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For teaching purposes: 

[References for this review may be found at <Nyland>]


             [Note:  All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]




----Please CLICK on desired underlined categories [to search for Subject Matter, depress Ctrl/F ]:







          An ancient language form that originated in the North African area of our most ancient civilizations has been studied by Nyland (2001).  He found that many words used to describe names of places and things in Slavic languages seem to be closely related to the ancient language, which Nyland called Saharan, and which later was predated by the Igbo Language of West Africa.  Fortuitously, the Basque Language is a close relative to the original Saharan.  Following is a discussion of this relationship:


          Some linguists have suggested that elements of Basque words can be detected in many East European names and words. In the following analysis of a number of Ukrainian, Russian and Polish names Nyland (2001) searched for the Basque element and found that all Slavic names are agglutinated using Basque vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) roots with frequent use of VCCV endings and with the vowels interlocking. This form of word agglutination was done with the "VCV vowel interlocking formula". For more information, see the Ogam Script and book "Linguistic Archaeology".





          A large number of names end in -ski, so let us look at the suffix "-ski", an ending common to Polish, Ukrainian, Serbian and Russian family names. The suffix "-ski" can have many meanings in Basque. The reader must keep in mind that the English "s" in Basque is spelled as "z" while the letter "s" in Basque is pronounced as a soft "sh". This means that the Slavic suffix "-ski" may have originated from "-ski or -zki". These two suffixes have a number of meanings in Basque:


aski   revenge, sufficient, frequently
azki   N.A.
eski  stairs, ladder, to offer
ezki  linden tree, irritable, small bell, belltower, bellringer
iski    pin, needle case, weapon, joke, mockery
izki   shrimp, letter of alphabet, to write
oski   shoes, cobbler, coward, afraid
ozki   susceptible to the cold
uski   N.A.
uzki   anus, get lost!, remains, leftovers
Some examples of -ski names:

The "v" in Slavic names is always represented by a "b" in Basque, the "c" by a "k".

bog     bog     boga            rower, boatman
oli       oli  
  oliodura        anointed, holy
ub.      ubi  
  ubil              whirlpool
.ski      iski 
  iskirio          mockery, joke

(They made) a mockery of the holy boatman in the whirlpool. This refers to the annual voluntary sacrifice of a young man in the whirlpool of Corryvreckan.


.g.     ega            egarri             strong desire
.zo    azo            -azo                 to bring about, to make happen
ob.    oba           obakuntza       improvement
.ski aski              askietsi           sufficient, adequate
He has a strong desire to bring about adequate improvements. 
Khmelnitsky, Bogdan, .bo-og.-.da.-an.,
.bo     abo        aboskatu           to proclaim
og.     oga        ogasun              property, land
.da     ada        adarkadura       ramification
an.     ana        anaiguda          civil war 
.k.     ako        akordio             agreement
.h.     oho        ohoragarri        honorable
.me     ome     omenaldi           ribute
el.      ela        ela                     talk, negotiation
.ni      ani        anitz                  many
it.      itxi         itxi                    to abandon, to lay down
.ski    iski        iskilo                 weapon
Proclaim our land at the outcome of the civil war. The honorable agreement
is a tribute to the many negotiations (achieving) the laying down of weapons. 
or.     ora            oraindanik                 from now on
.lo     alo            alokairu                     salary
ob.    oba           obakuntza                  improvement
.ski    aski           askiki                        adequately
From now on my salary is adequately improved. 
.pa    opa           opa izan                     longing for
ab.    aba            abadune                    opportunity
.lo     alo            alokairu                     salary, earn money
ob.    oba           obakuntza                  betterment, improvement
.ski    aski           aski                           sufficient, enough
I am longing for an opportunity to earn a salary sufficient for improvement.
.pa    ipa            ipartar                      northern
alu     alu            alukeria                     repulsive action
ubi    ubi            ubil                           whirlpool
is.      isu             isuri                          to inspire
.ki     uki            ukitu                         to touch, to move
The repulsive action (i.e. sacrifice) in the northern whirlpool inspired and touched me. 
Prezewalski,, (the "w" is usually meaningless)
.p.     ape            apellaniz                   pasture
.re     ere            erreka                       stream
eze    eze            ezeizabarrena            under the fir trees
al.     ale             aleketa                      grain in abundance
.ski eski              eskindu                     to offer
In the pasture by the stream under the firs we offered them grain in abundance. 
.se     ase            asezindako                 craving for
eku    eku           ekurutasun                peace of mind
ute    ute            utea                           to encourage               
er.     era            erakuste                    education
.ski aski              aski                           adequate
"Craving for peace of mind? Encourage adequate education!"
.sta esta              estali                         to shelter
aro    aro            aro                            weather
oka    oka           okaztagarri                disgusting
ado    ado           adoretasun                courage
om.   ome          omen egin                  to pay tribute
.ski    eski           eskini                        offering, devotional
Sheltered from the disgusting weather we paid tribute (to their) courage with a devotional. 
.s.     asa            asarredun                       angered
.tra    atra           atrapala                          noise, sound
abi     abi            abiatsuki                         impulsively
in.     ina            inarrosketa                      to shake
.ski    aski           askitan                            frequently, often
When angered by the sound, he often shook impulsively. 
.ri      iri              irritsatu                     to yearn for
asa    asa            asagotu                     to go far away
ano    ano           ano                           food supply
ob.    oba           oba                            better
.ski    aski           askiki                        plentiful
He yearned to go far away with a better and more plentiful food supply. 
txai    txai           txairo                        graceful
aiko   aiko          aiko maikoka             making excuses
ob.    oba           obakuntza                 improvement
.ski    aski           aski                          enough, satisfactory
Gracefully making excuses (and showing) satisfactory improvement.
          It is safe to assume that all -ski names have such sentences written 
in them, although not all yield their hidden sentence as readily as the ones above did. 




The ending "-itch" can also have several meanings. In Basque the sharp "sch" is
written as "x", which spelling will be used here:


itxa    to await, to hope, to trust, expectation, sea
itxe    N.A.
itxi     to shut in, to close, to abandon, to denounce, to permit
itxo    to wait, waiting room
itxu    aspect, appearance, absurd, similar, to simulate, hypocrite, 
         imposter, pretense, to transform
Adamovitch, ada-amo-obi-itx.,
ada    ada            adatz                         long hair, long braids
amo   amo          amona                       grandmother
obi    obi            obi                            grave
itx.     Itxi           itxiarazi                    to enclose
Grandmother's long braids were enclosed in her grave.
.mo   amo          amona                       grandmother
os.     oso            oso                            simple
.to     oto            otoi                           prayer
obi    obi            obi                            grave
itx.     Itxi           itxi                            to close
(After) grandmother's simple prayer the grave was closed. 
Rabinovitch, .ra-abi-ino-obi-itx.,
.ra     era            erauntsi                    violent storm
abi     abi            abiatu                       to begin
ino    ino            inon                          somewhere
obi    obi            obiratu                      to bury
itx.     itxa           itxaso                        sea
A violent storm is beginning; bury (him) somewhere at sea. 
Topalovitch, .to-opa-alo-obi-itx.
.to     ato            ator                                Come!
opa    opa           opari egin                       to give
alo     alo            alorgizon                         farmer
obi    obi            obiratze                           burial
itx.    itxu            itxurazko                         decent
Come, let's give the farmer a decent burial. 
'alo' could also stand for alogereko (mercenary): 
Come let's give the mercenary a decent burial.




Another common ending is -ko which may come from:

ako:  agreement, contract, tradition, memory
eko:  to produce, fertile, ecology, economy, administrator
iko:   lump, swelling, stonemason's hammer
oko:  cattle stable, pasture next to the house, chin, dewlap
uko:  refusal, negative, elbow

Atamanenko, ata-ama-ane-en-.-ko,
ata       ata      ataldu            to divide
ama     ama   
ama               mother
ane      ane    
anega             measure of grain
en.       ena   
-ena plural       possessive suffix
.ko       ako   
akordiozko      according to tradition, as usual

Mother divided our measure of grain according to tradition.

Bracco, .b.-.ra-ak.-.ko
.b.            abe        
abe                                        cross
.ra            era         
erakasle maisu                      teacher
aka        akatsbako                               perfect   
.ko            ako       
akorduan euki                       to remember

"Remember our perfect teacher of the cross."


Macarenko, .ma-aka-are-en.-.ko,
.ma     ama    ama                           mother
aka     aka    
akabu                        perfect
are     are    
arrera                         reception, welcome
en.     ene    
enetan                        always
.ko     eko    
ekoizkor                     productive, lavish, generous

Mother's perfect welcome was always generous.




Baranof, .ba-ara-ano-ob.,
.ba     aba    abade                                   priest
ara     ara   
arrapatu mozkorra                to get drunk
ano     ano   
ano                                     wine
oba    obaez                                   of course

The priest got drunk on wine, of course.


Baryluk, .ba-ari-ilu-uk.,
.ba    eba            ebaskindegi               hide-out
ari     ari             arinari eman             to escape
ilu     ilu             iluntasun                  darkness
uk.    uka           ukan                         to have
He escaped from his hiding place during darkness.  
Boyar, .bo-oia-ar.,
.bo     ebo     eboluzionatu                     to develop, cultivate
oia     oia     oian                                   forest
ar.     ara     arazo                                  task
Cultivating the forest (is their) task. 
ko      ko      kontaezinbesteko                 innumerable/all the people
os.     osa     osatu                                   to unite
.sa     asa     asaben                                 ancestral
ak.     ako     akordu                                tradition/memory
Unite all the people in the ancestral tradition. 
Dmitriev, .d.-.mi-it.-.ri-eb.,
.d.     idu            iduki                         to have
.mi    umi           umiltasun                 humility
it.      ita             itxaro                        to trust
.ri      ari             -ari                            mission
eb.    eba            ebanjelari                  evangelist
Have humility, and trust in the evangelist's mission. 
Dumala, .du-uma-ala,
.du    idu            iduki                         to have
uma   uma          uma                          child
 ala ala               alaitu                        to fill with joy
Having a child fills (me) with joy.
Dzogan, .d.-.zo-oga-an.,
.d.      ida      idatziz                             to record
.zo     azo     azokalari                         merchant
oga     oga     ogasun                           wealth
an.     ane     anega                              grain measure, supply
He records the wealthy merchant's grain supply. 
Gorbachov, .go-orba-axo-ob.,
.go      ego          egoera                       manner of behaving
orba    orba         orbaingabe                pure
axo      axo          axoladun                   careful, diligent
ob.      obe         obengabe                  blameless
His behavior is pure, diligent and blameless. 
Gulag .gu-ula-ag.
.gu    egu            egur                          punishment, wood
ula     ula            ulaka/uluka               wailing/crying out
ag.     aga            agaka                        hitting with a stick
"He cried out after being hit with a stick in punishment."
Karasik, .ka-ara-asi-ik.,
.ka     ika     ikaserazi                          to teach
ara     ara     arrai                                gentle
asi      asi     asialdi                              beginning
ik.      ika     ikasgale                           desire to learn
Gentle teaching creates a desire to learn. 
Korelus, .ko-ore-elu-us.,
.ko    ako           akorduan euki           to remember
ore    ore            orekan                       to keep your balance
elu     elu            elurlera                     sled
us.     usa            usatu                        to get used to
Remember to keep your balance when getting used to your sled. 
Korolef, .ko-oro-ole-eb.,
.ko    ako           akorduan euki         to remember
oro   oro           oroegile                    Creator
ole     ole            oles egin                    to call upon
eb.    ebe            ebertar                       Hebrew, Jesus
Remember the Creator by calling upon Jesus. 
Kowalchuk, .ko-al.-.txu-uk.,
.ko    ako           akorduan euki           to remember
al.     ala             alaitasun                   happiness
.txu   atxu           atxuri                        newborn lamb
uk.    uki            ukitu                         to touch
Remember your happiness when you touched the newborn lamb? 
Landau, .la-an.-.da-au
.la     ala             alabeharreko             unavoidable
an.    ana            anarkia                     anarchy
.da    ada            adarkadura                ramification
au     au             auhen                       lament, suffering
The unavoidable ramification of anarchy is suffering. 
Ligachev, .li-iga-atxe-eb,
.li      ili              ilinti                          fiery
iga     iga             igartze                       prophesying
atxe   atxe           atxeki                        to adhere to, to be determined
eba    eba            ebanjelari                  evangelist
Fiery, determined, prophesying evangelist.
Mazowsze (Mazovshe), .ma-azo-ob.-.xe, (Polish singing/dancing group)
.ma   ama           amaikatxo                 many
azo    azo            azoka                        market day
ob.    obe           obeki                         good
.xe     exe            exeri                          to sit down
Many market days it is good to sit down (and listen). 
Monomakh, .mo-ono-oma-ak.-.h.,
.mo      amo     amodiotsu                      loving
ono      ono     onon                               wonderful
oma     oma     oma                                grandmother, tribal mother
ak.       ako     akorduan euki                 to remember
.h.       oha     ohardun                           thoughtful
Remember our wonderfully thoughtful tribal mother.
          Vladimir Monomakh was the grandson of Yaroslav the wise, the Great 
Lawgiver; from his name it appears that Yaroslav the Wise must have been 
a woman. See Yaroslav below.
.pa    opa           opa izan                     longing for
ax.     axo            axolagabetsu             carefree
.ni     oni            onik                          safe 
ik.     ike            ikertaldi                    visit
Longing for a carefree and safe visit. 
Pecheneg, .pe-eche-ene-eg.,
pe      pe      pena ukan                       to suffer
exe     exe     exeri                               to sit
ene     ene     -enerako                         before
eg.     egu     egur                                punishment
(Let them) sit and suffer before punishment. 
Pierzchala, .pi-er.-.z.-.txa-ala,
.pi     ipi             ipini                          to acquire
er.     era            erakuste                    education
.z.     azi             aziarazi                     to raise
.txa   itxa            itxaro                        hope
ala     ala             alaitasun                   happiness
Acquiring an education raises the hope for happiness. 
Polovtsy, .bo-olo-ob.-.tsi,
.bo     ebo     eboluzionatu                   to develop, process
olo     olo      olo                                  oats
ob.     oba     oba                                 better
.tsi     atsi      atximurkari                    pincher, roller
You process the oats better in a roller. 
.p.     opo           oporrak                     vacation
.ro     oro            oroitu                        to remember
oko   oko           okolu                         stable
op.    opa           opa izan                    to long for
.txu   atxu           atxuri                        newborn lamb
uk.    uki            ukitu                         to touch
Remember the stable on our vacation where you longed to touch the newborn lamb? 
Ranogajek, .ra-ano-oga-aje-ek.,
.ra     ara            arrapatur mozkorra to get drunk
ano    ano           ano                           wine
oga    oga            ogasun                      homemade
aje     aie             aiene                         grief, suffering
ek.    eka            ekarrarazi                 to cause
Getting drunk on home-made wine causes grief. 
Rasputin, .ra-as.-.pu-uti-in.,
.ra     ara            arakintza                    assacre
as.     asa            asarrekeria                shocking
.pu    apu           apurtzaile                   destructive
uti     uti             utikan                       go away, get out!
in.     ino            inola                         in any way possible
A shocking and destructive massacre! Get out in any way possible. 
Razin, .ra-azi-in.,
.ra     ira                      iraultzatu                          to revolt
azi     azi                     azitoki                               birthplace
in.     ine                     inertzia                              downtrodden
Revolt for our downtrodden birthplace. 
Shatalin, xa-ata-ali-in.
xa      xa             xalo                          open/frank
ata     ata            atalgabeko                  uncomplicated
ali      ali             alizan                        capable
in.     inu            inuritze                      inspiring
"Uncomplicated, capable and inspiring".
Slavoj Zizek,
.s.     osa            osatu                         to unite
.la     ala             alafede                      I swear
abo    abo           abotskatu                  to proclaim
oi      oi              oinlegedi                   constitution
"I swear to unite us and proclaim the constitution."
.zi     ezi             eziketa                      education
ize     ize             izendu                       famous
ek.    eka            ekarri                        to bring
"Famous for bringing education."
Skorepa, .s.-.ko-ore-epa,
.s.     asa            asagotu                     to go away
.ko    ako           akorduan euki           to remember
ore    ore            oren                          hour
epa    epa            epaialdi                      trial
If you go away, remember the hour of the trial. 
.s.     asa            asaldagarri                shocking
.lu     alu            alukeria                     repulsive action
uts.   utsi            utziezin                      unavoidable
.ka    ika            ikara                         terror, horror
aia     aia             aiaia                          grief, suffering
The shockingly repulsive action caused unavoidable horror and suffering. 
Stalin, .sta-ali-in.,
.sta   asta            astapotro                   brutish, in a brutish way
ali      ali             alienatu                    to kill a person
in.     ino            inola                         in any way possible
In a brutish way he kills people any way possible. 
Tarasof, .ta-ara-aso-ob.,
.ta     ita             itxaro                        to hope for
ara    ara            araberatasun             agreement
aso    azo            -azo                           to bring about
ob.    oba           obakuntza                  improvement
We hope for agreement to bring about improvement.
.bo     abo     aboskatu                          to proclaim
ol.     ola       oleazio                             destiny
.ni     eni       eni                                   to me, us 
itza    itza      izaldun                             honorable
Proclaim an honorable destiny for us. 
Vsevolod and Mikhalko (brothers),  .mi-ik.-.ha-al.-.ko,
.b.     oba     obakuntza                            improvement
.se     ase     aseguratu                             to insure
ebo     ebo     eboluzionatu                       the develop, produce
olo     olo     olo                                       oats
od.     odi     odi                                       tube, drum, rolled
The improvement insured the production of rolled oats. 
.mi     ami     amilura                               falling water
ik.      ika     ikaserazi                               to teach
.ha     aha     ahalizan                               to make possible
al.      ale      aleketa                                 abundance of grain
.ko     eko     ekoiztu                                 to produce, to process
He teaches how falling water makes it possible to process grain in abundance. 
          The translations of these names tell a very different story from that in the history books. 
Yaroslav the Wise,,
.ja      oja     oian                                           forest
aro     aro     arroztu                                       to exile
os.     osa     osatu                                          to unify, to unite
.la      ala     alafede                                        I swear to
ab.     abe     aberkide                                     fellow countrymen, patriots
The forest exile swore to unify the patriots. 
From the name of her grandson, Monomakh, it appears that Yaroslav was a wise tribal mother.The true meaning of 
Slav,, osa-ala-abe is here revealed.  It has nothing to do with slavery, instead it means:
 "I swear to unite my fellow countrymen".
.za     aza            azaluts                                 insincere
ada    ada            adarra sartu                         to deceive
ap.    ape            apeta                                    tendency
.ru     eru            errukigabe                           cruel, pitiless
uxki  uxki           uxkia miazkatzera                get lost!
(You are) insincere and deceiving (and have) a tendency to be cruel; Get lost! (what a name!) 
Zaporogian, .za-apo-oro-ogi-an.,
.za     oza     ozar                                        arrogant
apo     apo     apokeria                                 insult
oro     oro     orobatu                                   to unify
ogi      ogi     ogipuska                                 easygoing
an.     ana     anaitasun                                brotherhood
Arrogant insults united the easygoing brotherhood. 




txe     txerri         txerrizain                  swineherd
.no    ino            inor                           no-one
obi    obi            obi                            grave
il.      ile             iletu                          to mourn
No-one mourned at the grave of the swineherd. 
Dniepr, d.n-ie.p-.r
d.n       don        donetsi                      to bless, the blessed one
ie.p.     ihesp       ihespide                    means of escape
.r          ur           ur                             water
The blessed one's means of escape was by water. 
          (Probably referring to the Priestess Medea who escaped with Jason up the 
Dniepr river after taking the golden fleece from King Aietus. See "The Voyage of 
Argo" by Apollonius of Rhodes). 
donetz                donetzi                        to sanctify
The sanctified one. 
Irkutsk, ir.-.ku-utsik,
ir.      iri              iri                             city
.ku    iku            ikustatu                     to visit
utsik   utsik         utsik                          deserted
I visited the deserted city. 
Kamchatka, .ka-am.-.txa-at.-.ka,
.ka    ika            ikaragarri                 frightening
am.   amo          amorro                      fury
.txa    otxa          otxoa                         wolf
at.     ate            aterbegabe                  unprotected, out in the open
.ka    eka            ekantze                      to get used to.
Out in the open, the frightening fury of the wolves takes getting used to. 
Kiev, .ki-eb.,
.ki     oki            okitu                         totally, completely
eb.    eba            ebanjeliotu                to evangelize
Completely evangelized. 
Okhotsk, ok.-.ho-otsk
ok.      oka         okaztagarri                      disgusting
.ho      aho         ahozagarri                        astonishing
otsk   otsok         otsokeria                          brutality
Astonishingly disgusting brutality. 
Taymyr, tai.-.mi-ir.,
tai.    taiu            taiuera                      size,  appearance
.mi    umi           umildu                      to humble
ir.      ira             iraganaldi                  migration, migrating herd
The size of the migrating herd is humbling. 
Vladivostok, bo-osto-ok.,
.b.     aba            abaroan egon            to take refuge
.la     ala             alabearreko               necessary
adi     adi            adi                            watch out!
bo     bo             bortxakeria                violence
osto  osto           ostosketa                   rolling of the thunder
ok.    oki            okildu                        to be frightened
Watch out! It's necessary to take refuge. The violence of the thunder is frightening. 




          The people themselves could not have invented these names. The system of agglutination is exactly the same as was used by the Benedictines and their grammarians in western Europe. It is well known that there was close cooperation between the eastern and western Christian churches in the 10th and 11th centuries, especially between the Pannonhalma Benedictines in Hungary and the monks from the Tyniec monastery in Poland and Kiev. The Kiev monastery of Pesherska Lavra was established in 1040, a few decades after these other two monasteries and the required linguists were apparently sent from there to Kiev to train the monks in the use of the Basque Language


Pesherska Lavra
.pe - es. - .he - er. - .ska    .la - ab. - .ra
ope - esi - ihe - era - aska     ila - abe - era
opetsi - eziketa - ihesleku - eraspen - askamen     ilarteko - abegion - erantzun
to offer - education - shelter - devotion - pardon     lifetime - hospitality - to fulfill
"We offer education, shelter, devotion and pardon.   
Ours is a lifetime of hospitality and fulfillment."  


          The early cooperation is still remembered because in the summer of 1996 the head of the Russian Christian church planned to attend, with the Roman Catholic Pope, the 1000-year celebrations at Pannonhalma. Unfortunately, illness prevented the historic meeting from happening. There was probably no longer a source of educated Saharan/Basque speakers in Russia, so either these specialists were recruited in Liguria (northern Italy) and Euskadi (northern Spain) and sent east, or the linguists worked from Basque dictionaries, without being able to speak the language. Possibly some of both happened.