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1a-b: Cales noacki forewing (left), and mandibles (right)
2a-c: Cales orchamoplati (left), Cales noacki female antenna (center), and male antenna (right)
Trichogrammatidae: Tarsal formula 3-3-3. Mandible without socketed accessory tooth. Antenna never exactly the same in form (never with elongate terminal claval segment and distinct funicular segments at the same time).
Aphelinidae: Protibial spur stout and curved. Most species with tarsal formula 5-5-5.
Eulophidae: Petiole much narrower than gaster and propodeum, metasoma not appearing broadly attached to propodeum. Funicle and club not reduced to 1 segment each. Mandible without accessory tooth (but this is typically hard to discern). Only Goetheana and some Tetrastichinae with only 1 dorsal seta on submarginal vein.
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Hayat, M. 1983. The genera of Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera) of the world. Systematic Entomology. 8: 63-102.
Heraty, J.M. & M.E. Schauff. 1998. Mandibular teeth in Chalcidoidea: Function and phylogeny. Journal of Natural History. 32(8): 1227-1244.
Viggiani, G. & M. Carver. 1988. Cales orchamoplati sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society. 27(1): 43-45.
Woolley, J.B. 1997. Chapter 5. Aphelinidae. in "Annotated Keys to the Genera of Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). G.A.P. Gibson & J.T. Huber, eds. NRC Research Press, Ottawa.
Image credits: 1a: Woolley (1997). 1b: Heraty & Schauff (1998). 2a: Viggiani & Carver (1988). 2b-c: Hayat (1983).