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KEY TO ADULTS OF PRINCIPAL PARASITOIDS OF

SYNANTHROPIC DIPTERA BREEDING IN

DECOMPOSING ORGANIC WASTES 1

 

E. F. Legner

University of California

Riverside, California 92521-0315

(Email Contacts)

 

 

----Please CLICK on desired underlined categories [ To search for Subject Matter, depress Ctrl/F ]:

 

 

Introduction                                               Details on families may be found in  <taxnames.htm>

 

Specimens & Acknowledgments          See MORPHOLOGY to learn about insect structure

 

Parasitoid Species

 

Key to Adult Parasitoids

 

Descriptions of Species

 

 

Introduction

 

Records of the activity of parasitoids from synanthropic Diptera developing in decomposing organic wastes were repetitious enough by 1976 from collections sites throughout the world to suggest that most major species were known (Girault 1910, Girault & Sanders 1910, Howard 1911, Hewitt 1914, Graham-Smith 1916, 1919; Bridwell 1919, Froggatt 1921, Johnston & Bancroft 1920, Johnston & Tiegs 1921, Séguy 1923, Vanderburg 1929, 1930, 1931; Newman & Andrewartha 1930, Handschin 1932, Feng 1933, Lindquist 1936, Miller et al. 1936, Campbell 1938, Roy & Siddons 1939, Simmonds 1940, 1967, 1958; Thompson 1943, 1944; Bromley 1945, Wolcott 1948, Muesebeck et al. 1951, West 1951, West & Peters 1973, Nikolskaya 1952, Steve 1959, Azab et al 1963, Boucek 1963, Peck 1951, 1963, 1974; Sytshevskaya 1963, 1964, Jenkins 1964 Peck et al. 1964, Yasumatsu & Watanabe 1964; Legner 1965a,b; 1966, 1967a,b,c; 1969b; Legner et al. 1967, 1974a,b; 1976; Legner & Greathead 1969, Legner & McCoy 1966, Legner & Olton 1968a,b; 1971, 1975; Legner & Poorbaugh 1972; Houser & Wingo 1967b, Jones 1967a,b; 1971, Sanders 1967, Sanders & Dobson 1966, Depner 1968, Beard 1969a, Combs & Hoelscher 1969, Mourier & ben Hannine 1969, Kogan & Legner 1970, Moore & Legner 1971, Mourier 1971, Greenberg 1971, Anonymous 1972, Monty 1972, Thomas & Wingo 1968, Thomas & Morgan 1972, Turner et al. 1968, Wylie 1973a, Ables & Shepard 1974a,b; 1976a; Keiding 1974, Mitchell et al. 1974, Ursu & Tudor 1975, Ursu et al 1976).  Thereafter, only a few additional parasitoids have been added to the list which proportionally usually demonstrate infrequent parasitization activity on their hosts (Geetha-Bai & Sankaran 1977, Watts & Combs 1977, Wharton 1979, Murphy 1980, Rongsiryam et al. 1980, Rutz & Axtell 1980b, Andriescu & Fabritius 1981, Butler & Escher 1981, Butler et al. 1981, Dabbour et al. 1981, Thomas 1981, Figg et al. 1982, Murakami 1982, Fabritius 1983b, 1987a,b; Hulley 1983, Meyer & Petersen 1983, Meyer et al. 1990a, 1991; Geetha-Bai & Sankaran 1985, Rueda 1984, Rueda & Axtell 1985a,b,c,; 1987, Rueda et al. 1990, Xue 1984b, 1986a, 1987a, 1988b; Xue & Zhang 1982, 1983, 1989; Zhang & Xue 1984, Zhang et al. 1990, Smith & Rutz 1985, 1991b,c,d; Smith et al. 1989; Axtell & Rutz 1986, Keiding 1986, Mullens et al. 1986, Patterson & Rutz 1986, Merchant et al. 1987, Skoda et al. 1987, Hoebeke & Rutz 1988, Berti-Filho et al. 1989, Geden et al. 1989, Greene et al. 1989, Pinheiro et al. 1989, Rutz & Scoles 1989, Huang 1990, Miller & Rutz 1990, Henderson & Rutz 1991, Blanchot 1992, Klunker & Fabritius 1992).

 

These parasitoids are believed to play an important role in reducing the average density of their dipterous hosts, frequently producing >90% mortality of the later host developmental stages, with parasitoids attacking the pupal stage being predominant (Smit 1929, Simmonds 1948, Davis 1960, Saunders 1962, Graham & Harris 1966, Keiding & ben Hannine 1966, Legner & Brydon 1966, Legner et al. 1966d, 1975, 1982; Legner & Greathead 1969, Legner 1970a,b; 1971, 1975, 1976a,b, 1977, 1978a,b; Legner 1983b, 1986a, 1986b,c; Legner & Bay 1970a,b; Legner & Olton 1971, Legner & Dietrick 1972, 1974; Legner & Bowen 1973, Legner & Badgley 1982, Legner & Warkentin 1985, Waterhouse & Wilson 1968, Mourier & ben Hannine 1969, Mourier 1972, Wright & Spates 1972, Nabrotsky 1974, Ables & Shepard 1975, Toyama & Ikeda 1976, 1980; Lancaster 1979, Arditi 1980, Fabritius 1980c, 1981a; Fabritius & Ursu 1990, 1981; Rutz & Axtell 1980a, Rutz & Patterson 1990, Axtell 1981, 1986, 1990; Dietrick 1981, Drea & King 1981, Harris 1981, Hogsette & Butler 1981, Morgan 1981a, Morgan & Patterson 1975b, 1986; Morgan et al. 1976c, 1988; Patterson et al. 1981, Greathead (1980, 1986), Petersen et al. 1981, 1990; Petersen & Meyer 1985, Petersen 1986a,b; Stage & Petersen 1981, Weidhaas 1981, 1986; Weidhaas & Morgan 1977, Meyer & Petersen 1982, Meyer et al. 1990b, Morales-Pérez 1982,Murphy 1982, Ripa 1983, 1986a,b; 1990, Costello 1984, Guzman 1984, Merchant et al. 1985, Fabritius 1986a,b; Fabritius & Andriescu 1984, Guzman & Petersen 1986a,b; Meyer 1986, 1990; Meyer et al. 1990a, Rutz 1986, Rutz & Axtell 1979, Lazarus et al. 1989,Smith 1989, Smith & Rutz 1991a, Xue 1990a,c; Zhang & Xue 1990, Zhang et al. 1990 Geden 1991, Geden & Rutz 1991a,b; Geden et al. 1992b, Klunker & Fabritius 1991, Klunker & Kieson 1980, Wilhoit et al. 1991a,b).  The degree of parasitization of Diptera that breed in isolated field habitats such as animal dung, is low compared to accumulated deposits, with few of the parasitic species involved being common to those found in accumulated organic wastes (Olton & Legner 1973, Legner et al. 1974a).  The characteristics of accumulated organic wastes cause an attraction for a distinct dipterous as well as parasitic fauna which may be related to a higher humidity and reduced rate of decomposition.  Therefore, accumulated wastes are also a primary producer of Diptera of medical and veterinary importance such as the common house fly, stable flies and several species of Fannia. 

 

It is well known that wild parasitoid populations exhibit seasonal and geographical differences in behavior and morphology.  Therefore, collections meant for importation should optimally include isolates from diverse areas and different times of the year.  Differences include aggressiveness, heat and cold tolerance, and uniparentalism, gregarious versus solitary development, the number of eggs deposited into a single host, larval cannibalism intensity and parasitoid size.  Detailed studies on Muscidifurax uniraptor, M. raptor and M. raptorellus demonstrate the great amount of diversity that can be found within one genus.

 

The following key and illustrations are presented as a simplified means of identification of the principal parasitoids of synanthropic Diptera breeding in decomposing organic wastes, especially for those not familiar with hymenopteran terminology.  Principal hosts include Musca domestica L., Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), Stomoxys nigra , Muscina stabulans (Fallen), Ophyra leucostoma (Wiedemann), Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann), Fannia canicularis (L.), Fannia femoralis (Stein), Fannia scalaris (Fab.), and of various species of Calliphora, Sarcophaga and Drosophila.  In the preparation, considerable use was made of works published by Borror et al. (1981), Boucek (1963, 1965), Boucek & Narendran (1981), Gauld & Bolton (1988), Gerling (1967), Graham (1969), Kogan & Legner (1970, Legner et al. (1976), Nikolskaya (1952), Peck et al. (1964), Riek (1970), Rueda & Axtell (1985), Subba-Rao (1978), and Subba-Rao & Hayat (1985), and Trjapitzin (1978).  The parasitoids of these flies continue to be exchanged around the world in biological control efforts. 

 

 

 

                                   

Parasitoid Species

                (All Species see <flyparas.htm>)

 

Please CLICK on following taxa for known details.

 

COLEOPTERA

 

Staphylinidae

     1.  Aleochara spp.

 

HYMENOPTERA

 

(Ichneumonoidea)

    Braconidae

     2.  Alysia spp.

     3.  Aphaereta spp.

 

    Ichneumonidae

     4.  Phygadeuon spp.

     5.  Stilpnus spp.

 

(Chalcidoidea)

     Chalcididae

     6.  Dirhinus anthracia Walker

     7.  Dirhinus bakeri Crawford

 

 

   

8.  Dirhinus banksi Rohwer

9.  Dirhinus himalayanus Westwood

 

Encyrtidae

10.  Tachinaephagus javensis Subba-Rao

11. Tachinaephagus stomoxicida S.-R.

12.  Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead

 

Pteromalidae

13.  Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders

14.  Muscidifurax raptorellus K. & L.

15.  Muscidifurax raptoroides K. & L.

16.  Muscidifurax uniraptor K. & L.

17.  Muscidifurax zaraptor K. & L.

18.  Nasonia vitripennis (Walker)

19.  Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani

20.  Spalangia cameroni Perkins

21.  Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead

22.  Spalangia endius Walker

23.  Spalangia gemina Boucek

 

     24.  Spalangia longepetiolata Boucek

     25.  Spalangia nigra Latreille

     26.  Spalangia nigripes Curtis

     27.  Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis

     28.  Spalangia rugulosa Förster

     29.  Sphegigaster spp.

     30.  Urolepis rufipes (Ashmead)

 

(Cynipoidea)

     Cynipidae (rare)

 

     Figitidae

     31.  Figites spp.

 

     Eucoilidae

     32.  Hexacola (= Trybliographa) spp.

 

(Proctotrupoidea)

     Diapriidae

     33.  Trichopria spp.

 

            

          Specimens used in this study were collected personally or received from colleagues worldwide.  They were prepared for examination by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as described in Kogan & Legner (1970) and with the assistance of M. E. Badgley.  Drawings were made from live and dead specimens and photographs to emphasize important diagnostic characters.  I am indebted to the following for their assistance in providing specimens:  J. R. Ables, D. Annecke, M. Antolin, R. Axtell, F. D. Bennett, E. J. Dietrick,  J. J. Drea, K. Fabritius, D. Gerling, M. A. Ghani, D. J. Greathead, J. Keiding, M. Kogan, C. W. McCoy, J. A. Meyer, J. Monty, I. Moore, P. B. Morgan, H. Mourier, R. S. Patterson, J. J. Petersen, D. Pimentel, G. D. Propp, V. P. Rao, R. Ripa, D. A. Rutz, T. Sankaran, J. C. Sharma, A. Silveira-Guido, F. J. Simmonds, V. I. Sytchevskaya, and E. B.  White.

 

KEY TO ADULTS OF PRINCIPAL PARASITOIDS OF SYNANTHROPIC

DIPTERA BREEDING IN DECOMPOSING ORGANIC WASTES

 

[This key is in a form commonly used in North America.  If the statement is true, proceed to

the designated couplet, whereas if it is false, go to the "b" portion of the couplet.

Numbers in parentheses refer to previous couplet or couplets read].

 

 

----Please CLICK on desired underlined categories to view pictures and to navigate in the key

[A   will display all pictures for both pairs of a couplet]

 

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

HYMENOPTERA:

 

2

1a. Adults with two pairs of well-developed membranous wings, not hardened or leathery, not covered with scales, sometimes rudimentary, but never veinless nor fringed with long hairs; hind wings smaller than front wings and with fewer veins; front wings with 20 or less cells; tarsi with 3-5 segments; mouthparts mandibulate (= mandibles adapted for chewing); body quite hard, wasp-like insects, the abdomen usually very constricted at base (Figs. A-E). …… A.

 

49

1b. Front wings without veins, hard or leathery, at least at base usually meeting in a straight line down iddle of back; hind wings, if developed, usually membranous, narrow and with few veins, but usually longer than front wings when unfolded; mouthparts mandibulate; tarsi with 5 or less segments; abdominal cerci (= pair of appendages at abdominal apex) not like forceps; antennae generally with 11 or fewer segments; beetle-like insects (Fig. A) .........  COLEOPTERA

 

3

2a (1). Body with a constriction between the 1st and 2nd abdominal segments, giving the appearance of abdomen being narrowly joined to thorax (Figs. A-B) (may not be obvious in some species, but these have no enclosed cells in the fore wing); long-winged or short-winged, if long-winged then fore wing without an enclosed anal cell; hind wing usually has 2 or less closed basal cells; no rounded projections on metanotum; ovipositor not developed into a sting (Figs. A B)…..... A .…… APOCRITA--Parasitica)

 

---

2b. Same as previous except that ovipositor not used for egg-laying but rather developed into a weapon for njecting venom and used for hunting, defense and aggression (sting); eggs discharged from apical gastral segments, at base of sting (Figs. A-C) ... ....(APOCRITA--Aculeata)....[not parasitic on synanthropic Diptera]

 

45

 3a (2). First segment of abdomen not scale-like, if slightly nodiform then segment 2 lies close to segment 3; 1st abdominal segment inserted high up on propodeum (= posterior part of thorax which is actually 1st abdominal segment) so that distance between propodeal socket and insertion of hind coxa is ca. equal to or greater than distance between socket and hind margin of metanotum (Fig. A); antennae usually filiform (= thread-like), unspecialized, with 18 or more segments; fore wing with costal cell indistinct or absent, veins C, Sc, R and Rs fused between wing base and pterostigma (= opaque spot along costal wing margin) (Fig A); sternites of abdomen weakly sclerotized (= hardened); solitary larval parasitoids ........ A ……. (Ichneumonoidea) (part).

 

4

3b. First segment of abdomen inserted low down on propodeum so that distance between propodeal socket and insertion of hind coxa is much less than distance between socket and hind margin of metanotum

 

5

4a (3). Fully winged insects (wings not especially short)

 

12

4b. Short-winged insects

 

6

5a (4). Fore wing with one enclosed cell (Fig. A), or without any enclosed cells; sternites of abdomen usuallyheavily sclerotized; fore, mid & hind tarsi with 3 segments …..A.

 

10

5b. Fore wing with two or more cells clearly outlined by veins…. (Fig. A)

 

18

6a (5). Fore wing with membrane reticulate (= net-like); hind wing vestigial, with a forked apex; segments 1 and 2 of abdomen cylindrical, slender, forming a 2-segmented petiole (= narrow stem attaching abdomen to thorax) (Fig. A) (body length <1.5 mm); pronotum (= dorsal sclerite of prothorax) short, does not reach tegula (= small scale-like structure covering base of front wing) (Fig. B); some metallic species... A.....(Chalcidoidea) (part)

 

7

6b. Fore wing membrane not reticulate; hind wing fully developed though often very narrow, but never with a forked apex; abdomen with at most 1st segment cylindrical and slender so that petiole, if present, has 1 segment

 

18

7a (6). Pronotum short, not extending back to tegulae (Fig. A); wings without enclosed cells; some metallic species.. ..... A. ....... (Chalcidoidea)

 

8

7b. Pronotum extending back to almost touch tegulae (Fig. A); wings with or without closed cells

 

9

8a (7). Antennae inserted in center of face, their sockets separated from the clypeus by more than 2X their own diameter  (Fig. A) ……. A.  

 

48

8b. Antennae inserted on face close to clypeus, their sockets separated from clypeus by ca. their own diameter or less (Fig. A); head vertical with mouthparts located ventrally (= hypognathous); fore wing without any venation, or with a short vein that does not reach to level of middle of wing, or if with a long vein, then this is proximally separated from anterior margin of wing, and its stigmal branch is almost straight; pterostigma not present (Fig. B), hind wings lack closed cells; fore tibia with a single spur; 1st abdominal tergite (= dorsal sclerite) shorter than the following apparent tergite (which may be a syntergite), or the two fused and tergite 1 visible as a ridged anterior rim of the first apparent tergite; tergite 1 usually fused with sternite to form a ring at anterior end of abdomen; propodeum reaches to tegula; abdomen attached near propodeum base, contiguous with or close to hind coxae, abdomen cylindrical or almost so; elbowed antennae …...... (Proctotrupoidea) (part)

 

43

9a (8). Antennae not inserted on a promontory or "shelf," those of female without a very elongated scape; fore wing venation characteristic (Fig. A), with a rather large radial cell, that is either open anteriorly, or the only enclosed cell in the wing; costal cell broad, anteriorly open, posteriorly bordered by a vein from which arises a long stub of Rs & M; stigma absent; filiform antennae with 1st segment slightly smaller than 2nd, or with 2nd segment small and 1st and 3rd segments smaller (Fig. B); abdomen compressed laterally ……A ...... ..(Cynipoidea) (part)...................

 

48

9b. Antennae inserted on facial promontory or "shelf," those of female elbowed, scape more than 3X as long as wide (Figs. A-B); fore wing without venation, or with a single linear vein, without a distinguishable radial cell, or if one seems to exist then it is not defined distally and costal cell is only enclosed cell (Fig. C); if present, vein outlining costal cell posteriorly is without a stub of Rs & M; fore wings with no closed basal cell (Fig. C); hind wings lack closed cells (Fig. C); abdomen attached near propodeum base, contiguous with or close to hind coxae; abdomen cylindrical or almost so (Fig. D); no metallic forms ........ (Proctotrupoidea) (part)

 

45

10a (5). Tarsi without membranous pads, or if vestiges present then antennae with fewer than 14 segments; antennae otherwise with variable number of segments, if more than 14 then fore wing with 7 or fewer enclosed cells; fore wing otherwise with 1-10 enclosed cells; fore wing with costal cell indistinct or absent, veins C, Sc, R, and Rs fused or contiguous from wing base to pterostigma; hind wing without a distinct lobe at the base (Fig. A); antennae usually with 16 or more segments (rarely with as few as 12), and with small ring-like segments (= anelli) somewhat differentiated from proximal end of 1st flagellar segment; solitary larval parasitoids ...... A ……......... .(Ichneumonoidea) (part)

 

11

10b. Fore wing with costal cell usually visible, though sometimes not bordered anteriorly by a vein, rarely when costal cell is virtually eliminated then a distinct lobe is present at the base of the hind wing; this lobe otherwise present or absent; antennae with 10-15 segments, without small anelli differentiated from proximal end of 1st flagellar segment

 

43

11a (10). Fore wing with costal cell open, not delineated by a vein along anterior margin of wing; pterostigma absent (Fig. A); abdomen laterally compressed ..... A... .(Cynipoidea) (part)

 

48

11b. Fore wing with costal cell enclosed, bordered anteriorly by a vein, or if this vein is rarely absent the pterostigma is present, or costal cell is indistinct or absent; pterostigma otherwise present, or uncommonly, absent; fore wing with few enclosed cells (costal and radial), rarely with up to 3 or more (max. of 5) (Fig. A), no closed basal cell; abdomen cylindrical or depressed (Fig. B), 1st tergite of abdomen short, fused with sternite to form a ring-like, highly sclerotized segment; 2nd tergite (or syntergite) longer than tergites 1 and 3+ combined; spiracles not present at least on 1st and apparent 2nd abdominal tergites ....... .(Proctotrupoidea) (part)

 

45

12a (4). Antennae with 16 or more segments, somewhat filiform, unspecialized; sternites of abdomen weakly sclerotized, tending to dry with median longitudinal fold; solitary larval parasitoids  ….... (Ichneumonoidea) (part)

 

13

12b. Antennae with 15 or fewer segments, sometimes filiform and unspecialized, often elbowed with elongated scape and clavate distal segments; sternites of abdomen heavily sclerotized.

 

18

13a (12). Fore, mid and hind tarsi with 3 segments ........(Chalcidoidea) (part)

 

14

13b. All tarsi with 4 or 5 segments

 

18

14a (13). Upper hind corner of pronotum separated from tegula by a prepectus (= area along anterior ventral margin of mesepisternum) (Fig. A.)  ........ A ….... (Chalcidoidea) (part)

 

15

14b. Upper hind corner of pronotum appears to touch tegula, or with tegula absent

 

43

15a (14). Antennae never elbowed, the scape only slightly longer than broad, and slightly shorter than 1st flagellar segment; abdomen laterally compressed, 1st abdominal segment cylindrical or annular, or minute, indistinct, fused dorsally with tergite 2; tergites 1 and 2 without spiracles ……… Cynipoidea (part)

 

16

15b. Female with elbowed antennae, the scape elongated, at least 2X the length of the 1st flagellar segment; abdomen of both sexes cylindrical or depressed; anterior tibia with one apical spur

 

48

16a (15). Antennal socket separated from clypeus by its own diameter or less (Fig. 9b-A); 1st segment of abdomen with tergite and sternite separate; tergite 8 without spiracle; antennae with 12 or fewer segments.....A....(Proctotrupoidea) (part)

 

17

16b. Antennal socket separated from clypeus by more than 2X its own diameter (Fig. 8a-A); 1st segment of abdomen with tergite and sternite fused; tergite 8 with spiracle; antennae almost always with 13 or more segments

 

43

17a (16). Abdomen, especially in female, laterally compressed; antennae of female with 14 segments, of male 13 segments; ovipositor concealed; head without shelf-like process; cerci absent; ovipositor opening ventral …...(Cynipoidea) (part)

 

48

17b. Abdomen usually cylindrical; antennae with various numbers of segments, if with 14 segments in & of 13-segments in male then ovipositor exposed or antennae attached to a shelf-like process of the face; cerci present; ovipositor opening terminal

 

(Chalcidoidea) - Chalcididae:

 

40

18a (6, 7, 13, 14). Hind femora greatly enlarged, ventrally toothed (either a few large or many small teeth) (Fig. A); prepectus reduced or fused, not triangular (Fig. B); if visible then not triangle-shaped; frons projected into 2 "horns" (around antennae) when viewed dorsally (often adhering soil particles as structure used for digging) (Figs. C-D); solitary parasitoids attacking mature host larvae or young pupae; general appearance (Fig. E)......A.....(Chalcidoidea)….Chalcididae (Dirhininae)

 

19

18b. Hind femora not enlarged; ventral teeth if present, 2 or less or ventral edge serrated; prepectus in the form of a triangular plate (Fig. A); frons not projected into 2 "horns."

 

(Chalcidoidea) - Encyrtidae:

 

38

19a (18). Fore wing venation greatly reduced with a single vein along margin and very short spur; fore wing with uncus (= narrow stub near stigmal vein apex) well separated from post marginal vein (Fig. A); marginal vein indistinct and somewhat punctiform (with impressed pits or depressions); tarsi with 4 segments on all legs; abdominal petiole at most 1-segmented; eggs dumbbell-shaped; avg. length of female 1.85 mm, male 1.7 mm; endophagous, gregarious larval parasitoids ......... A....... .(Chalcidoidea) - Encyrtidae, Tachinaephagus spp.

 

(Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae:

 

20

19b. Fore wing marginal vein <2X as long as stigmal (Fig. A); antennae with 6 or fewer funicle segments;hind tarsus with at least 5 segments; abdominal petiole often conspicuous and with dorsal carinae (= ridges); ectophagous pupal parasitoids inside host puparium. ….. (Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae

 

21

20a (19). Thorax and abdomen not markedly divergent in size........ A.  

 

---

20b. Abdomen smaller than thorax; pubescence between eye facets; avg. length of female 2.11 mm, male 1.71 mm; color shining black with legs brownish-yellow or amber (= testaceous) (Fig. A); usually solitary ectophagous pupal parasitoids inside host puparium; [distribution Palearctic, East & South Africa]  . ....... (Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae - Sphegigaster spp.

 

22

21a (20). Fore wing with stigmal vein >1/2 as long as marginal (Fig. A); antennal toruli (= basal sockets) well above ventral head margin (Fig. B); anelli present on antennae (Fig. C); labial palpus with 3 segments (Fig. D); maxillary palpus with 4 segments (Fig. E); abdominal petiole usually as long as wide ....… A

 

29 

 21b. Fore wing with stigmal vein <1/3rd as long as marginal (Fig. A); antennal sockets touch ventral head margin (Fig. B); no anelli present on antennae (Fig. C); pubescence between eye facets; labial palpus with 2 segments (Fig. D); maxillary palpus with 2 segments (Fig. E); abdominal petiole at least 2X as long as wide; general appearance (Fig. F); solitary ectophagous pupal parasitoids inside host puparium .(Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae ....- Spalangia spp.

 

---

22a (21). Pronotal collar without transverse ridge on anterior margin (Fig. A); propodeum without median folds (= plicae) (Fig. B); mesosternum with a pair of anterior tubercles (Fig. C); mesosternum with median longitudinal groove bearing shallow cavity or small pit-like structure (Fig. C); female antennae with 3 anelli (Fig. D); eyes smooth, without hairs (= glabrous); male digitus (= pad-like lobe of male genitalia) with two apical processes (Fig. E); avg. length of female 1.96 mm, male 1.81 mm; primarily solitary ectophagous pupal parasitoids inside host puparium; [distribution cosmopolitan] ..... A  Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae - Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani)

 

23

22b. Pronotal collar with sharp transverse ridge on anterior margin (Fig. A); propodeum with median folds (Fig. B); mesosternum without anterior tubercles (Fig. C); mesosternum with median longitudinal groove lacking shallow cavity or small pit-like structure (Fig. C); female antennae with 1-2 anelli (Fig. D); male digitus with 3-4 apical processes .(Fig. E)

 

25

23a (22). Fore wing with basal 1/2 of marginal vein wider than distal 1/2 (Fig. A); female antennae with one anellus (= ring-like segment) (Fig. B); female hind leg with 2 tibial spurs (Fig. C); maleantennal pedicel shorter than 1st funicular segment (Fig. D); eyes glabrous; male hind leg with 1-2 tibial spurs; propodeum with median folds or plicae branched sublaterally (Fig. E); general appearance adult (Fig. F) and male digitus (Fig. G); solitary or gregarious ectophagous pupal parasitoids inside host puparium……A.....(Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae -Muscidifurax spp.

 

24

23b. Fore wing with marginal vein of same width for entire length (Fig. A); female antennae with 2 anelli (Fig. B); female hind leg with one tibial spur; pedicel of male antennae longer than 1st funicular segment; male hind leg with one tibial spur; propodeum with median folds usually lacking sublateral branches (Fig. C)  

 

---

24a (23). Mesoscutum with middle lobe bearing fine reticulations (Fig. A); antennal pedicel ca. 2X as long as 1st funicular segment (Fig. B); hind leg with tibial spur barbed (Fig. C); tarsal claw with >5 setae (Fig. D); avg. length of female 1.73 mm, male 1.15 mm; male metallic blue-black and noticeably smaller than female; general appearance (Fig. E); gregarious ectophagous pupal parasitoid inside host puparium; [distribution cosmopolitan]. ....... A......(Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae - Nasonia vitripennis (Walker)

 

---

24b. Mesoscutum with middle lobe bearing thick, raised reticulations (Fig. A); antennal pedicel <2X as long as 1st funicular segment (Fig. B); hind leg with tibial spur smooth, lacking spine-like structures (Fig. C); tarsal claw with 5 setae (Fig. D); avg. length of female 2.73 mm, male 1.75 mm; solitary ectophagous pupal parasitoid inside host puparium; [distribution North America]  …...(Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae - Urolepis rufipes (Ashmead)

 

Muscidifurax spp.

 

27

25a (23). Fore wing apex marginal fringe setae well developed, or at least hair sockets in the margin remain as indication of the presence of hairs (Fig A).... A.

 

26

25b. Fore wing marginal fringe absent (Fig. A); fore wing usually with reduced hairiness

 

---

26a (25). Stigmal vein with stigma subrectangular (Fig. A), elongated; pedicel of & antennae conspicuously more slender proximally (Fig. B); frontal grooves usually parallel (Fig. C); median area of & propodeum closed behind by fusion of the lateral and median folds (Fig. D); digitus of male genitalia subrectangular with 4-5 digital apical processes (sensilla basiconica) (Fig. E); male hind leg with 2 tibial spurs (Fig. F); hind leg with tarsal claw bearing >11 setae (Fig. G); specimens largest of the genus: female 2.84 mm, male 2.18 mm; biparental, solitary; [original range in western North America, probably established elsewhere through biological control effort]...A...(Chalcidoidea)- Pteromalidae - Muscidifurax zaraptor Kogan & Legner 

 

---

26b. Stigma not elongated, sometimes roundly clubbed (Fig. A); pedicel of & antennae not especially slender proximally (Fig. B); frontal grooves usually convergent (Fig. C); median area of & propodeum usually open behind, lateral and median folds not fused in middle (Fig. D); male digitus genitalia subtrapezoidal, broader distally; usually with only 3 apical processes (Fig. E); specimens usually small; biparental; avg. length of female 2.11 mm, male 1.82 mm [Peru race averages female 2.33 mm, male 1.83 mm]; frequently (at least 10%) or >80% gregarious; [original range in Uruguay, Chile & Peru (Peru race solitary); established in California & probably elsewhere through biological control effort] ..… (Chalcidoidea) ….. Pteromalidae - Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner 

 

---

27a (25). Stigma as a rather abrupt enlargement of extremity of stigmal vein, usually subquadrangular and distally tapering, where a hair is frequently implanted (Fig. A); frontal grooves parallel (Fig. B); median area of & propodeum closed behind (Fig. C); male digitus subtrapezoidal, broader distally, usually with 3 apical processes (Fig. D); male hind leg with one tibial spur (Fig. E); hind leg with tarsal claw bearing <11 setae (Fig. F); size, avg. length of female 2.33 mm, male 1.83 mm; biparental, solitary; [Holarctic, southern Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Philippines & Hawaii] ...... A........(Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae - Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders

 

28

27b. Stigma as a gradual dilation at tip of stigmal vein (Fig. A); frontal grooves convergent (Fig. B); male digitus subrectangular usually with 4 apical processes (Fig. C)

 

---

28a (27). Spiracle of & propodeum more removed from lateral median fold than in couplet 28b (Fig. A);  spiracular ridge as long as larger diam. of spiracle; stigma of forewing distinctive (Fig. B); avg. length of female 2.15 mm, male 1.61 mm; uniparental (although male often appear in culture in high ratios), digitus of these male with 4 apical processes (Fig. C); solitary parasitoid; [original range Puerto Rico, established in California and probably elsewhere through biological control effort] ...... A........(Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae - Muscidifurax uniraptor Kogan & Legner

 

---

28b. Spiracle of & propodeum normally removed (= distant) from lateral median fold (Fig. A); spiracular ridge shorter than diam. of spiracle; stigma on forewing formed as a gradual dilation of tip of stigmal vein and uncus is direct distally (Fig. B); digitus of male with 4 apical processes (Fig. C); avg. length of female 2.31 mm, male 1.78 mm; biparental, solitary parasitoid; [original range in Central America & Southern Mexico] ....... (Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae ....... Muscidifurax raptoroides Kogan & Legner

 

Spalangia spp.

 

---

29a (21). Pronotal collar without transverse row of finely haired punctuation (= impressed pits or depressions) (Figs. A & B); scutellum without transverse or frenal line of punctures posteriorly (Fig. C); middle lobe of mesoscutum with few or no hairy punctures (Fig. C); middle of propodeum with Y-shaped row of punctures (Fig. C); ocellar line on head complete (Fig. D); avg. length of female 1.30 mm, male 1.05 mm; [distribution North & Central America & West Indies] ...... A. ....... (Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae -.. Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead

 

30

29b. Pronotal collar with transverse row of finely haired punctures or round punctures bearing setae (Fig. A);scutellum with transverse or frenal line of punctures posteriorly (Fig. A); middle lobe of      mesoscutum with dense hairy punctures (Fig. B); middle of propodeum with rows of punctures of various shapes (Figs. B-C); ocellar line incomplete or nearly absent (Fig.D)

 

34

30a (29). Abdominal petiole with lateral hairs

 

32

30b. Abdominal petiole without lateral hairs

 

32

31a (30). Pronotal collar rounded anteriorly and with wrinkled (= rugose) punctures or crowdedly wrinkled punctures bearing setae; pronotum with an isolated wavy (= crenulate) line parallel to and near posterior margin .... .A

 

34

31b. Pronotal collar with finely haired punctures anteriorly and laterally with interspaces smooth; pronotum without median longitudinal groove (Fig. A); mesopleural punctures in lines of various shapes

 

33

32a (30, 31). Pronotum usually with median shallow longitudinal groove (Fig. A); mesopleural punctures form a V-shape (Fig. B); gena equal to or longer than length of eye; petiole with 7-10 dorsal ridges, longitudinally arranged, lateral hairs absent ……A.

 

---

32b. Gena shorter than length of eye (Fig. A); pronotum crowded with wrinkled punctures (Figs. B & C); petiole with 5-8 dorsal ridges, lateral hairs absent (Fig. D); petiole in female is 1.7X (Fig. D) and in male 3.5X (Fig. E) as long as narrowest width; avg. length of female 2.65 mm, male 2.40 mm; [distribution Central & East Africa; introduced to California but establishment uncertain] ...... (Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae - .. Spalangia longepetiolata Boucek

 

---

33a (32). Head distinctly longer than broad; gena longer than length of eye (Fig. A); antennal sockets distinctly raised, scape very slender and long, equaling length of 6 following segments combined, clava 3X as long as broad (Fig. B); hairs of prontoum occur in pits (Figs. C-E); abdominal petiole without lateral hairs, ca. 1.8X as long as broad in female (Fig. F), 2.3X in male (Fig. G); avg. length of female 2.59 mm, male 2.29 mm; [distribution cosmopolitan] ........ .A........(Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae - Spalangia cameroni Perkins 

 

---

33b. Head almost as wide as long (Fig. A); gena about as long as length of eye (Fig. A); antennal sockets hardly raised; scape slender, but equals length of only 5 following segments combined (Fig. B); clava less than 2.5X as long as broad (Fig. B); hairs of pronotum occur in elevated, tubercle-like punctures; abdominal petiole without lateral hairs, ca. 1.4X as long as broad; avg. length of female 3.60 mm, male 3.05 mm; [distribution Mauritius, South Asia, Fiji & tropical South America, probably established in Florida] …… (Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae - Spalangia gemina Boucek

 

---

34a (30). Pronotal collar with distinct ridge anteriorly (Figs. A & B); anterior lateral surface of pronotum wrinkled or crowdedly punctured to produce wrinkled effect; gena about equal to or slightly longer than length of eye (Fig. C); middle of propodeum with parallel rows of punctures diverging posteriorly (Fig. D); petiole with 7-10 dorsal ridges, longitudinally arranged, lateral hairs present, at least 10 on each side (Figs. E & F); avg. length of female 2.66 mm, male 2.48 mm; [distribution cosmopolitan] ........ A .…... (Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae - Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis

 

35

34b. Pronotal collar without ridge anteriorly (Figs. A & B); middle of propodeum with rows of punctures forming various shapes

 

36

35a (34). Disc of head between the eyes very densely crowdedly punctured, the punctures separated by less than their diameters (Fig. A)...... A

 

37

35b. Disc of head between eyes sparsely punctured, the punctures separated by about their diameters (Fig. A)  

 

---

36a (35). Antennal scape dull, with granulations (Fig. A); head about as long as wide (Fig. B); length of gena about equal to length of eye; crowded irregular punctures on head and pronotum usually without any interspaces (Fig. C); abdominal petiole ca. 1.8X as long as wide, lateral hairs may be present; avg. length female 3.45 mm, male 3.1 mm; [distribution Europe & Central Asia] ...... A …..(Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae - Spalangia rugulosa Förster

 

---

36b. Antennal scape rugosely striated (Fig. A); length of gena slightly shorter than length of eye (Fig. B); head punctures not crowded and with smooth interspaces; pronotal collar with densely distributed punctures anterio-laterally but with smooth interspaces and border rounded anteriorly (Figs. C & D); malar groove (= sulcus) usually indistinct (Fig. E); middle leg with tibial spur barbed (Fig. F); abdominal petiole 2X as long as broad with 5-7 dorsal ridges, longitudinally arranged; lateral hairs present, at least 12 on each side (Fig. G); avg. length of female 2.59 mm, male 2.36 mm; general appearance (Figs. H & I); [distribution Holarctic, Australia & Pacific Islands] ….......(Chalcidoidea) -Pteromalidae -. ...........Spalangia nigra Latreille

 

---

37a (35). Pronotum with an isolated wavy line parallel to and near posterior margin; pronotal collar withsparsely distributed punctures anterio-laterally with interspaces smooth, border rounded anteriorly (Figs. A & B); length of gena equal to length of eye (Fig. C); malar groove (= sulcus) distinct (Fig. D); 7-10 dorsal ridges on abdominal petiole, longitudinally arranged; lateral hairs rare (not more than 2 on each side if present) (Figs. E & F); avg. length of female 2.57 mm, male 2.06 mm; New Zealand race avg. ca. 1.1 mm larger; [distribution cosmopolitan]….A....(Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae - Spalangia endius Walker

 

---

 37b. Pronotum without an isolated wavy line parallel to and near posterior margin (Fig. A); gena shorter thanlength of eye (Figs. A & B); dorsal ridges on abdominal petiole irregularly arranged, lateral hairs       absent (Fig. C); avg. length of female 3.5 mm, male 2.8 mm; general appearance (Fig. D); [distribution Europe, Central Asia, Lebanon & North America] ......... (Chalcidoidea) - Pteromalidae - Spalangia nigripes Curtis

 

(Chalcidoidea) - Encyrtidae:

 

---

38a (19). Body uniformly dark brown, with yellowish patches; legs dark brown; antennae long, 1st funicle segment as long as the pedicel and much larger than 2nd, subsequent segments not moniliform (Fig. A); scape yellowish brown; costal cell of fore wing wide, its border not parallel with the submarginal vein (Fig. B); length of gena shorter than length of eye (Fig. C); vertex broader than 1/2 head width (Fig. C); [original range Indonesia].........A........(Chalcidoidea) - Encyrtidae –…….Tachinaephagus javensis Subba-Rao

 

39

38b. Body (excluding legs, antennae & sometimes underside of thorax)) uniformly black, blue-black or dark brown; length of gena longer than length of eyes; vertex of head as broad or slightly narrower than 1/2 head width; length of gena about equal to length of eye (Fig. A)

 

---

39a (38). Legs, except coxae, reddish-yellow, coxae dark brown; vertex of head with faint metallic green reflection in direct light; costal cell of fore wing not especially wide, its border tending to parallel submarginal vein (Figs. A-B); club of antenna acute at tip (Fig. C); fore wings with numerous tiny hairs giving smoky appearance (Fig. A); [original range Uganda, established in Mauritius] …..A......... (Chalcidoidea) - Encyrtidae …… Tachinaephagus stomoxicida Subba-Rao

 

---

39b. All legs uniformly pale yellow or amber; club of antenna oval (Fig. A); wings hyaline, costal cell of fore wing wide, its border not parallel with the submarginal vein (Figs. B-C); fore wings with fewer larger hairs (Fig. B); body shining black with underside of thorax amber; general appearance (Fig. D); [original range Australia & New Zealand & Malaysia, established in California, Hawaii & probably elsewhere through biological control effort]  …….. (Chalcidoidea) .......- Encyrtidae - Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead

 

(Chalcidoidea) - Chalcididae (Dirhininae):

 

41

40a (18). Head below apex of each horn without additional distinct teeth; facial edge of antennal sockets nearly straight or sinuated (Figs. A)........ A...

 

---

40b. Facial edge of each horn with a distinct additional tooth (especially obvious in lateral view) (Figs. A-B); tip of horn reaching much farther from eye than frontal tooth (Fig. A); in female area of 4 ridges on petiole 1.5-2X as broad as long; avg. length of female 2.5-4.1 mm; [distribution India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Philippines & Japan...(Chalcidoidea) …- ....Chalcididae - Dirhinus bakeri Crawford

 

---

 41a (40) Apex of each horn viewed dorsally almost rounded, without a notch (Figs. A-B); body very black,with sparse coarse punctuation on thorax; wings clear without distinct hairs in female; distal 1/2 of hind tibia with another shallow groove outside tarsal sulcus, the groove being outlined by some extra ridges; female clava symmetrical, with broad conical apex (Fig. C); avg. length of female 2.4-4.9 mm; [distribution Arabia, India, Malaysia, Sumatra, Japan, Philippines & Hawaii]  A ........(Chalcidoidea) - Chalcididae - Dirhinus himalayanus Westwood

 

42

41b. Horns excluding apex with distinct notch (Fig. A); body very black with dense punctuation and conspicuous whitish or yellowish hairs; fore wings distinctly bear hairs; hind tibia without distinct additional groove (sulcus) outside tarsal one; or, if groove present in female then clava very asymmetrical

 

---

42a (41). Thorax not flattened, scutellum at least a bit convex in profile, and extensively punctuated; if a smooth area in middle, then this area is separated from apical margin by at least 2 rows of punctures; mesosternal area with distinct cross ridges bordering cavities for coxae; each horn at level with anterior eye margin (Figs. A-B), in dorsal view, usually broader than gap between antennal sockets (Fig. C); median areola of propodeum (= median area enclosed by ridges) with sides convex, somewhat oval; general appearance (Figs. D-E); avg. length of female 2.8-5.3 mm; [distribution Africa, India, Taiwan, Australia & Philippines … A....... (Chalcidoidea) - Chalcididae - Dirhinus anthracia Walker

 

---

42b. Thorax much flattened dorsally, especially scutellum completely flat and with broad smooth area separated by single row of punctuations from hind margin (Figs. A-B); mesosternal area without distinct ridges outlining smoother part where fore coxae adhere; thorax in lateral view ca. 1.4X as high (at scutellum) as length of metaplueron (Fig. A); female 2nd flagellar segment distinctly at right angles to longitudinal axis; pedicel dorsum ca. 1.5X as long as broad; head dorsal view (Fig. C); avg. length of female 2.5-3.7 mm; [distribution India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Western Malaysia & Philippines ]........ (Chalcidoidea) - Chalcididae - Dirhinus banksi Rohwer 

 

(Cynipoidea):

 

---

43a (9, 11, 15, 17). Scutellum with dorsal "cup"; pronotum pronounced, extending forward into an anterior plate with a strong posterior margin (Fig. A) ...... A ..... (Cynipoidea) - Eucoilidae - Hexacola (= Trybliographa spp.)

 

44

43b. Scutellum without dorsal "cup"; pronotum without distinct posterior margin

 

---

44a (43). Largest segment of abdomen (in lateral view) tergites II or III, and never more than 1 short tergite preceding the large tergite (Fig. A); mostly small insects; tergite II not forming 1/2 the abdomen (Fig A); solitary endophagous larval parasitoids .... A. ........ (Cynipoidea) - Figitidae - Figites spp.

 

---

44b . Tergite II (or II + III fused) the largest and usually forms at least 1/2 the abdomen (Figs. A & B) ......... (Cynipoidea) - ... Cynipidae [rare on synanthropic Diptera]

 

(Ichneumonoidea):

 

46

45a (3, 10, 12). Fore wing costal cell absent; ventral abdominal segments soft & membranous, with median fold; two recurrent veins (Fig. A), or if only one then with abdomen 3X as long as rest of body; size variable, length (excluding ovipositor) ranges from a few millimeters to >40 mm; general appearance (Fig. B) ....... A. ....... (Ichneumonoidea) - Ichneumonidae

 

47

45b. Fore wing costal cell absent, ventral abdominal segments soft and membranous, with median fold; one recurrent vein or none (Fig. A); abdomen not greatly elongated; propodeum not prolonged beyond hind coxae; mostly small insects, rarely >12 mm. long (Fig. B) .… (Ichneumonoidea) - Braconidae

 

(Ichneumonoidea) - Ichneumonidae

 

---

46a (45). Fore wing venation complete, not reduced, at least one complete cell present (Fig. A); stigma absent; antennae with 22 segments, inserted in middle of face (Fig. A); 1st antennal segment shorter than next 2 combined; eyes smooth; size varies with host size; solitary endophagous larval parasitoids; size varies with host size..A...(Ichneumonoidea) .-   Ichneumonidae - Phygadeuon spp.

 

---

46b. Fore wing venation complete, at least one complete cell present in both wings; stigma absent; antennae with 16 segments inserted in middle of face; 1st antennal segment shorter than next 2 combined; eyes smooth; color shining black; size of male about 1/2 that of female solitary endophagous larval parasitoids of Fannia spp.….(Ichneumonoidea) Ichneumonidae Stilpnus spp. [commonly S. anthomyiidiperda (Viereck)] ...... (Ichneumonoidea) - Braconidae:

 

---

47a. Body brownish yellow with first several tergites of abdomen a lighter yellow color; legs yellow; antennae with all funicular segments about same thickness; avg. length of female 2.5-2.8 mm, male 2.1-2.4 mm.....(Ichneumonoidea) - Braconidae – …… Aphaereta spp. [commonly A. pallipes (Say)]

 

---

47b. Body shining black except abdominal sternites brown; legs testaceous; antennae with 1st funicular segment ca. 2/3rds thickness of distal segments; avg. length of female 4.1-4.2 mm, male 3.8-4.0 mm …….. (Ichneumonoidea) - Braconidae - Alysia spp. [commonly A. manducator Panzer]

 

(Proctotrupoidea) - Diapriidae:

 

---

48a (8, 9, 11, 16, 17). Antennae inserted on middle of face (Fig. A); fore wings without apparent stigma, venation reduced with only a short marginal vein and stigma almost invisible (Fig. B); antennae with <14 segments & inserted in middle of face on small platform (Fig. C); 1st antennal segment longer than next 2 combined; eyes pubescent; femora and apical 1/2 of tibiae swollen (Fig. D); body highly polished black with a few scattered long hairs (Fig. E); size varies with host size; solitary endophagous larval parasitoids............. A .........(Proctotrupoidea) - Diapriidae -...... Trichopria spp. & Phaenopria spp.

 

---

48b. Antennae inserted close to clypeus; fore wings with obvious stigma. ...[not parasitic on synanthropic Diptera]

 

COLEOPTERA

 

50

49a (1). Form beetle-like; antennae usually not clubbed, but if so then club segments are not lamellate (= with leaf- or plate-like segments); 1st visible abdominal sternite not normally interrupted by the hind coxal cavities; outer lobe or galea of maxillae not a segmented process (= palpiform), maxillary palpi much shorter than antennae; hind tarsi with at least as many segments as front and middle tarsi; elytra (= the thickened front wings) short, exposing much of abdomen ........ (Fig. A)....... A …… Staphylinidae

 

---

49b. Elytra covering most of abdomen, not shortened ......... [not parasitic on synanthropic Diptera] 

 

Staphylinidae:

 

---

50a (49). Antennae inserted on head surface (face) between anterior eye margin, with <14 segments (Figs.A-B); 1st antennal segment shorter than next 2 segments combined; eyes smooth; last segment of maxillary palpus tapering; posterior coxae large, contiguous (Fig. B); fore wing thickened (= corneous), without venation (Figs. A-C); tarsi with 5 segments; size varies with host size; solitary ectophagous parasitoids on pupae within the puparium  ....…… A. ......... (Staphylinidae) - (Aleocharinae) - ......Aleochara spp.

 

---

50b. Antennae not situated on head surface, but rather at front or side margin; otherwise not having previously described characteristics..... not parasitic on synanthropic Diptera]

 

[End of Key]

 

 

 

==================================================================================

 

DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES

 

 

Parasitic Staphylinidae (Coleoptera)

 

The front wings are without veins, hard or leathery, short, exposing much of abdomen (Fig. 49a-A).  The first visible abdominal sternite is not interrupted by hind coxal cavities.  Outer lobe or galea of maxillae not a segmented process.  Maxillary palpi are much shorter than antennae.  Hind tarsi with at least as many segments as front and middle tarsi.  Two important genera are Aleochara and Anotylus.  Key references are Thompson (1944), Peschke & Fuldner (1977), Seevers (1978), Borror et al. (1981), Peschke et al. (1987a), and Omar et al. (1991a)

 

1.  Aleochara spp. (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae)  (PHOTO)

 

These parasitoids are characterized by the forewings being developed into leathery shields (elytra) under which the hind wings (the organs of flight) are folded when at rest.  The elytra are short, leaving much of the abdomen exposed (Fig. 50a-A & B).  The abdomen is highly flexible as in Aleochara taeniata Erichson (Fig. 50a-C).  The genus Aleochara differs from other staphylinids in that the antennae are inserted on the face between the anterior margins of the eyes, the tarsi have 5 segments, the maxillary palpi have 5 segments and the labial palpi have 4 segments.  The two terminal segments of the palpus are much narrower than the preceding with the last segment minute.  All species of this genus in which life histories are known are solitary ectophagous parasitoids on the pupae of muscoid flies within the puparium (Kemner 1926, Legner et al. 1976, Lesne & Mercier 1922, Jones (1967), Moore & Legner 1971, 1973, 1974a,b; 1975, White & Legner 1966). 

 

Additional key references are  Coquillett (1891), Wadsworth (1915), Scott (1920), Kemner (1926), Soring (1927), Zorin (1927), Scheerpeltz (1933, 1934), Burks (1952), Read (1962), Fuldner (1963, 1964, 1968, 1971, 1973), Drea (1966), Horion (1967), Wingo et al. (1967), Allee (1969), Adashkevich (1970), Adaskevich & Perekrest (1973, 1974), Hünten (1971), Riegel (1971), Schneider (1971), Heller (1974, 1976), Heller & Treece (1976), Lohse (1974), Pfenning (1975), Schulz (1975), Watts & Combs (1975), Peschke & Fuldner (1977), Peschke & Metzler (1987),  Ienistea & Fabritius (1978, 1982), Kirknel (1978), Peschke (1978a,b,c; 1983, 1985a,b; 1986, 1987), Peschke et al. (1987b), Ursu & Sperantia (1978), Tawfik et al. (1980), Hertveldt et al. (1984a,b), Klimaszewski (1984), Klimaszewski & Blume (1986), Klimaszewski & Cervenka (1986), Hunter et al. (1985), Samsoe-Peteresen (1985, 1987), Whistlecraft et al. (1985), Gordon & Cornect (1986), Scott & Rutz (1988), and  Wright & Müller (1989).

 

Family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea)

 

The fore wing costal cell is absent.  There is either one recurrent vein (Fig. 45b-A) or none.  Ventral abdominal segments are soft and membranous, with a median fold.  Abdomen is not much elongated and the propodeum is not prolonged beyond hind coxae.  These parasitoids are less than 12 mm long (Fig. 45b-B)  Two important genera are Alysia and Phaenocarpa.  Key references are Marsh & Altson (1920), Lima (1960, 1962), Tobias (1962, 1963), Riek (1970), Prince (1976), Richards (1977), Borror et al. (1981), Zhao (1984), Wharton (1976, 1986, 1987), Krombein et al. (1979), Gauld & Bolton (1988), and Goulet & Huber (1993).

 

2.  Alysia spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

 

The parasitoids of this genus are common in areas of moderate to high rainfall (Myers 1927, 1929; Laing 1937, Griffiths 1964, 1966; Fischer 1970, 1971; Wharton 1986).  A common species in Europe, A. manducator Panzer, was successfully established in Australia and New Zealand (Miller 1927, Newman 1928, Morgan 1929, Holdaway & Evans 1930, Holdaway & Smith 1932.)  The nearctic Alysia ridibunda Say has been found active on Calliphoridae (Lindquist 1932, 1940; Marsh 1968).  Species of Alysia may be distinguished from those of Aphaereta by their larger size (ca. 2X as long), their shining black body color and the uneven thickness of antennal funicular segments.  They are solitary endophagous larval parasitoids of muscoid flies. 

 

Additional key references are Altson (1920), Caudri (1941), Likovský (1965, 1973), Burgess & Wingo (1968), Vinogradova & Zinovjeva (1972), Zinovjeva (1976, 1978, 1981, 1985, 1987, 1988), Chernoguz (1984, 1986), Chernoguz & Reznik (1987), Chernoz & Vaghina (1987), and Chernoguz et al. (1987).

 

3.  Aphaereta spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

 

These parasitoids are found primarily in climates with substantial rainfall.  Aphaereta pallipes (Say) is most frequently encountered in the Holarctic (McComb 1958, Salkeld 1959, House & Barlow 1961, Griffiths 1964, 1966; Lange 1964, Lange & Bronskill 1964, Houser 1966, Houser & Wingo 1967a, Marsh 1969, Fischer 1970, 1971; Garry & Wingo 1971, Figg et al 1983a,b, Whistlecraft et al. 1984, Rueda & Axtell 1985b).  Aphaereta aotea Hughes & Woolcock is found in Australia (Hughes & Woolcock 1976, 1978, Hughes et al 1974).  Species of Aphaereta may be readily distinguished from those of Alysia by their smaller size (ca. 1/2 as long), their reddish-brown body color and uniform thickness of funicular antennal segments.  They are solitary endophagous larval parasitoids of muscoid flies.  Key references are Fischer (1966), Zinovjeva (1974), and Gherasin & Lacatusu (1977).

 

Family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea)

 

Forewing venation is complete, not reduced, with at least one complete cell present.  Stigma and costal cell are absent.  There are 2 recurrent veins usually present (Fig. 45a-A & B).  Ventral abdominal segments are soft and membranous, with a median fold.   Two important genera are Phygadeuon and Stilpnus.  Key references are Thompson (1944), Salt (1952), Townes & Townes (1966, 1973), Riek (1970) Richards (1977), Krombein et al. (1979), Borror et al. (1981), Subba-Rao & Hayat (1985), Pisicŕ & Fabritius (1986), Blanchot (1988, 1991a,b), Gauld & Bolton (1988), Rollard (1988) and Goulet & Huber (1993).

 

4.  Phygadeuon spp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

 

This genus and Stilpnus can be distinguished from other parasitoids noted herein by their complete wing venation.  Both the fore wings and hind wings have venation closed to form several cells (Fig. 46a-A).  This genus is unique here in having antennae of 22 segments with the first two segments short and the third segment longer than the first two combined.  The antennae are inserted in the middle of the face between the eyes.  The species are solitary internal larval parasitoids most often found in humid higher Holarctic latitudes (Legner 1966, Legner & Olton 1968, Legner et al. 1976).  Additional key references are Monteith (1956), Horstmann (1967, 1972, 1975, 1986), Müller (1971), Frilli (1973), Plattner (1975, 1979), Plattner & Naton (1975), and Naton (1983).

 

5.  Stilpnus spp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

 

The wing venation is complete as in Phygadeuon, there being complete cells in both the fore wings and hind wings.  Antennae have 16 segments with the first two segments short, the first being shorter than the next two together.  The color is shining metallic black.  They are solitary endophagous larval parasitoids, apparently restricted to the genus Fannia in accumulated organic wastes (Legner & Olton 1971, Legner et al. 1976, Loomis et al. 1968).  They vary greatly in size with males being about 1/2 that of females.  A common species is S. anthomyiidiperda (Viereck).

 

Family Chalcididae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea)

 

Hind femora are greatly enlarged, ventrally toothed (either a few large or many small teeth) (Fig. 18a-A).  The prepectus is reduced or fused, not triangular (Fig. 18a-B).  The frons is projected into 2 horns (around antennae) when viewed dorsally.  They are solitary parasitoids which attack mature host larvae or young pupae.  Their general appearance is shown in Fig. 18a-E.  Two important genera are Brachymeria and Dirhinus.  Key references are Ashmead (1899), Schmiederknecht (1907, 1909), Froggatt (1916), Thompson (1944), Schmitz (1946), Boucek (1956), Nikolskaya (1960), Riek (1970),  Richards (1977), Krombein et al. (1979), Subba-Rao & Hayat (1985), Fabritius & Andriescu (1987), Xue (1988a), Xue et al. (1987c), Gauld & Bolton (1988), and Goulet & Huber (1993).

 

Genus Dirhinus Dalman, 1818 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae)

 

(Dirrhinus Dalman, 1923; Eniaca Kirby, 1883; Dirrhinoidea Girault, 1912; Pareniaca Crawford, 1913; Eniacella Girault, 1913; Eniacomorpha Girault, 1915; Dirhinoides Masi, 1947).

 

Parasitoids in this genus possess a pair of horns on the head which in some species bear a tooth (Figs 42a-B & D).  They have an elongated body which is somwhat depressed dorsally (Fig. 42a-E).  The mandibles are long and narrow, almost straight.  The genae are very large and punctured.  They parasitize various brachycerous Diptera, seeking out full-grown larvae or pupae in the soil.  The key reference is Boucek & Narendran (1981).

 

6.  Dirhinus anthracia Walker, 1846 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae)

 

(Dirrhinus ruficornis Cameron, 1905; Eniacella rufricornis Girault, 1913; Eniacella bicornuticeps Girault, 1915; Dirhinus sarcophagae Froggatt, 1919; Dirhinus frequens Masi, 1933; Dirhinus intermedius Mani & Dubey, 1974).

 

Female head densely punctate, in dorsal view with eyes longer than temples, these converging, slightly convex (Fig. 42a-A).  Antennae of female reddish with yellow or white hairs.  Each horn has a deep external apical notch with subparallel ridged (= carinate) sides, the inner ridge being laminate but almost regular (Fig. 42a-B & C).  Horn in middle is usually distinctly broader than the gap between antennal sockets, in dorsal view.  The ocellar area is somewhat elevated; in lateral view the head is less than 0.6 as wide as long, in dorsal outline from the horn edge to occiput it is strongly convex.  However, the vertex appears as almost one plane.  Length of gena (from eye to submandibular corner) is obviously greater than the short diameter of eye.  Labrum bears scattered hairs.  Antennal scape is thickened toward its base.  Pronotum bears small lateral patches of thicker hairs, and the punctuation in center is dense.  Abdominal petiole is transverse, area of 4 dorsal ridges about 2X as broad as long, anteriorly frequently margined.  In male the horns dorsally in middle are narrower than the gap.   Size varies with host size.  The general appearance is as in Fig. 42a-D & E.  There is a broad host range including Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae, Tephritidae and Tachinidae (Boucek & Narendran (1981).  Original distribution India, Burma, Sri Lanka.  Additional key references are Walker (1846), Froggatt (1919, 1921), Lever (1938), Masi (1947), Dresner (1954), Boucek (1956), and Mani et al. (1974).

 

7.  Dirhinus bakeri (Crawford, 1914)  (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae)

 

(Pareniaca bakeri Crawford, 1914; Pareniaca trichophthalma Masi, 1927).

 

This is a small species, 2.5-4.1 mm long, with antennae usually black, but at times with pedicel and flagellar base in female reddish.  Facial edge of each horn with a distinct additional tooth (viewed laterally) (Fig. 40b-A & B).  Tip of horn reaches much farther from eye than frontal tooth (Fig. 40b-A).  Fore and mid femorae and tibiae usually are black, and wings usually whitish.  Abdominal petiole is rather closely joined with abdomen.  Gena of both sexes is longer than the maximum diameter of eye (Fig. 40b-A).  Hosts include Musca domestica and species of Stratiomyiidae and Tachinidae (Boucek & Narendran 1981).  Original distribution India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Philippines, Japan.  Additional key references are Masi (1947), Habu (1960), Baltazar (1966), and Geetha-Bai & Sankaran (1977).

 

8.  Dirhinus banksi Rohwer, 1923 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae)

 

Female body black including most of legs and flagella.  Scapes, pedicels, tarsi and joints of legs are testaceous.  Thorax is much flattened dorsally, especially scutellum completely flat and with broad smooth area separated by single row of punctuations from hind margin (Fig. 42b-A & B). Lateral head at least 1.5X as long as wide, with facial outline convex, and receding near horn tips.  In dorsal view head width is ca. 1.67X the minimum distance between eyes, horns appearing wide and nearly with parallel sides in basal half (Fig. 42b-C).  Flagellum plus pedicel 1.6-1.7 X as long as head is wide in lateral view, and clava a bit shorter than 3 preceding segments combined.  Pronotum medially without smooth longitudinal strip (Fig. 42b-B).  Mesosternum with impunctate areas behind the fore coxae frequently are well delimited from the posterior punctate part and not extending quite 1/2 to mid coxae.  Petiole with area of 4 ridges slightly to moderately transverse.   In male antennae are paler or darker yellow, slightly less clavate than in female.  Eyes are relatively small, in lateral view the height of eye is only about 1.2X of the height of horn projecting above it.  Length of female 2.5-3.7 mm., male 2.6-3.1 mm.  The only known host is Lucilia sp. (Boucek & Narendran 1981).  Original distribution India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia.   Additional key references are Rohwer (1923), Masi (1947), and Habu (1976).

 

9.  Dirhinus himalayanus Westwood, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae)

 

(Dirrhinus crythroceras Cameron, 1906; Dirhinus luzonensis Rohwer, 1923; Dirhinus luciliae Rohwer, 1923; Dirhinus pachycerus Masi, 1927; Dirhinus vlasovi Nikolskaya, 1952; Dirhinoides mathuri Mani & Dubey, 1972).

 

Body is very black, with sparse coarse punctuation on thorax; wings are clear without distinct hairs in female.  The apex of each horn viewed dorsally is almost rounded, without a notch (Fig. 41a-A & B).  Distal 1/2 of hind tibia with another shallow groove outside tarsal sulcus, the groove being outlined by some extra ridges.  Clava of female symmetrical, with a broad conical apex (Fig. 41a-C).  Hind tibia have a  conspicuous external ridge.   Length of female 2.4-4.9 mm. (the longest of all species noted here).  Host range is broad in Diptera in carcasses and excrement (Bouek & Narendran 1981).  Original distribution Arabia, India, Malaysia, Sumatra, Japan, Philippines & Hawaii.   Additional key references are Cameron (1906), Rohwer (1923), Ferričre (1935), Roy & Siddons (1939), Roy et al. (1940, 1950), Stearn (1943), Nikolskaya (1952, 1960), Dresner (1954), Habu (1960), Mani & Dubey (1972), and Sankaran (1977, 1985),  Srinivasan & Panicker (1988), Xue (1989), Geetha-Bai (1990), Geetha-Bai & Sankaran (1977, 1985),

 

Family Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea)

 

Fore wing venation greatly reduced, with a single vein along margin and very short spur.  Fore wing with uncus well separated from postmarginal vein.  Marginal vein indistinct, somewhat punctiform.  All tarsi with 4 segments.  Abdominal petiole at most 1-segmented.  Eggs are dumbbell-shaped.  Endophagous, gregarious larval parasitoids.  The principal genus is Tachinaephagus.  Key references are Thompson (1944), Wilson & Woolcock (1960), Legner & Bay (1965a), Riek (1970), Ho et al. (1974), Richards (1977), Trjapitzin (1978), Krombein et al. (1979), Prinsloo & Annecke (1979), Noyes (1980), Noyes & Hayat (1984), Borror et al. (1981), Subba-Rao & Hayat (1985), Gauld & Bolton (1988) and Goulet & Huber (1993).

 

Genus Tachinaephagus Ashmead, 1904 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)

 

(Tachinaephagus Girault, 1917; Australencyrtus Johnston & Tiegs, 1921; Australomalotylus Risbec, 1956)

 

There are three species known to parasitize synanthropic Diptera in decomposing organic wastes, although the whole genus is exclusively parasitic on the larvae or pupae of many Diptera.  Vertex of head is almost 1/3rd to 1/2 the width of head, frons is broad.  Eyes are hairy with long dense setae.  Antennae inserted just below the lower eye level with toruli (= sockets) widely separated, scape cylindrical, the funicle segments 1-3X longer than broad (quadrate) (as in Fig. 38a-A).  Mandibles have three sharp teeth.  Scutellum long, shining but bears long setae which arise from microscopic punctures.  Legs are hairy.  Basal area of fore wing is evenly setose (Fig. 39a-A).  Abdomen is either slightly shorter or longer than thorax and flat above in dead specimens.  Digitus of male bears 3 teeth.  The eggs are encyrtiform (dumbbell-shaped).  They are endophagous gregarious larval parasitoids.  Size varies with host size and number of individuals developing on one host.  Key references are Tachikawa (1963), Olton & Legner (1975) and Subba-Rao (1978).  Other references are Ashmead (1904a,b), Girault & Sanders (1909, 1910a), Girault (1917), Dodd (1921), Froggatt (1921), Johnston & Tiegs (1921), Hardy (1924), Gourlay (1930a,b), Newman & Andrewartha (1930), Ferričre (1933), Gahan (1938), Risbec (1956), Ghesquičre (1960), Olton (1971), and Subba-Rao (1972, 1976).

 

10.  Tachinaephagus javensis Subba-Rao, 1978 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)

 

Body is uniformly dark brown.  Legs, coxae and antennal scape are testaceous yellow, funicle and club brown; venation and discal cilia of forewing brown.  Head vertex is broader than 1/2 the head width; ocelli are large in an equilateral triangle (Fig. 38a-C), the posterior part separated from the ocular border by about their own diameter.  Antennal scape is cylindrical, its pedicel only slightly longer than the 1st funicle segment, 2nd and 3rd segments shorter than 1st, 4-6 about equal but shorter than 3rd; club apically rounded, the joints not well separated (Fig. 38a-A); thorax is moderately convex; scutellum rugose; Fore wings with caudal cell moderately wide, not parallel with submarginal vein (Fig. 38a-B); marginal fringe short; abdomen longer than thorax, tergites shining and smooth.  Males have not been found.  Hosts include Haematobia and species of Musca (Subba-Rao 1978).  Original distribution Indonesia.  The key reference is Subba-Rao (1978).

 

11.  Tachinaephagus stomoxicida Subba-Rao, 1978 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)

 

Body is almost black; head vertex with faint metallic green reflections; coxae are dark brown, rest of legs brown with somewhat darker tarsi; scape brown, funicle and club dark brown.  Fore wings are slightly hairy (Fig. 39a-A); head vertex more than 1/2 width of head; ocelli in an equilateral triangle, the posterior pair separated from ocular borders by a little more than their own diameter.  Antennal socket is broad, semicircular and shallow.  Malar sulcus impressed deeply only basally.  Antennal scape cylindrical, slightly dilated above, funicle segments well separated, the club segments deep and club apex angular (Fig. 39a-C).  Thorax is only slightly convex with scutellum almost flat; mesoscutum scaly, scutellum smooth and shining except for tiny pits bearing long black setae.  Fore wings are long and narrow, costal cell very narrow and parallel with submarginal vein (Fig. 39a-A & B).  Discal ciliation is coarse and dense.  Abdomen is slightly longer than thorax, almost quadrate, tergites smooth and shining.  Males resemble female except for their antennae.  The only known host is Stomoxys nigra (Subba-Rao 1978).  Original distribution in Uganda but established in Mauritius.  Key references are Subba-Rao (1978) and Greathead (1986).

 

12.  Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, 1904 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)

 

(Tachinaephagus australiensis Girault, 1917; Stenosterys fulvoventralis Dodd, 1921; Australencyrtus giraulti Johnston & Tiegs, 1921; Australomalotylus rageaui Risbec, 1956).

 

The wing venation is greatly reduced with a single vein along the margin and a very short spur, the stigmal vein, near its center (Fig. 39b-B).  Costal cell of forewing wide, its border not parallel with submarginal vein (Fig. 39b-B & C).  The antennae are located in the middle of the face between the eyes.  They are of less than 14 segments with the first segment elongated, longer than the next two combined.  As in Muscidifurax, the pronotal disc is finely reticulate and almost imperceptibly punctured.  The color is shining black with the underside of the thorax and the legs testaceous (Fig. 39b-D).  Hosts include Calliphoridae, Fannia canicularis (L.) and Musca domestica L.  Original distribution Australasia.  Key references are Tachikawa (1963), Olton (1971), Olton & Legner (1974, 1975) and Subba-Rao (1978).  Other references are Ashmead (1904), Froggatt (1921), Johnston & Tiegs (1922), Hardy (1924), Gourlay (1930a,b), Newman & Andrewartha (1930), Ferričre (1933), Gahan (1938, Risbec (1956), and Legner & Olton (1968b).

 

Family Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea)

 

Forewing marginal vein is less than twice as long as stigmal (Fig. 19b-A).  Antennae have 6 or fewer funicle segments.  Hind tarsus with at least 5 segments.  Abdominal petiole often conspicuous and with dorsal carinae.  They are ectophagous, pupal parasitoids inside the host puparium.  Important genera are Muscidifurax, Nasonia, Pachycrepoideus, Spalangia, Sphegigaster, and Urolepis.  Key references are Latrielle (1805), Dalman (1820), Walker (1836, 1839), Curtis (1839), Förster (1841, 1956), Ashmead (1896b), Dalla-Torre (1898), Perkins (1910), Waterston (1915), Fortsetzung (1916), Girault (1916, 1921), Parker (1924), Parker & Thompson (1928), Ceballos (1941), Thompson (1944), Delucchi (1955), Boucek (1963), Peck (1963), Baltazar (1966) DeSantis (1967, 1979, 1980), Graham (1969), Riek (1970), Abraham (1975, 1978a), Wylie (1976b), Richards (1977), Burks (1979), Gordh et al. (1979), Krombein et al. (1979), Barlin & Vinson (1981), Borror et al. (1981), Yoshimoto (1984), Subba-Rao & Hayat (1985), Gauld & Bolton (1988), Hoebeke & Rutz (1988), Delvare & Aberlenc (1989), Grissell & Schauff (1990), Goulet & Huber (1993).

 

Genus Muscidifurax Girault & Sanders, 1910 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

Wing venation is incomplete and the marginal vein is about twice as long as the stigmal vein (Fig. 23a-A).  Antennal insertions are in the middle of the face between the eyes.  The first antennal segment is longer than the next two combined, and there are less than 14 antennal segments.  Females have one ring segment and 7 funicular segments (Fig. 23a-B), males have 2 and 6, respectively.  The disc of the pronotum and the head are finely reticulate, without coarse punctures.  The several species are very similar in appearance but have good behavioral characters distinguishing them (Legner 1969a,b; Legner et al. 1976, Kogan & Legner 1970), and they are electrophoretically distinct (Kawooya 1983).  Females are black; males black with translucent testaceous spots on the first, second and third ventral abdominal segments.  The eggs are hymenopteriform, covered with small tubercles that distinguishes them from those of Spalangia (Gerling 1967) and with size differences for some species.  The species may be either solitary or gregarious.  The average mass of solitary species of this genus is relatively fixed, as host size does not appreciably affect them (Legner 1969a).  They are ectophagous pupal parasitoids.  The key reference is Kogan & Legner (1970).  Van den Assem & Povel (1973) discussed courtship behavior patterns that are specific.  Markwick (1974) and Markwick et al. 1989 gave biological characteristics that distinguish M. raptor and M. zaraptor and these species from Spalangia endius. 

 

Other references referring to distribution, identity, biology and genetics of species of this genus are Frison (1927), Anonymous (1938), Nikolskaya (1952), Dresner (1954), Legner (1967b, 1969a,b; 1972, 1987a,b,c,d,e; 1988a, 1988b, 1988c,d; 1989a, 1990, 1991a, 1991b, 1993), Legner & Dietrick (1974), Legner & Gerling (1967), Legner et al. (1967), McCoy (1967), Wylie (1967, 1971a,b, 1972b), Berry & Speicher (1972), Broadbent (1972), Kotschetova & Tjutjunkova (1973), Ables & Shepard (1974), Kawooya (1983), van den Assem (1985), Propp (1986), Mandeville & Mulles (1990b,c), Mandeville et al. (1990), Mann et al. (1990b), Wilhoit et al. (1991a).

 

13.  Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders, 1910 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) (PHOTO)

 

The fringe of setae (or their sockets) is well developed on the posterio-apical margin of the fore wing  (Fig. 23a-A).  The stigma forms an abrupt enlargement at the end of the stigmal vein, usually subquadrangular and distally acuminate where a hair is often encountered (Fig. 27a-A).  The uncus is directed distally.  The frontal grooves are parallel (Fig. 27a-B).  The median area of the propodeum of female is closed behind (Fig 27a-C).  The male digitus is subtrapezoidal, broadest distally and usually with 3 apical processes (Fig. 27a-D).  Hind legs with one tibial spur (Fig. 27a-E).  Hind leg with tarsal claw bearing less than 11 setae (Fig. 27a-F).  Length of female is 2.33 mm, male 1.73 mm.  The species is biparental and solitary.  An almost cosmopolitan species which has not been collected in the Oriental region nor most of Asia.  Key references are Girault & Sanders (1910a,c), McCoy (1963, 1967), Legner (1969a,b; 1976a), Legner & Gerling (1967), Kogan & Legner (1970), Morgan & Patterson (1975a), Fabritius (1978, 1981b,c,d; 1983a, 1984, 1986c) and Kawooya (1983). 

 

Additional references are DeBach (1943), Sharma (1967, 1971), Burton & Turner (1968), Shibles (1969), Wylie (1970), Victorov & Azizov (1972), Markwick (1974), Tingle & Mitchell (1975), Podoler & Mendel (1977), Fabritius (1979b, 1980a,b), Morgan et al. (1979b), Capehart et al. (1981), Coch (1981), Klunker (1981, 1982), Merritt et al. (1981), Rutz & Axtell (1981), Shepard & Kissam (1981), Propp & Morgan (1983b, 1984a, 1985a), and Geden et al. (1992a,c).

 

14.  Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

The fringe of setae (or their sockets) is absent from the posterio-apical margin of forewing, as in M. zaraptor (Fig. 26b-A).  The stigma may or may not be elongated, sometimes being roundly clubbed.  The uncus is directed towards of the apex of the wing.  The pedicel of female antennae is not slender proximally (Fig. 26b-B), and frontal grooves are usually convergent (Fig. 26b-C).  The median area of the propodeum of female is usually open behind with the lateral and median plicae not fused in the middle (Fig. 26b-D).  The male digitus is subtrapezoidal, broader distally and usually with only 3 distal processes (Fig. 26b-E).  Length of female is 2.11 mm, male 1.82 mm. The Peru race averages female 2.33 mm, male 1.72 mm although they may assume the smaller size of the Chilean race when deprived of host feeding.  This South American species occurs as several races demonstrating various degrees of gregarious development and number of eggs deposited into a single host puparium.  The Peruvian race is usually solitary in development, but seasonal variations in larval cannibalism vary.  The Chilean race has shown the greatest degree of gregarious development (> 80%) and is quite thigmotactic.  All known races are biparental.  Key references are Kogan & Legner (1970), Kawooya (1983), and Legner (1987b,e; 1988a,b,c; 1989a,b,c,d; 1990, 1991a,b; 1993).

 

          Superparasitism (= insertion of more than one parasitoid egg per host) occurs in both the Peruvian and Chilean race, and subsequent cannibalism by hatched larvae always follows.  The Peruvian race deposits a lower number of eggs per host than the Chilean race but cannibalism intensity is higher.  Therefore, it is difficult to determine the exact number of eggs initially deposited by both species.  The number of adult parasitoids that survive is always less in the Peruvian race and usually averages about one.  On the contrary, more adult survivors usually occur in the Chilean race, averaging about seven at a host density of 20 per 24 hrs.  A standardization of host density, size, age and duration of exposure to parasitization is essential in experiments as they influence the number of eggs deposited and the rate of cannibalism.

 

 

15.  Muscidifurax raptoroides Kogan & Legner, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

The fringe of setae (or their sockets) is well developed on the posterio-apical margin of forewing.  The stigma is formed as a gradual dilation of the tip of the stigmal vein, and the uncus is directed distally (Fig. 28b-B).  The frontal grooves are convergent.  The male digitus is subrectangular and usually with 4 apical processes (Fig. 28b-C).  Spiracle of the female propodeum is not remote from the lateral plica, i.e., the spiracular ridge is shorter than the largest diameter of the spiracle (Fig. 28b-A).  Length of female 2.31 mm, male 1.78 mm.  This species is biparental and solitary.  It was originally known from Costa Rica and southern Mexico.  Key references are Kogan & Legner (1970), and Legner et al. (1976).

 

16.  Muscidifurax uniraptor Kogan & Legner, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

The fringe of setae (or their sockets) is well developed on the posterio-apical margin of forewing.  The stigma is formed as a gradual dilation of the tip of the stigmal vein, and the uncus is directed distally (Fig. 28a-B).  The frontal grooves are convergent.  When male are present, the digitus is subrectangular and usually with 4 distal processes (Fig. 28a-C).  The spiracle of the female propodeum is remote from the lateral plica, i.e., the spiracular ridge is as long as the longest diameter of the spiracle (Fig. 28a-A).  Length of female 2.15 mm, male 1.68 mm, the occasional male are the smallest in this genus.  This species is uniparental and solitary in development.  It was originally known only from Puerto Rico where it occurs with the biparental M. raptor.  Key references are Kogan & Legner (1970), Legner (1985a,b; 1987a,d; 1988), and Kawooya (1983).

 

17.  Muscidifurax zaraptor Kogan & Legner, 1970 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

The fringe of setae (or their sockets) is absent from the posterio-apical margin of the forewing as in M. raptorellus.  The stigma is small, elongated, suboval, often acuminate at the internal angle where a hair is implanted (Fig. 26a-A).  The uncus is usually directed toward the anterior margin of the wing.  The antennal pedicel of female is obviously slender proximally (Fig. 26a-B), and frontal grooves are usually parallel (Fig. 21a-C).  The median area of the propodeum in female is closed behind by the fusion of the lateral and median plicae (Fig. 26a-D).  The male digitus is subrectangular with 4-5 apical processes (Fig. 26a-E).  Hind leg with tarsal claw bearing more than 11 setae (Fig. 26a-G).  Length of female is 2.,84 mm, male 2.18 mm.  This species is biparental, solitary and occurs naturally in the western Nearctic.  Key references are Kogan & Legner (1970), Wylie (1971b, 1979), Legner 1977, 1979a,b,c) and Kawooya (1983).  <PHOTO>

 

Additional references are Coats (1976), Petersen & Meyer (1983a,b), Petersen & Matthews (1984), Petersen & Pawson (1988a,b; 1991), Petersen et al. (1986, 1992), Pawson et al. 1987, Mandeville (1988), Mandeville & Mullens (1990a), and Mandeville et al. (1988),

 

Genus Nasonia Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

18.  Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

(Nasonia Ashmead, 1904; Mormoniella Ashmead, 1904; Pteromalus vitripennis Walker, 1836; Pteromalus muscarum Hartig, 1838; Pteromalus abnormis Boheman, 1856; Dicyclus pallinervosus Walker, 1872; Stictonotus insuetus Walker, 1872; Mormoniella brevicornis Ashmead, 1904; Nasonia brevicornis Ashmead, 1904; Platymesopus macellariae Brčthes, 1913di).

 

Head reticulate, wider than broad.  Upper margin of antennal sockets is slightly above level of the lower margin of compound eye.  A distinct dorsocephalic ridge exists.  The malar sulcus is not as pronounced as in Spalangia endius (see Fig. 37a-D).  Antennae are stout with two ring segments and 6 funicular segments (Fig. 24a-B); the pedicel is ca. 2 1/2X longer than first funicular segment.  The pronotal collar bears an anterior ridge and is strongly reticulate ventrolaterally.  The mesosternum and scutellum is strongly reticulate, the frenal groove is distinct (Fig. 24a-A).  Propodeum has a median plica which lacks lateral branches.  The prosternum bears a median groove.  Fore wing with marginal veins of uniform width and as wide as post marginal vein.  Middle leg bears one tibial spur and dense bristles over its entire length.  The spur is ca. 1/3rd as long as first tarsomere.  The hind leg bears one tibial spur with a bristle-like structure (Fig. 24a-C).  Tergite 9 of abdomen with a pair of slightly projecting sensory structures, each with 5 long setae.  Length of female 1.10-1.90 mm, male 1.00-1.50 mm.  Hosts are primarily blowflies in animal carcasses, although occasionally parasitization occurs in muscoid Diptera found in manure and accumulated organic wastes.  The species is cosmopolitan.  General appearance (Fig. 24a-E).  Key references are Rueda & Axtell (1985b). 

 

Other key references to this most extensively studied (and undoubtedly the least beneficial) fly parasitoid include Froggatt (1914a,b; 1918), Froggatt & McCarthy (1914), Robaud (1917), Altson (1920), Miller (1922, 1972, Miller & Tsao 1974), Tiegs (1922), Hardy (1924, 1925), Séguy (1929), W. Davies (1930), Dautert Willimzik (1931), Cousín (1930, 1933), Evans (1933), Smirnov (1934), Smirnov & Kuzina (1933), Smirnov & Vladimirow (1934), Vladimirova & Smirnov (1934), Robaud & Colias-Belcour (1935), Fukuda (1939), Jacobi (1939), DeBach (1940), DeBach & Smith (1941a,b; 1947), DeBach (1943), van der Merwe (1943), Geršenson (1946), Moursi (1946), Ray (1948, 1953, 1955a,b; 1957, 1958), Kayhardt & Whiting (1949), Kayhardt (1956), Ray & Whiting (1954), Ray et al. (1954), Ullyett (1949, 1950), Ullyett & DeVries (1940), Friedler & Ray (1951), Whiting (1951, 1954a,b; 1955a,b,c,d; 1956a,b; 1957, 1958, 1960, 1965, 1967), Wylie (1958, 1962, 1963, 1964a,b; 1965a,b,c; 1966a,b,c; 1970, 1973b, 1976a), Whiting & Busa (1959), Edwards (1954a,b; 1955a,b; 1961), Saul (1954, 1955, 1957, 1960, 1981), Saul & Kayhart (1956), Barrass (1961), Saul et al. (1965, 1967), Cutler (1955), Firschel & Wolsky (1956), Fluke (1957), Rohner & Wolsky (1957), Varley & Edwards (1957), Pennypacker (1958), Schneiderman & Horwitz (1958), Schneiderman et al. (1956a,b,c), Ohgushi (1959a,b; 1960, 1961), Ohgushi & Kato (1959), Barrass (1960a,b; 1961, 1962, 1965, 1969, 1976a,b), King (1961a,b; 1962a,b,c,d; 1963), King & Hopkins (1963), King & Rafai (1970), King & Ratcliffe (1969), King & Richards (1968), King et al. (1968, 1969), Ankersmit et al. (1962), Nagel (1962), Nagel & Pimentel (1963, 1964), Saunders (1962, 1965a,b,c; 1966a,b; 1967, 1968, 1973, 1974a,b; 1978, 1981), Saunders & Sutton (1969), Saunders et al. (1970), Mortimer & van Borstel (1963), Beard (1964b, 1972), Hopkins & King (1964), Madden (1964), Madden & Pimentel (1965), Hair & Turner (1965), Velthuis et al. (1965), Pimentel (1966, 1984), Pimentel & Al-Hafidh (1963, 1965), Pimentel et al. (1963, 1978), Azab et al. (1967a,b), Chabora (1967, 1970a,b,c; 1972, 1980), Chabora & Chabora (1971), Chabora & Pimentel (1966, 1970), Clark & Cole (1967), Clark & Kidwell (1967), Legner (1967b,c), Legner & Gerling (1967), Ratcliffe & King (1967, 1968, 1969a,b,c; 1970), Takahashi & Pimentel (1967), Walker (1967), Walker & Pimentel (1966), Rabinovich (1969), Richards (1969), Slifer (1969), Smith (1969), Smith & Pimentel (1969), Sanger & King (1971), Barash & Ryder (1972), Copland & King (1972), Holmes (1972, 1974a,b) Rafai & King (1972), Grant et al. (1974, 1980), Olson & Pimentel (1974), van den Assem (1974), van den Assem et al. (1981), Cassida (1975), I. Davies (1975), I. Davies & King (1975), Sagan & Fashing (1977), van den Assem (1977, 1985), van den Assem & Feuth-DeBruijn (1977), van den Assem & Putters (1980), van den Assem & Vernel (1979), van den Assem & Visser (1976), van den Assem et al. (1980a,b,; 1981, 1984), White & Grant (1977), Abraham (1978b, 1985), Abraham & König (1977),Best (1978), Cornell & Pimentel (1978), DeLoof et al. (1979a,b), Fashing & Sagan (1979), Smith & Cornell (1979), Zareh et al. (1980), Bull (1982), Skinner (1982, 1983, 1985), Jachmann (1983), Werren (1984), Werren et al. (1981, 1986), Wibel et al. (1984), Xue (1984a, 1986d, 1987b, 1988c), Xue et al. (1987b, 1988), Huger et al. (1985), Parker & Orzack (1985), Orzack et al. (1986), Preutu (1986), Schmidt (1986), Fried (1987), Fried & Pimentel (1986, 1990), Jones & Turner (1987), Omar (1987a,b), and Darling & Werren (1990).

 

Genus Pachycrepoideus Rondani, 1875 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

19.  Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani, 1875 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) (Encyrtus vindemiae Rondani, 1975).

 

This species is similar in appearance to species of Muscidifurax but is distinguished by the short marginal vein which is not longer than the stigmal vein.  The wing venation is incomplete.  The antennae arise from the middle of the face between the eyes with the first segment longer than the next two combined.  Antennae have 3 anelli (Fig. 22a-D) and less than 14 funicular segments.  The head and the disc of the pronotum are finely reticulate without obvious punctures.   The pronotal collar is without a transverse ridge on its anterior margin (Fig. 22a-A).  Propodeum without median folds (Fig. 22a-B).  Mesosternum has a pair of anterior tubercles (Fig. 22a-C).  Digitus of male with only 2 apical processes (Fig. 22a-E).  The species is ectophagous, usually solitary on the pupa within the puparium.  It is cosmopolitan in distribution (Girault & Sanders 1910, Jaynes 1930, Crandall 1939, Nostvik 1954, Steve 1959, Legner et al. 1967, Legner & Olton 1968, van den Assem 1974, Rueda & Axtell 1985b). 

 

Additional key references are Pickens et al. (1975), Pickens & Miller (1978),  Morgan (1980b), Morgan & Patterson (1975a), Morgan et al. (1978b), Pickens (1981), van Alphen & Thunnissen (1983), Thompson (1981a,b), Thompson et al. (1983), and Panicker & Srinivasan (1986).

 

Genus Spalangia Latreille, 1805 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) (Prospalangia Brčthes, 1915)

 

Species of Spalangia have incomplete wing venation, with the marginal vein about 10X as long as the stigmal vein (Fig. 21b-A).  The antennae are situated at the front margin of the head (Fig. 21b-B).  The first antennal segment is longer than the next two combined (Fig. 21b-C).  There are less than 14 funicular segments.  The pronotal disc is coarsely punctured with polished interspaces (e.g., Figs. 29b-A & 33a-C).  The eggs are hymenopteriform and smooth with the size being variable according to the species (Gerling 1967).  Host size does not much affect the size of solitary species of this genus (Legner 1969a,c).  They are usually solitary ectophagous pupal parasitoids.  The 9 species treated here are easily distinguished among themselves.  Key references are Boucek (1963, 1965, 1988).  Markwick (1974) gives biological characteristics of S. endius and distinguishes this species from Muscidifurax. 

 

Other references include Cameron (1881), Ashmead (1896a), Pinkus (1913), Richardson (1913), Brethes (1915), Fullaway (1915), Vandenburg (1928, 1931), Simmonds (1929a,b), Graham (1932), Handschin (1934), McCoy (1963), Legner (1965a, 1967a,b), Gerling & Legner (1968), Burks (1969, 1979), Mourier (1971a,b), Azizov (1972), Kotschetova & Azizov (1972), Wylie (1972a), Chu (1984), Rueda & Axtell (1985b), Propp (1986), Mandeville (1988), Mandeville & Mullens (1990c), Mandeville et al. (1990), Huang (1990), Mann et al. (1990a,b), Omar et al. (1991b).

 

20.  Spalangia cameroni Perkins, 1910 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

(Spalangia melanogastra Masi, 1940; Spalangia atherigonae Risbec, 1951).

 

The disc of the head between the eyes is sparsely punctured with the punctures mostly separated by more than their diameters.  The disc of the pronotum has an isolated wavy crossline consisting of large closely spaced punctures near to and parallel to the posterior margin (Fig. 33a-C).  The pronotal collar is rounded anteriorly, without a distinct ridge (Fig. 33a-C, D & E).  The anterio-lateral surface of the pronotum is rugose or crowdedly rugosely punctured.  The length of the gena is longer than that of the eye (Fig 33a-A).  The ratio of abdominal petiole length to the narrowest width is 1.8 in femaleand 2.5 in male  (Fig. 33a-F & G), and there are no lateral hairs present.  The length of the extended body is 2.5-3.3 mm in femaleand 2.4-3.0 mm in male.  A cosmopolitan species.  Key references are Perkins (1910), Simmonds (1929b), Masi (1940), Risbec (1951), Boucek (1963), Legner & Brydon (1966), Legner & Gerling (1967), Legner & Olton (1968, 1979), Legner (1969a), Legner & Greathead (1969), Legner et al. (1967, 1976, 1990a,b), Gerling & Legner (1968), Wylie (1972a), Markwick (1974), Rutz & Axtell (1980a), Moon et al. (1982), Scott et al. (1988), Morgan et al. (1989), and Maini & Bellini (1990a,b).

 

21.  Spalangia drosophilae Ashmead, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

Head thicker than wide, with hairy punctures sparsely distributed, and ocellar line complete (Fig 29a-D).  Malar sulcus distinct.  Antennae with reticulated scape, pedicel ca. 2 1/4 X as long as first funicular segment.  Pronotal collar without anterior ridge, hairy punctures scarce or absent anterolaterally and transverse line of hairy punctures absent posteriorly (Fig. 29a-A & B).  Mesoscutum and scutellum with very few punctures (Fig. 29a-C).  Frenal groove indistinct.  Middle of propodeum with deep punctures forming a Y-shaped row (Fig. 29a-C).  Mesopleuron with set of punctures.  Mesosternum with short median longitudinal groove lacking punctures anteriorly.  Middle leg with one tibial spur with few bristles, bitial spur about 1/2 to 3/4 length of first tarsomere.  Hind leg with one smooth unbristled tibial spur.  Tergite 9 of abdomen with pair of slightly flattened sensory structures, each with 5 long setae and densely surrounded by short spines and setae.  Petiole rugosely punctuated dorsally and ventrally.  Length of female 0.90-1.60 mm, male 0.80-1.25 mm.  Hosts are primarily tiny Diptera breeding in a variety of habitats (e.g., Hippelates spp. in soil, Phoridae in dung, etc.).  Key references are Boucek (1963) and Rueda & Axtell (1985b). 

 

Additional references are Ashmead (1887), Lindquist (1936), Simmonds (1944, 1946, 1947a,b; 1952, 1953a,b; 1954, 1956), Legner & Bay (1964a,b, 1965b,c), Legner et al. (1966a,b,c,), Legner (1967a, 1968, 1969a), Capehart et al (1981), Marshakov (1983).

 

22.  Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

(Spalangia muscidarum var. stomoxysiae Girault, 1916; Spalangia philippinensis Fullaway, 1917; Spalangia muscidarum var. texensis Girault, 1920; Spalangia orientalis L. F. Graham, 1932; Spalangia stomoxysiae Peck, 1951).

 

The disc of the head between the eyes is sparsely punctured with the punctures mostly separated by more than their diameters (Fig. 37a-C).  The disc of the pronotum has an isolated wavy crossline consisting of large closely placed punctures in front of and parallel with the posterior margin (Fig. 37a-A & B).  The pronotal collar is rounded anteriorly, without a distinct ridge.  The anterio-lateral surface of the pronotum is umbilicately punctured with the interspaces smooth, not rugose (Fig. 37a-A & B).  The length of the gena is about equal to that of the eye (Fig. 37a-C).  The malar sulcus is distinct (Fig. 37a-D).  The ratio of abdominal petiole length to the narrowest width is 1.7 in female and 2.0 in male, with lateral hairs rare (Fig. 37a-E & F).  The length of the extended body is 2.0-3.0 mm in female and 1.9-2.6 mm in male.  A cosmopolitan species.  Key references are Boucek (1963), Legner (1965a, 1967b, 1979b,c), Legner et al. (1965, 1976), Legner & Brydon (1966), Legner & Greathead (1969),  Ables & Shepard (1974b), Morgan et al. (1975a,b; 1976a,b; 1977, 1978a, 1979a, 1981a,b; 1986), Morgan & Patterson (1975b, 1977, 1989), Morgan (1981b), Rueda & Axtell (1985). 

 

Additional references are Walker (1839, 1846), Girault (1915, 1916, 1920), Fullaway (1917), Graham (1932), Handschin (1932), Peck (1951), Dresner (1954), Shibles (1969), Yust (1970), Tingle & Mitchell (1975), Ables & Shepard (1976b), Ables et al. (1976), Weidhaas et al. (1977), Ienistea & Fabritius (1978), Schmidt & Morgan (1978), Thornberry & Cole (1978), Rutz & Axtell (1980a), Morgan (1980a,b; 1981b, 1985), Morgan et al. (1981b, 1986), Merritt et al. (1981), Petersen et al. (1983), Propp & Morgan (1983a,b; 1984a,b; 1985a,b), Donaldson & Walter (1984), Stafford et al. (1984), Bathon & Fabritius (1985), Bloomcamp (1985), Cabrales et al. (1985), Arellano & Rueda (1888), Xue (1988c), Xue et al. (1987a, 1989).

 

23.  Spalangia gemina Boucek 1963 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

Head facial view subtriangular, almost as wide as long, with large moderately prominent eyes and genae converging in a straight line (Fig. 33b-A).  Frons densely punctuated, interspaces very narrow to about as wide as punctures (Fig. 33b-A).  Antennal sockets quite deep, transversely ribbed in deepest parts, smooth in the middle except fine rugosity between antennal sockets.  Side view of head ca. 2X as long as thick.  Antennae short, slightly thickened at tip; scape dull, granulated and slender, at least as long as 5 following segments combined (Fig. 33b-B).  Pronotum with transverse ridge, collar not margined anteriorly, with very deep, arched, coarsely crenate cross line off hind margin.  All surface before this furrow coarsely reticulated rugose save for a low triangle just at cross line.  Hairy punctures elevated.  Abdominal petiole about 1.4X as long as broad, with almost parallel sides, bare with distinct ridges.  The body is black.  Tarsi are pale testaceous except the dark claw segments.  Length of female  3.1-4.1 mm, male 2.6-3.5 mm.  Original distribution Mauritius, South Asia, Fiji & tropical South America [probably established in Florida].  Key references are Boucek1963, 1965), and Morgan et al. (1991).

 

24.  Spalangia longepetiolata Boucek, 1963 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

The disc of the head between the eyes is sparsely punctured, the punctures being separated mostly by more than their diameters (Fig. 32b-A).  The disc of the pronotum has a distinct wavy coarse line of large crowded punctures parallel to and just anterior to the posterior margin (Fig. 32b-B & C).  The pronotal collar is rounded at the anterior margin.  The anterio-lateral surface of the pronotum is rugose or crowdedly rugosely punctured (Fig. 32b-B & C).  The length of the gena is greater than that of the eye.  The ratio of abdominal petiole length to the narrowest width is 1.5 in female and 3.5 in male (Fig. 32b-D & E).  Thus, female do not have the long petiole which is found in male and which generated the name of this species (Boucek 1963).  Lateral hairs absent on petiole.  The length of the extended body is ca. 2.2-3.1 mm in female  and 2.0-2.8 mm in male.  The species was originally known from Central Africa.  Additional key references are Boucek (1965), and Legner & Olton (1969b).

 

25.  Spalangia nigra Latreille, 1805 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

(Spalangia hirta Haliday, 1833; Spalangia rugosicollis Ashmead, 1894; Spalangia muscae Howard, 1911).

 

The disc of the head between the eyes is very densely crowdedly punctured, the punctures being separated by less than their diameters (Fig. 36b-B).  The pronotum is without a distinct wavy line of large punctures parallel to the posterior margin, and the pronotal collar is rounded anteriorly without a distinct ridge (Fig. 36b-C & D).  The anterio-lateral surface of the pronotum is rugose or crowdedly ruguosely punctured.  The length of the gena is greater than that of the eye (Fig. 36b-B).  The malar sulcus is indistinct (Fig. 36b-E).  The ratio of abdominal petiole length to the narrowest width is 2.0 in female and 2.2 in male (Fig. 36b-G).  There are at least 12 lateral hairs present on each side of petiole.  The length of the extended body is 3.0-4.5 mm in female and 2.5-3.7 mm in male.  This was originally a Holarctic species.  General appearance in Fig. 36b-H & I.  Key references are Latreille (1805, 1809), Dalman (1820), Haliday (1833), Bouché (1834), Nees (1834), Curtis (1839), Howard (1911), Richardson (1913b), Graham-Smith (1919), Girault (1920), Clausen et al. (1927), Parker & Thompson (1928), Perron (1954), Boucek (1963), Legner (1969a), Rutz & Axtell (1980a), Hall & Fischer (1988).

 

26.  Spalangia nigripes Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

(Spalangia nigripes Curtis, 1839; Spalangia hyaloptera Förster, 1850; Spalangia formicaria Kieffer, 1905; Spalangia muscarum Girault, 1920).

 

The disc of the head between the eyes is sparsely punctured, the punctures being separated mostly by more than their own diameters (Fig. 37b-B).  The disc of the pronotum is without a distinct wavy cross-line of large crowded punctures parallel to and just anterior to the posterior margin (Fig. 37b-A).  The pronotal collar is rounded at the anterior margin (Fig. 37b-A).  The anterio-lateral surface of the pronotum is umbilicately punctured with the interspaces smooth.  The length of the gena is less than that of the eye (Fig. 37b-B).  Th ratio of abdominal petiole length to the narrowest width is 1.6 in female (Fig. 37b-C).  The length of the extended body is 2.5-3.7 mm in female and 2.0-3.1 mm in male.  This species was originally Holarctic in distribution.  General appearance in Fig. 37b-D.  Key references are Curtis (1839), Walker (1848), Förster (1850), Dalla-Torre (1898), Kieffer (1905), Girault (1920), and Boucek (1963).

 

27.  Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis, 1839 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

(Spalangia homalaspis Förster, 1850; Spalangia astuta Förster, 1851; Spalangia muscidarum Richardson, 1913; Prospalangia platensis Brčthes, 1915; ?Spalangia abenabooi Girault, 1932; Spalangia sundaica L. F. Graham, 1932; ?Spalangia mors Girault, 1933).

 

 

The disc of the head between the eyes is sparsely punctured with the punctures separated mostly by about their diameters.  The disc of the pronotum has an isolated wavy crossline consisting of closely spaced large punctures in front of and parallel to the posterior margin, and the pronotal collar is bordered anteriorly by a narrow groove setting off the ridge-like margin (Fig. 34a-A & B).  The anterio-lateral surface of the pronotum is rugose or crowdedly rugulosely punctured.  The length of the gena is less than that of the eye (Fig. 34a-C).  Middle of propodeum with parallel rows of punctures that diverge posteriorly (Fig. 34a-D).  The ratio of abdominal petiole length to the narrowest width is 1.7 in female and 2.2 in male (Fig. 34a-E & F).  The length of the extended body is 2.9-3.8 mm in female and 2.5-3.5 mm in male.  The species is cosmopolitan.  Key references are Curtis (1839), Förster (1850, 1851), Johnston & Bancroft (1912), Pinkus (1913), Richardson (1913a,b), Parker (1924), Parker & Thompson (1928), Girault (1932, 1933), Graham (1932), Handschin (1932), Lindquist (1936), Peck (1951), Boucek (1963), Legner (1965a), Legner & Brydon (1966), Legner & Olton (1968b), Legner et al. (1965, 1967), Hoelscher & Combs (1969), Azizov (1972), Kochetova 7 Azizov (1972),Rutz & Axtell (1980a,b), and Siafacas (1980).

 

28.  Spalangia rugulosa Förster, 1850 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

Head, excluding antennal sockets, irregularly coarsely puncuated (even on temples).  Genae converge and eyes large.  Eye longer than gena (Fig. 36a-B).  Head in lateral view thickened with temple about 2X narrower than eye.  Antennal scape dull, granulated, slender, as long as 5.5 following segments combined; 1st funicular segment longer than broad, the 2nd and 3rd quadrate, distal segments slightly transverse, clava as long as 2.7 preceding segments (Fig. 36a-A).  Pronotum somewhat globose, with a margin, irregularly crowdedly punctured except for a narrow strip at hind margin (Fig. 36a-C).  Punctures of this smooth strip are deeper as a wavy line.  Propodeum with complete median carina.  Abdominal petiole ca. 1.8X as long as wide, deeply incised submedially on anterior margin.  Third abdominal tergite 3X as long as the 2nd at meson.   Dense hairs of body black; body black, sometimes with a faint metallic hue on head and thorax; tarsi also black, anterior basitarsus brown.  Length of female 3.1-3.8 mm, male 3.1 mm. Principal host Muscina stabulans Fallen.  Original distribution Europe and Central Asia.  Key references are Förster (1850) and Boucek (1963).

 

Genus Sphegigaster (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

29.  Sphegigaster spp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

The wing venation is greatly reduced with a single vein along the anterior margin and a spur, the stigmal vein near its apex.  The antennae are located on the middle of the face between the anterior margins of the eyes, not on a platform.  They are of less than 14 segments with the first segment elognated, longer than the next two combined.  The pronotal disc is finely densely punctured.  The color is shining black with the legs testaceous.  The abdomen is smaller than the thorax in contrast to other genera treated here (Fig. 20b-A).

 

A Sphegigaster sp. was originally found active on Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans only in East and South Africa (Legner & Olton 1968, Legner & Greathead 1969).  However, the genus is well represented by several species in the Palearctic (Nicholskaya 1952, Graham 1969).

 

Genus Urolepis Ashmead 1896 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

30.  Urolepis rufipes (Ashmead, 1896) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

 

(Urolepis Walker, 1946; Halizoa Förster, 1956;  Pteromalus subgen. Halizous Thomson, 1878; Halizoa rufipes Ashmead, 1896).

 

Head reticulate, wider than broad, lower margin of antennal sockets well above level of lower margin of eye.  Dorsocephalic ridges distinct.  Malar sulcus slightly distinct.  Antennae with last distal funicular segments and clava broad, two ring segments present and pedicel about 1 1/2X longer than first funicular segment (Fig. 24b-B).  Pronotal collar with anterior ridge and coarsely reticulate ventrolaterally.  Mesoscutum and scutellum coarsely reticulate (Fig. 24b-A).  Frenal groove usually not clearly apparent.  Propodeum with median plicae without lateral branches and bearing dense fine setae along lateral margin.  Prosternum with median groove.  Fore wing with marginal vein of uniform width, slightly wider than post marginal vein and apical margin with fringe setae.  Middle leg with one tibial spur bearing sparse bristles along proximal 2/3rds of entire length, spur ca. 1/2X as long as first tarsomere.  Hind leg with one tibial spur lacking bristles (Fig. 24b-C).  Tarsal claw bears 5 setae (Fig. 24b-D).  Tergum 9 of abdomen with a pair of projecting sensory structures each with 5 long setae.  Key reference is Rueda & Axtell (1985b).  Additional key references are Ashmead (1896b), Nabrotsky et al. (1974), Deonier & Regensburg (1978), Burks (1979), Petersen et al. (1985), Smith & Rutz (1985, 1986, 1987, 1991b), and Pawson et al. (1987).

 

Families Cynipidae, Figitidae & Eucoilidae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea)

 

Antennae are never elbowed, the scape only slightly longer than broad and slightly shorter than first flagellar segment.  Abdomen may be laterally compressed, the first abdominal segment is cylindrical or annular, or minute, indistinct, fused dorsally with tergite 2.  Parasitoids of synanthropic Diptera are rare among members of this family.  Key references are Keilin & Baume-Pluvinel (1913), Girault (1921), James (1928), Huzimatsu (1940), Thompson (1944), Jenni (1951), Weld (1952), Walker (1959), Hadorn & Walker (1960), Belizin (1963), Bakker et al. (1967, 1972), Streams (1968), Eijsackers & van Lenteren (1970), Nappi & Streams (1970), Riek (1970), van Lenteren (1972, 1976), van Lenteren & Bakker (1972, 1975, 1978), Samson-Boshuizen et al. (1974), Richards (1977), Quinlan (1978), Chabora & Smolin (1979), Chabora et al. (1979), Krombein et al. (1979), Diaz (1980), Veerkamp (1980), Vet & van der Hoeven (1984), Vet & van Alphen (1985), Subba-Rao & Hayat (1985), Quinlana (1986), Gauld & Bolton (1988), and Goulet & Huber (1993).

 

31.  Figites spp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae)

 

Largest segment of abdomen (in lateral view) tergites II or III, and never more than 1 short tergite preceding the large tergite (Fig. 44a-A).  Mostly small insects; tergite II not forming 1/2 the abdomen (Fig. 44a-A).  They are solitary endophagous larval parasitoids with separate species occurring in different geographic, but rarely demonstrating high parasitization rates.  Key references are Legner & Olton (1968b), and Legner et al. (1967).

 

                 32.  Hexacola (= Trybliographa) spp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Eucoilidae)

 

Scutellum with dorsal "cup"; pronotum pronounced, extending forward into an anterior plate with a strong posterior margin (Fig. 43a-A); separate species in different geographic areas.  Attack smaller species of Diptera (e.g., Chloropidae) at low parasitization rates.  Key references are James (1928), Roberts (1935), Wishart & Monteith (1947), Jenni (1951), Simmonds (1952), Wishart & Monteith (1954), Jorgenssen (1957), Mulla (1962), Makarenko (1963, 1965), Legner & Bay (1964, 1965), Legner & Olton (1969), Legner et al. (1966), Clausen et al (1965), Eskafi & Legner (1974a,b,c), and Jones & Hassell (1988).

 

Family Diapriidae (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea)

 

Antennae inserted on middle of face (Fig. 48a-A & C).  Fore wings without apparent stigma, venation reduced with only a short marginal vein (Fig. 48a-B).  The principal genera are Trichopria and Phaenopria.  Phaenopria occidentalis Fouts (Fig. 48a-E) is parasitic on Hippelates spp. in California, while Trichopria spp. are parasitic on Hippelates spp. in the West Indies.. Key references are Thompson (1944), Sundholm (1964), Riek (1970), Richards (1977), Fabritius (1979a), Krombein et al. (1979), Teodorescu & Ursu (1979), Nixon (1980), Borror et al. (1981), Subba-Rao & Hayat (1985), Gauld & Bolton (1988) and Goulet & Huber (1993).

 

                            33.  Trichopria spp. & Phaenopria spp. (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae)

 

Wings do not have veins except for a short marginal vein and with a stigma so near the margin that the stigmal vein is almost absent (Fig. 48a-A & B).  The antennae usually arise from a small platform in the middle of the face between the eyes (Fig. 48a-C).  The femora and apical 1/2 of the tibiae are swollen.  The body is polished black without ground sculpture and with scattered long setae.  The size varies with that of the host.  Species of this genus are usually solitary endophagous larval parasitoids.  Key references are Muesebeck (1961), , Legner et al. (1967); Legner & Olton (1968b).  Additional references are Cros (1935), Bailey (1947), Magnarelli & Anderson (1980), Bradley et al. (1984), Morgan et al. (1990), and Blanchot (1992a).

 

 

REFERENCES:  [Please refer to File:  <fly-par.ref.htm>;  & also to MELVYL Library ]

 

 

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NOTE:

 

     Illustrations were simplified, corrected and/or updated to suit the present key. 

          However, please refer to cited authors for greater detail.