small, poorly sclerotized wasps without metallic coloration or pitted sculpture.

Cales Howard, 1907 [genus unplaced to family in Chalcidoidea]

3'. Flagellum almost always with more than 4 segments. Metasoma not broadly joined to propodeum (bb1), gaster constricted at petiole or strongly petiolate. Submarginal vein (cc1: s) usually with 2 or more dorsal setae. Most species larger, well-sclerotized, with pitted sculpture (bb1) and/or black or metallic colored, except for some Entedoninae (most notably, the Ceranisus group).

couplet 4

a1 (female)

a2 (male)
cales antenna1.JPG (5662 bytes) cales antenna2.JPG (7970 bytes)

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b1

bb1
cales body.JPG (27961 bytes) entedon.JPG (25711 bytes)

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c1

cc1

cales wing.JPG (21687 bytes) entedonine wing.JPG (37716 bytes)

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Image credits: a1-2: Hayat (1983). c1: Woolley (1997). b1: Viggiani & Carver (1988). bb1: Boucek (1988). cc1: Schauff (1991).