File: <chalcido.key.htm> Bibliography Bibliography #2 Terminology MAIN MENU


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A Public Service on the basics of Insect Identification



Major Families of Adult Chalcidoidea


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Generalized drawings of Chalcidoidea morphology by Noyes & Valentine (1989) are

Presented in Figs.A-G.


For greater detail on specific geographic areas also please refer <Regional Keys>


[A will display all images for both pairs of a couplet]


NOTE: Subfamily details given only for Pteromalidae




248a (123b). Hind femur enlarged, with ventral teeth, either a few large or many small ones (saw-like) (Fig.A); hind tibia not quite equal to femur and arched; specimens usually 5-15 mm, broad bodied, rarely <1-2 mm ........ A.



248b. Hind femur not enlarged, ventral teeth, if present, 2 or less, or ventral edge serrated (Fig. A); hindtibia straight (rarely half length of femur); specimens usually 1-10 mm., robust to fragile



249a (248a). Prepectus reduced or fused (Fig.A), not readily apparent, of if so, not triangular in outline (Fig.A).... A



249b. Prepectus in the form of a triangular plate (Fig.A)



250a (249a). Ovipositor directed horizontally [in most species not extended beyond tip of abdomen]; tegula almost an oval disc; fore wing not folded longitudinally; posterior gena with distinct ridge; body often large but not usually metallic (Figs.A-D) ...... A ..... Chalcididae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



250b. Ovipositor curved upwards over abdomen (Fig.A); male abdomen covered by pitted hard covering of fused dorsal plates (Fig.A ); tegula narrowly extended forward, ladel-like; fore wing often folded longitudinally; body large, wasp-like, with fore wing longitudinally folded as in Vespidae, frequently with black and yellow pattern (Figs.B-D) ....... Leucospidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



251a (2 251a). Frons projects as 2 "horns" (surrounding antennae) in dorsal view (Fig.A); petiole on abdomen, not long but with distinct dorsal ridges; ventral edge of hind femur with smoothly arched comb of minute teeth (Figs.B-C)...... A ....... Chalcididae (generalized) (Dirhininae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [also see fly-par.htm ]



251b. Frons not modified as "horns," mostly flat in dorsal view (Fig.A); hind tibia almost perpendicularly squared at tip; 2 hind tibial spurs ....... Chalcididae (Haltichellinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



251c. Frons not modified as "horns," mostly flat in dorsal view; hind tibia obliquely squared at tip (Fig.A); either 1hind tibial spur or spur not apparent; abdominal petiole eitherconcealed or much shorter than 1/2 length of abdomen and not striated longitudinally ............ Chalcididae (Chalcidinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



252a (249b). Eyes diverge ventrally; antennae inserted low on face; ovipositor not protrudin (Figs.A-B).........=A .........Pteromalidae (Chalcedectini: Cleonyminae) (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [also see [also see 294]



252b. Eyes nearly parallel; antennae inserted near middle of face; ovipositor protruding (Figs.A-C) ....... Torymidae (generalized) (Podagrionini: Monodontomerinae) (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



253a (248b). Antennae with 5-7 segments between pedicel and club; tarsi usually with 5 segments (if with 4, then males of Tetracampidae, or tiny specimens with long antennae and characteristic wings, (see Mymaridae illustrations) (Fig.A).......... A ...... <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



253b. Antennae with 0-4 segments between pedicel and club; tarsi with 3, 4, or 5 segments (Fig.A); or specimens 0.2-1 or 2 mm. long and such characters hard to see (many tiny fragile specimens)



254a (253a). Hind wing without stalk, expanded as shown; forewing venation ends beyond basal 1/3rd (postmarginal present, stigmal elongated to sessile) (Fig.A); specimens usually >2 mm ......... A



254b. Hind wing stalked and elongated (rarely reduced to only a short stub, hooked at tip); fore wing venation linear, ending in basal 1/3rd (postmarginal vein absent, stigmal rudimentary), or seemingly absent; specimens usually <2 mm



255a (254b). Abdominal petiole with distinct 2 segments and very thin; fore wing reticulate (= net-like); both fore and hind wings narrow at base into a linear stalk (Fig.A); mandibles with teeth exodont (extended outwards); antennal sockets closer to eyes than to each other (rare in North American collections) .......... A ......... Mymerommatidae (= Callimomidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



255b. Abdominal petiole with 1 segment or none; fore wing membrane smooth, hind wing membrane not reaching base, but reduced to a linear stalk formed by submarginal vein (Fig.A); frons with H-shaped impressed lines (Fig.A ); antennal sockets much closer to eyes than to each other; egg parasites (common in North American collections) .... (Figs.B-H). ... Mymaridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



256a (254a). Mesopleuron concave; midtibial spur thin and like a spine (Fig.A) ........ A



256b. Mesopleuron convex (bulging); midtibial spur relatively thick (Fig.A)



257a (256a). Head projects forward, female mandible with rasplike appendage; female scape always distinctly widened but irregular in shape (Fig.A), 3rd antennal segment not ring-like but extended mesodorsally into a thick spine (Fig.A); eyes very small or vestigial, celli mostly absent; at least hind tibia shorter than femur; male wingless (much modified) or short-winged, wing stumps often as short filaments, rarely with narrow wing blade; body yellowish to dark brown or black, with shortened spiny tibiae, tarsal segments often very reduced; not parasitic and collected from fig fruits (Figs.B-F) ...... A ...... Agaonidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



257b. Head projects downward,female without appendage on mandible; hind tibia at least as long as femur, usually longer; male similar to female (Fig.A)



258a (257b). Antennal insertion definitely more than one socket diameter above free margin of clypeus; if doubtful, then either eyes diverge ventrally or side of head ("cheeks") ridged (carinate) ...... A ... (Fig.A)



258b. Antennal insertion less than one socket diameter above free margin of clypeus; if doubtful, side of head without ridges ....... (Fig.A)



259a (258b). Antennae arise at side and below free margin of clypeus; thorax with some distinct pits or wrinkles, often also head; scutellum without sublateral lines but often with pitted frenal line (Fig.A ); fore wing membrane flat, pubescent, without a tuft of scales; frons with median pitted groove; abdominal petiole longer than wide; body black or slightly metallic (Figs.B-D) (common in North American collections)......A... Pteromalidae (Spalangiinae) .... <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [also see 294 and fly-par.htm ]



259b. Antennae arise slightly above free margin of clypeus; abdominal petiole not visible (Fig. A) (rare in North American collections) ........ Pteromalidae (Ceinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [also see Asaphinae & Eunotinae].



260a (258a). Fore wing stigma enlarged (Fig.A), longer than stigmal vein, and projects toward hind margin of wing; ovipositor sheaths always protruding; antennae with 7 funicle segments; thorax with rather sparse and usually outstanding conspicuous hairs, always without short hairs; body often somewhat yellow and rarely metallic (Figs.B-C) ....... .A ........ Torymidae (Megastigminae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



260b. Fore wing stigma not enlarged, shorter than stigmal vein (stigma at times surrounded by pigmented tainlike area); ovipositor and antenna variable (Fig.A)



261a (260b). Scutellum with submedian grooves that meet prescutal sutures and outline a median rectangular area (ra) or stigmal vein long and almost at right angle to marginal vein (Figs.A-B) (rare in collections from fig fruits in Florida .... .A ..... Torymidae (Sycophaginae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



261b. Scutellum without submedian grooves, prescutal sutures separated from scutellum by axilla (= triangular or rounded sclerite on side of scutellum and mostly just back of the base of front wing); either stigmal vein ling and angled off of marginal vein or short (Fig.A) (common & widespread in North America)



262a (261b). Hind coxa much longer and wider than forecoxa by 2-3 times; if doubtful, then prescutal sutures absent or weak and female with protruding ovipositor (Fig.A ........... A.



262b. Hind coxa nearly same size as fore coxa; if doubtful, then prescutal sutures well developed and female ovipositor not protruding (Fig.A)



263a (262a). Ovipositor at least a little protruding; both sexes: abdomen without pits; propodeum postero-laterally angled and does not project over hind coxa (dorsal view); cerci of last dorsal plate elongated or 4-sided and with long setae (not as apparent in male as female); pronotum mostly long, often almost conical; prepectus almost equal to tegula; hind tibial spurs thin; male abdomen collapsed or convex, in latter case at least as high as broad, without lateral edge (Figs.A-E) ....... A....... Torymidae ...... <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (Subfamilies: 264)



263b. Ovipositor not protruding; both sexes: pronotum relatively short; abdomen with pits and always heavily sclerotized; propodeum postero-laterally rounded and projects over hind coxa (dorsal view); cerci of last dorsal plate reduced to low plates (like a disk); prepectus much smaller than tegula; hind tibial spurs thickened (Figs.A-B) ........... Ormyridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



264a (263a). Metapleuron with straight anterior margin; stigmal vein much shorter than breadth of coastal cell, stigma at most only slightly knobbed (Fig.A ); head and thorax always metallic or slightly so in Australian species; hairs on thorax usually dense and short ........ A ........ Torymidae (Monodontomerinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



264b. Metapleuron with anterior margin angled or protruding forward (Fig.A ), so that metapleuron forms a distinct lobe; antennae of Australian species always with 1 anellus (ring segment) and 7 funicular segments (Fig.B) ...... Torymidae (Toryminae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



265a (262b). Pronotum rectangular in dorsal view, about as wide as scutum, sides parallel and flat laterally; body black, yellow, or mixed black & yellow, but rarely faintly metallic; thorax mostly with coarse hairy pits; abdomen usually oval in crossview and compressed laterally (Figs.A-D) ........ A ..... Eurytomidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (Subfamilies: 266)



265b. Pronotum in dorsal view narrowed to a transverse (= at right angles to longitudinal axis) strip, or not visible (if elongated, then narrower at base than apex and sides concave to accomodate front femora (rare, some Cleonyminae); body often metallic blue or green, rarely black; abdomen usually keel-shaped (triangular in cross view) and somewhat compressed dorsally (Fig.A)



266a (265a). Prepectus (p) as large or larger than tegula; antennae at most with 12 segments (Fig.A ), with only 1 ring segment and this often almost fused with first funicular A segment; apical segments mostly fused into a club (Fig.B) ........ Eurytomidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (Eurytominae)



266b. Prepectus smaller than tegula (Fig.A)



267a (266b). Scutellum with projection; tegula sculptured (Fig.A). .....A. ...... Eurytomidae (Heimbrinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



267b. Scutellum without projection; tegula smooth; antennae with 13 segments (Fig.A), the segments after pedicel either not differentiated or proximal 3 segments of flagellum shortened and then almost anelliform (= ring-like)........ Eurytomidae (Rileyinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



268a (265b). Pronotum not visible in dorsal view, covered by distinctly arched scutum; sculpture on thorax often coarse; abdomen like a rudder, on long petiole; marginal vein usually very long, but sometimes poorly defined; mandibles often sickle-shaped, narrow (Fig.A ); marginal vein unusually long in some species (Figs.B-E) ... Eucharitidae ... A . <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (Subfamilies: 269)



268b. Pronotum visible in dorsal view, scutum not heavily arched; abdomen usually elongated and petiole usually not visible.... (petiolate forms occur) (Fig.A)



269a (268a). Prepectus fused to pronotum (Figs.A-B) .... A ....... Eucharitidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (Eucharitinae)



269b. Prepectus not fused to pronotum (Fig.A) .......... Eucharitidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (Oraseminae)



270a (268b). Abdomen covered by first two dorsal plates (or seemingly covered by single plate); prepectus often fused with side panel of pronotum (Fig.A), if prepectus clearly separated than face with discernible supraclypeal area and strong mandibles only 2-toothed (Fig.A); prescutal sutures always complete; body short and squat; head with well defined clypeus and at least 1 mandible with 2 teeth; body metallic to black, thorax mostly with coarse hairy pits (Figs.B-C) ...... A ........... Perilampidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (Subfamilies:.. 271)



270b. Abdomen with 3 or more readily visible dorsal plates; body usually elongated; head variable but usually with inconspicuous clypeus and small mandibles with 3-4 teeth; either prescutal sutures incomplete or antenna with 13 segments (Figs.A-B) .......... Pteromalidae ... (Subfamilies: 272 & 294)



271a (270a). Prepectus not fused to pronotum; suture clearly visible (Fig.A)..... A ..... Perilampidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (Chrysolampinae)



271b. Prepectus fused to pronotum (suture absent or barely visible) (Figs.A-D) ............. Perilampidae (Perilampinae)



272a (270b). Axillae (ax) advanced far forward of scutellum or cuts a distinct angle into side lobe of scutum (Fig.A) ......... A



272b. Axillae not extended forward of scutellum, or if slightly advanced, does not cut a distinct angle into side lobe of scutum .... (Fig.A)



273a ( 272a. Axillae enlarged, nearly meeting medially; body covered with white, scale-like setae (Fig.A) .... A ..... Pteromalidae (Eutrichosomatinae) <Habits>; <Adults> <Juveniles>



273b. Axillae not enlarged, not close medially; body without white, scale-like setae (Fig.A)



274a (273b). Scutellum posterior without triangular "projection" and with parallel dorsal grooves; ovipositor often protruding (Fig.A) ...... A .... Pteromalidae (Colotrechninae) . <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> ...... [also see 294]



274b. Scutellum posterior with triangular "projection" (is part of metanotum) and without apparent dorsal grooves; scapula extends backwards outside the rectangular outer corner of axilla, axilla 2X as long as broad; mid tarsus with 4 segments, unusually long (Fig.A), first segment as long as rest; prepectus unusually small Pteromalidae (Macromesinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> ....... [also see 294]



275a (272b). Head in dorsal view with posterior ocelli touching sharp occipital (= dorsal posterior) edge, gena usually posteriorly ridged; clypeal margin not extended; thorax A hariness mostly replaced by sparce bristles (Figs.A-C) ...... Pteromalidae (Eunotinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> .... [also see 294]



275b. Head in dorsal view with posterior ocelli distant from rounded occipital margin; if doubtful, then head with curved black spines (Fig.A)



276a (275b). Head with projection between antennae, visible both from above and side (antennae not shown) (Fig.A); body and antennae shiny, latter usually always without anelli (= ring segments); wings, if not reduced, without conspicuous hariness but with fine long marginal fringe, sometimes with a tuft at stigma; marginal vein usually long, but postmarginal and stigmal veins short; body yellowish to blackish, rarely metallic. ......... .A ..... Pteromalidae (Cerocephalinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> .... [also see 294]



276b. Head without interantennal projection (Fig.A) ...,,,,... A



277a (276b). Head and thorax dorsally with black, curved spines; antennae with 13 segments; hind coxae with fine longitudinal ridges and inserted unusually high (Fig.A), its outer face often with longitudinal sculpture; short-winged or wingless females common ......... A ......... Pteromalidae (Diparinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> .... [also see 294]



277b. Head and thorax may have setae, but not black spines; hind coxae sculptured or smooth, without longitudinal ridges ........... (Fig.A)



278a (277b). Body typically elongated (1-2 cm.); head with ridged, raised areas (crests) between eye and scrobal basin; pronotum in dorsal view about 2X as long as broad, also petiole, legs and wings unusually long and slender (Fig.A); ovipositor protrudes, long; antennae with 13 segments without ring segments; very rare in NorthAmerica)........A. ....... Pteromalidae (Leptofoeninae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> .... [also see 294]



278b. Body less elongated (usually less than 1 cm.); head without ridged, raised area between eye and scrobal basin (Fig.A) (commonly collected in North America) .......... A



279a (278b). Eyes divergent ventrally, parallel dorsally; pronotum often, though not always, longer than wide, dorsally rounded and medially often with smooth strip or raised longitudinal line; thorax usually pitted (Figs.A-C) ........ A ....... Pteromalidae (Cleonyminae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> .... [also see 294]



279b. Eye margins mostly parallel; pronotum always wider than long (Fig.A)



280a (279b). Either eyes, head, and thorax densely covered with setae, or scutellum largely A ........ .polished and with only 2 pairs of bristles (rare in North American collections) (Fig.A)



280b. Eyes not densely covered with setae, head and thorax occasionally so; scutellum rarely with paired bristles, but if so there are 3 or more pairs and they are inconspicuous (Fig.A)



281a (280a). Eyes, head and thorax densely covered with setae; first dorsal plate without distinct longitudinal grooves; head including large eyes, thorax dorsally and wings regularly densely hairy, never with paired bristles (Fig.A); postmarginal vein much longer than stigmal. ........ A .......... Pteromalidae (Herbertinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> .... [also see 294]



281b. Eyes not covered with setae; scutellum largely polished and with 2 pairs of prominent bristles; male antennae with 6 conspicuous segments between pedicel and club (Fig.A), rarely 5 (Fig.A); marginal vein at least 4X as long as stigmal vein (Fig.A), fore wing mostly very densely hairy, including basal 1/3rd; in females antenna with 6 distinct funicular segments and sometimes with 1 ring-like segment (Fig.A); female propodeum often very hairy (Figs.A-C) ............ Tetracampidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



282a (280b). Sides of head ("cheeks") laterally ridged, temple absent (Fig.A), gena posteriorly produced into a lamina; antenna clubbed, all preclub segments of flagellum at right angles to longitudinal axis; scutellum anteriorly with 2 deep pits; second dorsal plate of petiolate abdomen very large, covering most of dorsum, dorsally somewhat fused with the 1st dorsal plate. ..... A ........ Pteromalidae (Asaphinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> .... [also see 294]



282b. Sides of head rounded laterally; notauli (= longitudinal sutures of the mesonotum separating the median area from the lateral area) incomplete and wide apart; marginal vein widened in basal part (Fig.A); clypeal margin often with deep incision and asymmetric teeth; dorsum of thorax reticulate, almost bare, without bristles (Fig.B) ..... Pteromalidae (Pteromalinae / Miscogasterinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> .......... .[also see 294]



283a (256b). Cercus at tip of abdomen; fore and midcoxae separated (midcoxa posterior to midpoint of mesopleuron); axillae (ax) do not meet medially (if so, at least as long as wide); marginal vein longer than stigmal or postmarginal (Fig.A) ......... A



283b. Cercus anterior to tip of abdomen; fore & mid coxae nearly touching (mid coxa anterior to middle of mesopleuron) (Fig.A); flagellum with at most 9 segments (occasionally one very small ring-like segment); axillae transverse (= at right angle with longitudinal axis), often meeting in midline (Fig.A); marginal vein often shorter than stigmal or postmarginal; mesoscutum convex and short; prescutal sutures absent or indicated by superficial lines converging to meet at the pointed front end of scutellum (Figs.B-Z) ......... Encyrtidae <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2>; & <Juveniles> [also see fly-par.htm ]



284a (283a). Prescutal sutures mostly invisible, do not meet; prepectus flat, not projected flagellum with 7-8 segmented funicle plus club; mid coxae much closer to hind coxae than to fore ones (Fig.A); axillae not obviously at right angles with longitudinal axis and mostly wide apart so that scutellum is only rarely pointed anteriorly; marginal vein always much longer than stigmal vein (Figs.B-F) ...... A ...... Eupelmidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> .. (Subfamilies: 285)



284b. Prepectus swollen, in dorsal view protruding forwards as conspicuous shoulders (Fig.A), prescutal sutures meet medially; pronotum very short; always fully winged, stigmal vein fairly long but shorter than marginal (Fig.A); antennae with 12 segments; tropical and phytophagous (not parasitic) .......... Tanaostigmatidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



285a (284a). Lack membranous area anterior to mid coxal insertion (Fig.A) ...... A ........ Eupelmidae (Metapelmatinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



285b. With membranous area anterior to midcoxal insertion (Fig.A)



286a (285b). Scutum wider than pronotum, with anterolateral shoulders produced (Fig.A) ........ A ......... .Eupelmidae (Calosotinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



286b. Scutum not much wider than pronotum, with anterolateral shoulders indistinct (Figs.A-B) ......... Eupelmidae (Eupelminae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



287a (253b). Usually 1 mm. or longer; body often metallic or dark in color; abdomennarrowly joined at propodeum (petiole may or may not be apparent); tarsi always with 4 segments; postmarginal vein present or absent (Fig.A) ........... A.



287b. Usually 1 mm or less in length; body mostly pale yellow to white, sometimes with dark markings or wholly dark, but not metallic; abdomen broadly joined to propodeum; postmarginal vein absent; tarsi usually with 3-5 segments (if 4 segments, then club large and undivided or wing fringed with long setae, or middle tarsi with only 4 segments) (Fig A)



288a (287a). Hind coxa greatly enlarged; posterior scutellum with triangular, usually translucent flap overhanging propodeum; hind tibia with irregular, linear, or diamond-shaped patterns of setae; prescutal sutures indistinct; tarsi with 4 segments; fore wing very narrow, wedge-shaped and almost completely hairy, without outstanding bristles; male antenna with 3 branches.......... (Fig.A); general appearance (Figs.A-E) ...... A ...... Elasmidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>




288b. Hind coxa not greatly enlarged (normal); posterior scutellum without overhanging triangular flap; hind tibia without irregular setal patterns; body ranges from minute to medium size (Figs.A-D) (up to 6 mm long) ..........Eulophidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> ..... (Subfamilies: 289)



289a (288b). Scutellum usually with 1 pair of setae; submarginal vein with 2 dorsal bristles (except some Neotropical genera with more); stigmal vein always very short and postmarginal even shorter than stigmal; face usually with scrobal and facial grooves; notaular grooves abruptly directed sideways and before the bend at least shortly interrupted; fully winged (Fig.A)......... A....... . Eulophidae (Entedoninae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



289b. Scutellum with 2 pairs of setae (rarely 3 or more); submarginal with 3 or more setae (rarely with 1 or 2); face usually without distinct grooves



290a (289b). Fore wing with bare area posterior to marginal vein with single row of setae; usually with 2-3 "lines of setae" radiating from stigmal vein; scutellum in dorsal view entire, without longitudinal grooves, axillae on its sides separated by a depression which is not visible dorsally (Fig.A); female abdomen with 2 dorsal plates after the 6th (spiracle bearing), these loose or only partly fused ....... A ...... Eulophidae (Euderinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



290b. Fore wing usually evenly setose posterior to marginal vein without row of setae; rarely with any "lines of setae" radiating from stigmal, when present, usually only one (Fig.A)



291a (290b). Postmarginal vein usually absent or rudimentary; shiny scutellum often with paired submedian grooves that divide the scutellum into 3 distinct pieces (Figs.A-B) ....... A ...... Eulophidae (Tetrastichinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



291b. Postmarginal vein present, stigmal vein usually moderately long; submarginal vein at distal end usually smooth curving into stigma (Fig.A); scutellum without submedian grooves, rarely with lateral grooves, when present at extreme lateral margins, scutellum usually with 2 or more pairs of setae (Fig.A), in some species with additional hairiness .......... Eulophidae (Eulophinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



292a (287b). Tarsi with 3 segments, all segments elongated and almost of same length (Fig.A); setae on wings usually arranged in rows; stigmal vein usually elongated, postmarginal vein absent (Fig.A); antennae short (5-9 segments) (Fig.A) and with few discernible funicular segments, male with elongated antennal "setae."; body minute, rarely exceeding 1 mm in length, never metallic (Figs.B-C); egg parasites ........ A. ........ Trichogrammatidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniiles>



292b. Tarsi with 4-5 segments; setae on wings largely absent, evenly covering wings, or with only a few bare spots or rows present; stigmal vein short and not obviously divergent from wing margin; antennae variable, but usually with discernible funiclar segments (if not, then with large undivided club) (Fig.A)



293a (292b). Propodeum without median triangular area; scutellum (sc) not transverse (anterior, posterior sides not parallel), axillae (ax) distinct from scutellum, rarely meeting medially; club of antenna almost always segmented (a few species here have antennae like Signiphoridae). Axillae (ax) do not meet medially, generally widely separated; prescutal sutures (n) present and mostly far apart, complete (Fig.A) and abdomen broadly sessile; fore wing post marginal vein mostly absent; (antennal club in Eretmocerus large and undivided, tarsi with 4 segments); body usually less than 1 mm long, rarely 1.7 mm, always not metallic

(Figs.B-H) ......... A ...... Aphelinidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



293b. Propodeum with triangular median area (Fig.A); scutellum (sc) transverse (sides parallel), fused with axillae and forming a narrow cross-belt or widely separated; prescutal sutures complete but fine, linear; thorax smooth; club of antenna elongated and not segmented; male antennae simple; fore wing not especially narrow, basal 13rd mostly bare but with several very prominent bristles; body small, hardly ever >1mm long, usually black and depressed dorsally, always winged, abdomen broadly sessile (Figs.B-C) ........ Signiphoridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>