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Cales Howard, 1907 comparative info return to: prev home
Flagellar formula 1,1,1 or 2,1,1; club very long; flagellar setae very long in males. Toruli slightly above lower eye margin. Transverse frontal groove near ocellar triangle. Mandible long and flat, with a specialized socketed accessory tooth ventrally, and with 3 (sometimes appearing to be 4) normal denticles. Maxillary palp 1-segmented. Mesoscutal midlobe and scutellum may each have 1 or 2 pairs of strong dorsal setae (varying by species); notauli complete; mesophragma dimpled medially. Marginal vein several times longer than the short stigmal vein (which is usually not well-differentiated from the marginal vein); postmarginal vein absent; forewing characteristically oar-shaped in C. noacki (the most common species by far), with 3 discal setal tracks; forewing broader and more evenly setose in at least 1 of the other two species. Tarsal formula 4-4-4. Protibial spur short and straight. Compare with: Trichogrammatidae, Aphelinidae, Eulophidae (especially Goetheana).

1a-b: Cales noacki forewing (left), and mandibles (right)

2a-c: Cales orchamoplati (left), Cales noacki female antenna (center), and male antenna (right)


Comments: Unplaced to family, but most recently placed in Aphelinidae. 3 described species.

Comparative information:

Trichogrammatidae: Tarsal formula 3-3-3. Mandible without socketed accessory tooth. Antenna never exactly the same in form (never with elongate terminal claval segment and distinct funicular segments at the same time).

Aphelinidae: Protibial spur stout and curved. Most species with tarsal formula 5-5-5.

Eulophidae: Petiole much narrower than gaster and propodeum, metasoma not appearing broadly attached to propodeum. Funicle and club not reduced to 1 segment each. Mandible without accessory tooth (but this is typically hard to discern). Only Goetheana and some Tetrastichinae with only 1 dorsal seta on submarginal vein.

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Hayat, M. 1983. The genera of Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera) of the world. Systematic Entomology. 8: 63-102.

Heraty, J.M. & M.E. Schauff. 1998. Mandibular teeth in Chalcidoidea: Function and phylogeny. Journal of Natural History. 32(8): 1227-1244.

Viggiani, G. & M. Carver. 1988. Cales orchamoplati sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society. 27(1): 43-45.

Woolley, J.B. 1997. Chapter 5. Aphelinidae. in "Annotated Keys to the Genera of Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). G.A.P. Gibson & J.T. Huber, eds. NRC Research Press, Ottawa.

Image credits: 1a: Woolley (1997). 1b: Heraty & Schauff (1998). 2a: Viggiani & Carver (1988). 2b-c: Hayat (1983).