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3. Propodeum (a1) with simple median carina, or with very strong rugae that may partially obscure the carina (a2) (rarely the carina may appear to be absent when the propodeum is extremely short). Mesepimeron not extending partially over metapleuron, transepimeral sulcus always evident.
3'. Propodeum without simple median carina, but in some species of Astichus with a divergent set of areoles. Mesepimeron extending partially over metapleuron, transepimeral sulcus absent in many species (i.e.: no division between upper and lower mesepimeron).
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Image credits: Schauff, et al. (1997).