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For teaching purposes: 

[References for this review may be found at <Nyland>]

 

              [Note:  All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]

 

SLAVIC NAMES ORIGIN *

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Introduction

 

          An ancient language form that originated in the North African area of our most ancient civilizations has been studied by Nyland (2001).  He found that many words used to describe names of places and things in Slavic languages seem to be closely related to the ancient language, which Nyland called Saharan, and which later was predated by the Igbo Language of West Africa.  Fortuitously, the Basque Language is a close relative to the original Saharan.  Following is a discussion of this relationship:

 

          Some linguists have suggested that elements of Basque words can be detected in many East European names and words. In the following analysis of a number of Ukrainian, Russian and Polish names Nyland (2001) searched for the Basque element and found that all Slavic names are agglutinated using Basque vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) roots with frequent use of VCCV endings and with the vowels interlocking. This form of word agglutination was done with the "VCV vowel interlocking formula". For more information, see the Ogam Script and book "Linguistic Archaeology".

 

 

NAMES ENDING IN "SKI"

 

          A large number of names end in -ski, so let us look at the suffix "-ski", an ending common to Polish, Ukrainian, Serbian and Russian family names. The suffix "-ski" can have many meanings in Basque. The reader must keep in mind that the English "s" in Basque is spelled as "z" while the letter "s" in Basque is pronounced as a soft "sh". This means that the Slavic suffix "-ski" may have originated from "-ski or -zki". These two suffixes have a number of meanings in Basque:

 

aski   revenge, sufficient, frequently
azki   N.A.
eski  stairs, ladder, to offer
ezki  linden tree, irritable, small bell, belltower, bellringer
iski    pin, needle case, weapon, joke, mockery
izki   shrimp, letter of alphabet, to write
oski   shoes, cobbler, coward, afraid
ozki   susceptible to the cold
uski   N.A.
uzki   anus, get lost!, remains, leftovers
 
Some examples of -ski names:

The "v" in Slavic names is always represented by a "b" in Basque, the "c" by a "k".

Bogolyubski,  bog-oli-ub.-.ski,
bog     bog     boga            rower, boatman
oli       oli  
  oliodura        anointed, holy
ub.      ubi  
  ubil              whirlpool
.ski      iski 
  iskirio          mockery, joke


(They made) a mockery of the holy boatman in the whirlpool. This refers to the annual voluntary sacrifice of a young man in the whirlpool of Corryvreckan.

 

Gzovski, .g.-.zo-ob.-.ski,
.g.      ega             egarri             strong desire
.zo     azo             -azo                 to bring about, to make happen
ob.     oba            obakuntza       improvement
.ski aski               askietsi           sufficient, adequate
 
He has a strong desire to bring about adequate improvements. 
 
Khmelnitsky, Bogdan, .bo-og.-.da.-an.  .k.-.h.-.me-el.-.ni-it.-.ski,
.bo     abo        aboskatu           to proclaim
og.     oga        ogasun              property, land
.da     ada        adarkadura       ramification
an.     ana        anaiguda          civil war 
.k.     ako        akordio             agreement
.h.     oho        ohoragarri        honorable
.me     ome     omenaldi           ribute
el.      ela        ela                     talk, negotiation
.ni      ani        anitz                  many
it.      itxi         itxi                    to abandon, to lay down
.ski    iski        iskilo                 weapon
 
Proclaim our land at the outcome of the civil war. The honorable agreement
is a tribute to the many negotiations (achieving) the laying down of weapons. 
 
Orlovski, or.-.lo-ob.-.ski,
or.     ora             oraindanik                  from now on
.lo      alo             alokairu                     salary
ob.     oba            obakuntza                  improvement
.ski    aski            askiki                          adequately
 
From now on my salary is adequately improved. 
 
Pavlovski, .pa-ab.-.lo-ob.-.ski,
.pa     opa            opa izan                     longing for
ab.     aba             abadune                      opportunity
.lo      alo             alokairu                     salary, earn money
ob.     oba            obakuntza                  betterment, improvement
.ski    aski            aski                              sufficient, enough
 
I am longing for an opportunity to earn a salary sufficient for improvement.
 
Palubiski, .pa-alu-ubi-is.-.ki,
.pa     ipa             ipartar                         northern
alu     alu             alukeria                     repulsive action
ubi     ubi             ubil                              whirlpool
is.      isu              isuri                             to inspire
.ki      uki             ukitu                            to touch, to move
 
The repulsive action (i.e. sacrifice) in the northern whirlpool inspired and touched me. 
 
Prezewalski, .p.-.re-eze-al.-.ski, (the "w" is usually meaningless)
.p.      ape             apellaniz                   pasture
.re      ere             erreka                          stream
eze     eze             ezeizabarrena             under the fir trees
al.      ale             aleketa                        grain in abundance
.ski eski               eskindu                       to offer
 
In the pasture by the stream under the firs we offered them grain in abundance. 
 
Sekuterski .se-eku-ute-er.-.ski
.se     ase             asezindako                  craving for
eku    eku             ekurutasun                 peace of mind
ute     ute              utea                             to encourage                
er.      era             erakuste                    education
.ski aski               aski                              adequate
 
"Craving for peace of mind? Encourage adequate education!"
 
Starokadomski: .sta-aro-oka-ado-om.-.ski,
.sta esta               estali                           to shelter
aro     aro             aro                               weather
oka    oka             okaztagarri                 disgusting
ado    ado            adoretasun                  courage
om.    ome            omen egin                  to pay tribute
.ski    eski            eskini                          offering, devotional
 
Sheltered from the disgusting weather we paid tribute (to their) courage with a devotional. 
 
Stravinski, .s.-.tra-abi-in.-.ski,
.s.      asa             asarredun                       angered
.tra    atra             atrapala                          noise, sound
abi     abi             abiatsuki                         impulsively
in.      ina             inarrosketa                       to shake
.ski    aski            askitan                              frequently, often
 
When angered by the sound, he often shook impulsively. 
 
Riasanovski, .ri-asa-ano-ob.-.ski,
.ri      iri              irritsatu                    to yearn for
asa     asa             asagotu                       to go far away
ano    ano             ano                              food supply
ob.     oba            oba                              better
.ski    aski           askiki                         plentiful
 
He yearned to go far away with a better and more plentiful food supply. 
 
Tchaikovski, txai-aiko-ob.-.ski,
txai    txai            txairo                          graceful
aiko   aiko           aiko maikoka              making excuses
ob.     oba            obakuntza                 improvement
.ski    aski           aski                              enough, satisfactory
 
Gracefully making excuses (and showing) satisfactory improvement.
 
          It is safe to assume that all -ski names have such sentences written 
in them, although not all yield their hidden sentence as readily as the ones above did. 

 

NAMES ENDING IN "ITCH"

 

The ending "-itch" can also have several meanings. In Basque the sharp "sch" is
written as "x", which spelling will be used here:

 

itxa    to await, to hope, to trust, expectation, sea
itxe    N.A.
itxi     to shut in, to close, to abandon, to denounce, to permit
itxo    to wait, waiting room
itxu    aspect, appearance, absurd, similar, to simulate, hypocrite, 
          imposter, pretense, to transform
 
Adamovitch, ada-amo-obi-itx.,
ada    ada             adatz                            long hair, long braids
amo   amo            amona                         grandmother
obi     obi             obi                               grave
itx.     Itxi             itxiarazi                    to enclose
 
Grandmother's long braids were enclosed in her grave.
 
Mostovitch, .mo-os.-.to-obi-itx.,
.mo    amo            amona                         grandmother
os.     oso             oso                               simple
.to      oto             otoi                              prayer
obi     obi             obi                               grave
itx.     Itxi             itxi                               to close
 
(After) grandmother's simple prayer the grave was closed. 
 
Rabinovitch, .ra-abi-ino-obi-itx.,
.ra      era             erauntsi                    violent storm
abi     abi             abiatu                          to begin
ino     ino             inon                             somewhere
obi     obi             obiratu                        to bury
itx.     itxa            itxaso                          sea
 
A violent storm is beginning; bury (him) somewhere at sea. 
 
Topalovitch, .to-opa-alo-obi-itx.
.to      ato             ator                                   Come!
opa    opa            opari egin                       to give
alo     alo             alorgizon                        farmer
obi     obi             obiratze                           burial
itx.    itxu             itxurazko                        decent
 
Come, let's give the farmer a decent burial. 
'alo' could also stand for alogereko (mercenary): 
 
Come let's give the mercenary a decent burial.
 

 

NAMES ENDING WITH "KO"

 

Another common ending is -ko which may come from:

ako:  agreement, contract, tradition, memory
eko:  to produce, fertile, ecology, economy, administrator
iko:   lump, swelling, stonemason's hammer
oko:  cattle stable, pasture next to the house, chin, dewlap
uko:  refusal, negative, elbow

Atamanenko, ata-ama-ane-en-.-ko,
ata       ata      ataldu            to divide
ama     ama   
ama               mother
ane      ane    
anega             measure of grain
en.       ena   
-ena plural       possessive suffix
.ko       ako   
akordiozko      according to tradition, as usual


Mother divided our measure of grain according to tradition.

Bracco, .b.-.ra-ak.-.ko
.b.            abe        
abe                                        cross
.ra            era         
erakasle maisu                      teacher
ak.           
aka        akatsbako                               perfect   
.ko            ako       
akorduan euki                       to remember


"Remember our perfect teacher of the cross."

 

Macarenko, .ma-aka-are-en.-.ko,
.ma     ama    ama                           mother
aka     aka    
akabu                        perfect
are     are    
arrera                         reception, welcome
en.     ene    
enetan                        always
.ko     eko    
ekoizkor                     productive, lavish, generous


Mother's perfect welcome was always generous.

 

 

SOME OTHER TYPICALLY SLAVIC NAMES


Baranof, .ba-ara-ano-ob.,
.ba     aba    abade                                   priest
ara     ara   
arrapatu mozkorra                to get drunk
ano     ano   
ano                                     wine
ob.    
oba    obaez                                   of course


The priest got drunk on wine, of course.

 

Baryluk, .ba-ari-ilu-uk.,
.ba     eba             ebaskindegi                 hide-out
ari     ari              arinari eman              to escape
ilu      ilu              iluntasun                  darkness
uk.     uka             ukan                            to have
 
He escaped from his hiding place during darkness.  
 
Boyar, .bo-oia-ar.,
.bo     ebo     eboluzionatu                     to develop, cultivate
oia     oia     oian                                   forest
ar.     ara     arazo                                  task
 
Cultivating the forest (is their) task. 
 
Cossack,  ko-os.-.sa-ak.,
ko      ko      kontaezinbesteko                 innumerable/all the people
os.     osa     osatu                                   to unite
.sa     asa     asaben                                 ancestral
ak.     ako     akordu                                tradition/memory
 
Unite all the people in the ancestral tradition. 
 
Dmitriev, .d.-.mi-it.-.ri-eb.,
.d.      idu             iduki                            to have
.mi     umi            umiltasun                 humility
it.       ita              itxaro                          to trust
.ri      ari              -ari                              mission
eb.     eba             ebanjelari                 evangelist
 
Have humility, and trust in the evangelist's mission. 
 
Dumala, .du-uma-ala,
.du     idu             iduki                            to have
uma   uma            uma                             child
 ala ala                alaitu                           to fill with joy
 
Having a child fills (me) with joy.
 
Dzogan, .d.-.zo-oga-an.,
.d.      ida      idatziz                             to record
.zo     azo     azokalari                         merchant
oga     oga     ogasun                           wealth
an.     ane     anega                              grain measure, supply
 
He records the wealthy merchant's grain supply. 
 
Gorbachov, .go-orba-axo-ob.,
.go       ego           egoera                         manner of behaving
orba    orba          orbaingabe                  pure
axo      axo           axoladun                   careful, diligent
ob.       obe          obengabe                  blameless
 
His behavior is pure, diligent and blameless. 
 
Gulag .gu-ula-ag.
.gu     egu             egur                             punishment, wood
ula     ula             ulaka/uluka                wailing/crying out
ag.     aga             agaka                          hitting with a stick
 
"He cried out after being hit with a stick in punishment."
 
Karasik, .ka-ara-asi-ik.,
.ka     ika     ikaserazi                          to teach
ara     ara     arrai                                gentle
asi      asi     asialdi                              beginning
ik.      ika     ikasgale                           desire to learn
 
Gentle teaching creates a desire to learn. 
 
Korelus, .ko-ore-elu-us.,
.ko     ako             akorduan euki            to remember
ore     ore             orekan                         to keep your balance
elu     elu             elurlera                     sled
us.     usa             usatu                           to get used to
 
Remember to keep your balance when getting used to your sled. 
 
Korolef, .ko-oro-ole-eb.,
.ko    ako            akorduan euki          to remember
oro    oro            oroegile                     Creator
ole     ole             oles egin                    to call upon
eb.     ebe             ebertar                       Hebrew, Jesus
 
Remember the Creator by calling upon Jesus. 
 
Kowalchuk, .ko-al.-.txu-uk.,
.ko     ako             akorduan euki            to remember
al.      ala             alaitasun                   happiness
.txu   atxu             atxuri                          newborn lamb
uk.     uki             ukitu                           to touch
 
Remember your happiness when you touched the newborn lamb? 
 
Landau, .la-an.-.da-au
.la      ala             alabeharreko              unavoidable
an.     ana             anarkia                       anarchy
.da     ada             adarkadura                 ramification
au      au               auhen                          lament, suffering
 
The unavoidable ramification of anarchy is suffering. 
 
Ligachev, .li-iga-atxe-eb,
.li      ili               ilinti                            fiery
iga     iga             igartze                         prophesying
atxe   atxe            atxeki                          to adhere to, to be determined
eba    eba             ebanjelari                 evangelist
 
Fiery, determined, prophesying evangelist.
 
Mazowsze (Mazovshe), .ma-azo-ob.-.xe, (Polish singing/dancing group)
.ma    ama            amaikatxo                 many
azo    azo             azoka                           market day
ob.     obe            obeki                           good
.xe     exe             exeri                            to sit down
 
Many market days it is good to sit down (and listen). 
 
Monomakh, .mo-ono-oma-ak.-.h.,
.mo      amo     amodiotsu                      loving
ono      ono     onon                               wonderful
oma     oma     oma                                grandmother, tribal mother
ak.       ako     akorduan euki                 to remember
.h.       oha     ohardun                           thoughtful
 
Remember our wonderfully thoughtful tribal mother.
 
          Vladimir Monomakh was the grandson of Yaroslav the wise, the Great 
Lawgiver; from his name it appears that Yaroslav the Wise must have been 
a woman. See Yaroslav below.
 
Pashnik, .pa-ax.-.ni-ik.,
.pa     opa            opa izan                     longing for
ax.     axo             axolagabetsu              carefree
.ni      oni             onik                             safe 
ik.      ike             ikertaldi                    visit
 
Longing for a carefree and safe visit. 
 
Pecheneg, .pe-eche-ene-eg.,
pe      pe      pena ukan                       to suffer
exe     exe     exeri                               to sit
ene     ene     -enerako                         before
eg.     egu     egur                                punishment
 
(Let them) sit and suffer before punishment. 
 
Pierzchala, .pi-er.-.z.-.txa-ala,
.pi      ipi              ipini                             to acquire
er.      era             erakuste                    education
.z.      azi              aziarazi                     to raise
.txa   itxa              itxaro                          hope
ala     ala             alaitasun                   happiness
 
Acquiring an education raises the hope for happiness. 
 
Polovtsy, .bo-olo-ob.-.tsi,
.bo     ebo     eboluzionatu                   to develop, process
olo     olo      olo                                  oats
ob.     oba     oba                                 better
.tsi     atsi      atximurkari                    pincher, roller
 
You process the oats better in a roller. 
 
Prokopchuk, .p.-.ro-oko-op.-.txu-uk.,
.p.      opo            oporrak                       vacation
.ro     oro             oroitu                          to remember
oko    oko            okolu                           stable
op.     opa            opa izan                    to long for
.txu   atxu             atxuri                          newborn lamb
uk.     uki             ukitu                            to touch
 
Remember the stable on our vacation where you longed to touch the newborn lamb? 
 
Ranogajek, .ra-ano-oga-aje-ek.,
.ra      ara             arrapatur mozkorra to get drunk
ano    ano             ano                              wine
oga    oga             ogasun                        homemade
aje     aie             aiene                           grief, suffering
ek.     eka             ekarrarazi                 to cause
 
Getting drunk on home-made wine causes grief. 
 
Rasputin, .ra-as.-.pu-uti-in.,
.ra      ara             arakintza                   assacre
as.     asa             asarrekeria                 shocking
.pu     apu             apurtzaile                  destructive
uti      uti              utikan                          go away, get out!
in.      ino             inola                            in any way possible
 
A shocking and destructive massacre! Get out in any way possible. 
 
Razin, .ra-azi-in.,
.ra     ira                      iraultzatu                          to revolt
azi     azi                     azitoki                               birthplace
in.     ine                     inertzia                              downtrodden
 
Revolt for our downtrodden birthplace. 
 
Shatalin, xa-ata-ali-in.
xa      xa               xalo                             open/frank
ata     ata              atalgabeko                                   uncomplicated
ali      ali              alizan                          capable
in.      inu             inuritze                      inspiring
 
"Uncomplicated, capable and inspiring".
 
Slavoj Zizek,  .s.-.la-abo-oi
.s.      osa             osatu                           to unite
.la      ala             alafede                        I swear
abo    abo            abotskatu                  to proclaim
oi       oi               oinlegedi                   constitution
 
"I swear to unite us and proclaim the constitution."
 
.zi-ize-ek.
.zi      ezi              eziketa                         education
ize     ize              izendu                         famous
ek.     eka             ekarri                          to bring
 
"Famous for bringing education."
            
Skorepa, .s.-.ko-ore-epa,
.s.      asa             asagotu                       to go away
.ko     ako             akorduan euki            to remember
ore     ore             oren                             hour
epa    epa             epaialdi                      trial
 
If you go away, remember the hour of the trial. 
 
Slutskaya, .s.-.lu-uts.-.ka-aia,
.s.      asa             asaldagarri                 shocking
.lu      alu             alukeria                     repulsive action
uts.   utsi              utziezin                      unavoidable
.ka     ika             ikara                            terror, horror
aia     aia             aiaia                            grief, suffering
 
The shockingly repulsive action caused unavoidable horror and suffering. 
 
Stalin, .sta-ali-in.,
.sta   asta             astapotro                   brutish, in a brutish way
ali      ali              alienatu                    to kill a person
in.      ino             inola                            in any way possible
 
In a brutish way he kills people any way possible. 
 
Tarasof, .ta-ara-aso-ob.,
.ta      ita              itxaro                          to hope for
ara     ara             araberatasun              agreement
aso    azo             -azo                             to bring about
ob.     oba            obakuntza                  improvement
 
We hope for agreement to bring about improvement.
 
Volnitza, .bo-ol.-.ni-itza,
.bo     abo     aboskatu                          to proclaim
ol.     ola       oleazio                             destiny
.ni     eni       eni                                   to me, us 
itza    itza      izaldun                             honorable
 
Proclaim an honorable destiny for us. 
 
Vsevolod and Mikhalko (brothers), .b.-.se-ebo-olo-od.  .mi-ik.-.ha-al.-.ko,
.b.     oba     obakuntza                            improvement
.se     ase     aseguratu                             to insure
ebo     ebo     eboluzionatu                       the develop, produce
olo     olo     olo                                       oats
od.     odi     odi                                       tube, drum, rolled
 
The improvement insured the production of rolled oats. 
 
.mi     ami     amilura                               falling water
ik.      ika     ikaserazi                               to teach
.ha     aha     ahalizan                               to make possible
al.      ale      aleketa                                 abundance of grain
.ko     eko     ekoiztu                                 to produce, to process
 
He teaches how falling water makes it possible to process grain in abundance. 
 
          The translations of these names tell a very different story from that in the history books. 
 
Yaroslav the Wise, .ja-aro-os.-.la-abe,
.ja      oja     oian                                           forest
aro     aro     arroztu                                       to exile
os.     osa     osatu                                          to unify, to unite
.la      ala     alafede                                        I swear to
ab.     abe     aberkide                                     fellow countrymen, patriots
 
The forest exile swore to unify the patriots. 
 
From the name of her grandson, Monomakh, it appears that Yaroslav was a wise tribal mother.The true meaning of 
Slav, .s.-.la-av., osa-ala-abe is here revealed.  It has nothing to do with slavery, instead it means:
 
 "I swear to unite my fellow countrymen".
 
Zadaprushki, .za-ada-ap.-.ru-uxki,
.za     aza             azaluts                                 insincere
ada    ada             adarra sartu                         to deceive
ap.     ape             apeta                                    tendency
.ru      eru             errukigabe                           cruel, pitiless
uxki  uxki             uxkia miazkatzera                get lost!
 
(You are) insincere and deceiving (and have) a tendency to be cruel; Get lost! (what a name!) 
 
Zaporogian, .za-apo-oro-ogi-an.,
.za     oza     ozar                                        arrogant
apo     apo     apokeria                                 insult
oro     oro     orobatu                                   to unify
ogi      ogi     ogipuska                                 easygoing
an.     ana     anaitasun                                brotherhood
 
Arrogant insults united the easygoing brotherhood. 
 

 

SOME SLAVIC GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES

 

Chernobil, txer.-.no-obi-il.
txe     txerri          txerrizain                  swineherd
.no     ino             inor                             no-one
obi     obi             obi                               grave
il.      ile              iletu                             to mourn
 
No-one mourned at the grave of the swineherd. 
 
Dniepr, d.n-ie.p-.r
d.n        don         donetsi                      to bless, the blessed one
ie.p.     ihesp       ihespide                     means of escape
.r          ur            ur                                water
 
The blessed one's means of escape was by water. 
 
          (Probably referring to the Priestess Medea who escaped with Jason up the 
Dniepr river after taking the golden fleece from King Aietus. See "The Voyage of 
Argo" by Apollonius of Rhodes). 
 
Donetz, 
donetz                  donetzi                        to sanctify
 
The sanctified one. 
 
Irkutsk, ir.-.ku-utsik,
ir.      iri              iri                                city
.ku     iku             ikustatu                     to visit
utsik   utsik          utsik                            deserted
 
I visited the deserted city. 
 
Kamchatka, .ka-am.-.txa-at.-.ka,
.ka     ika             ikaragarri                 frightening
am.    amo            amorro                        fury
.txa    otxa            otxoa                           wolf
at.      ate              aterbegabe                                   unprotected, out in the open
.ka     eka             ekantze                       to get used to.
 
Out in the open, the frightening fury of the wolves takes getting used to. 
 
Kiev, .ki-eb.,
.ki      oki             okitu                            totally, completely
eb.     eba             ebanjeliotu                  to evangelize
 
Completely evangelized. 
 
Okhotsk, ok.-.ho-otsk
ok.       oka           okaztagarri                       disgusting
.ho       aho           ahozagarri                                         astonishing
otsk   otsok          otsokeria                          brutality
 
Astonishingly disgusting brutality. 
 
Taymyr, tai.-.mi-ir.,
tai.    taiu             taiuera                      size,  appearance
.mi     umi            umildu                        to humble
ir.      ira              iraganaldi                  migration, migrating herd
 
The size of the migrating herd is humbling. 
 
Vladivostok, .b.-.la-adi bo-osto-ok.,
.b.      aba             abaroan egon              to take refuge
.la      ala             alabearreko                necessary
adi     adi             adi                               watch out!
bo      bo              bortxakeria                 violence
osto  osto             ostosketa                   rolling of the thunder
ok.     oki             okildu                          to be frightened
 
Watch out! It's necessary to take refuge. The violence of the thunder is frightening. 
 

 

WHO MADE UP THESE NAMES?

 

          The people themselves could not have invented these names. The system of agglutination is exactly the same as was used by the Benedictines and their grammarians in western Europe. It is well known that there was close cooperation between the eastern and western Christian churches in the 10th and 11th centuries, especially between the Pannonhalma Benedictines in Hungary and the monks from the Tyniec monastery in Poland and Kiev. The Kiev monastery of Pesherska Lavra was established in 1040, a few decades after these other two monasteries and the required linguists were apparently sent from there to Kiev to train the monks in the use of the Basque Language

 

Pesherska Lavra
.pe - es. - .he - er. - .ska    .la - ab. - .ra
ope - esi - ihe - era - aska     ila - abe - era
opetsi - eziketa - ihesleku - eraspen - askamen     ilarteko - abegion - erantzun
to offer - education - shelter - devotion - pardon     lifetime - hospitality - to fulfill
"We offer education, shelter, devotion and pardon.   
Ours is a lifetime of hospitality and fulfillment."  

 

          The early cooperation is still remembered because in the summer of 1996 the head of the Russian Christian church planned to attend, with the Roman Catholic Pope, the 1000-year celebrations at Pannonhalma. Unfortunately, illness prevented the historic meeting from happening. There was probably no longer a source of educated Saharan/Basque speakers in Russia, so either these specialists were recruited in Liguria (northern Italy) and Euskadi (northern Spain) and sent east, or the linguists worked from Basque dictionaries, without being able to speak the language. Possibly some of both happened.

 

     Bibliography