FILE:  <nearct-2.key.htm>                                                                                                                                                          [Navigate to MAIN MENU]

[For teaching purposes only; do not review, quote or abstract]

 

THIS SECTION UNDER REVISION 2014

 

                                                    Keys to the Families & Subfamilies

                                                    of Canadian Chalcidoidea

                                                            (derived fr. Yoshimoto, 1984 by E. F. Legner)

                                                                                                     (Email Contacts)

 

                    [This key is in a form commonly used in North America.    If the statement is true, proceed

                            to the designated couplet, whereas if it is false, go to "b" portion of the couplet].

 

 

[Please refer to <Guide> for illustrations (Powerful connections use <Guide-2>)]

 

 

1a.    Petiole with 2 segments (Fig. A); fore wings with a slender stalk and entirely reticulate (Figs. B-C); antennal

sockets close to each other at level of dorsal eye margins ...............................................Mymarommatidae

 

1b.    Petiole with 1 segment, or abdomen broadly attached; fore wings if having a slender stalk then not reticulate

(Fig. A); antennal sockets distinctly separated from each other, if close to each other then ventrad to dorsal

eye margins....................................................................................................................................................2

 

2a.    Antennal sockets much nearer inner orbits of eyes than to each other except in subfamily Eubroncinae (Fig.

A); frons with transverse suture just above antennal sockets, with supra-orbital suture extending from either

end of this along inner orbits of eyes (Fig. A); venation greatly reduced, with marginal vein short and

stigmal vein rudimentary; stigmal vein usually not extending beyond middle of wing length (Figs. B-C)

.....................................................................................................................................................Mymaridae

 

2b.    Antennal sockets not nearer to inner orbits of eyes than to each other; frons without transverse suture, though

possibly with frontal fork; venation usually more developed with distinct stigmal and postmarginal veins,

stigmal vein usually extending beyond middle of wing length ....................................................................3

 

3a.    Tarsi with 3 segments; body stocky, 0.5-1.0 mm.; post marginal vein absent (Fig. A); antennal funicle with --2

segments (Fig. A); setae of fore wing arranged in longitudinal rows in several species.Trichogrammatidae

 

3b.    Tarsi with 4-5 segments; body slender, or if stocky then body 1-5 mm; postmarginal vein rudimentary, slightly

acute or elongated (Figs. A-E); antennal funicle with 0-7 segments; setae of fore wing rarely arranged in

longitudinal rows.............................................................................................................................................4

 

4a.    Hind coxa huge, flat, plate-like (Fig. A); hind tibia often with rhomboidal pattern of setae (Fig. A) ..................

.....................................................................................................................Eulophidae  & Elasmidae  (part)

 

4b.    Hind coxa typical or huge but not flattened (Figs. A-C); hind tibia lacks rhomboidal pattern of setae ...............

.........................................................................................................................................................................5

 


5a.    Gaster broadly attached, with basal segment as wide as propodeum (Fig. A); propodeum with triangular

median area; scutellum transversely ribbon-like ......................................................................Signiphoridae

 

5b.    Gaster more narrowly attached, at most with basal segment at least slightly narrower than propodeum (Fig. A),

or petiolate; propodeum without triangular median area; scutellum rarely transversely ribbon-like

........................................................................................................................................................................6

 

6a.    Hind tarsus with 4 segments................................................................................................................................7

 

6b.    Hind tarsus with 5 segments..............................................................................................................................10

 

7a.    Winged forms with marginal vein shorter than broad or indistinct (Fig A-B); mesoscutum evenly convex,

without notauli (= paired longitudinal furrows) (Fig. ); mid coxae inserted at or slightly in front of middle

of mesepisternum (Fig. D) .................................................................................................Encyrtidae  (part)

 

7b.    Winged forms with marginal vein distinctly longer than broad (Fig A-B); mesoscutum with incomplete to

complete notauli; mid coxae inserted at or near hind end of mesepisternum .................................................8

 

8a.    Gaster sessile, with base of gaster almost as broad as propodeum; fore wing with stigmal and postmarginal

veins reduced, indistinct (Fig. A); body not metallic; scutellum lacks submedian grooves ............................

..........................................................................................................................................Aphelinidae  (part)

 

8b.    Gaster petiolate (Figs. A-C); fore wing with stigmal and postmarginal veins distinctly developed; body usually

partly metallic; scutellum usually with submedian grooves (Fig. D)..............................................................9

 

9a.    Antenna with 11-12 segments, with 6 funicle segments; propodeum with at least several hairs on median

1/3rd, these inclined toward midline (Fig. A) ..............................................................Tetracampidae  (part)

 

9b.    Antenna with at most 10 distinct segments and 2-4 funicle segments (Figs. A-B); propodeum with median

1/3rd not hairy........................................................................................................Elasmidae  & Eulophidae

 

10a.    Hind femur with serrated ventral edge (Fig. A), or with one or more distinct teeth (Fig. B), usually decidedly

swollen (Figs. B-D)......................................................................................................................................11

 

10b.    Hind femur without serrations or teeth, not swollen.......................................................................................14

 

11a.    Gaster striped yellow and black with dense thimble-like punctations; fore wing longitudinally folded as in

vespoid wasp; female with ovipositor recurved over gaster dorsum (Fig. A)............................Leucospidae

 

11b.    Gaster not striped yellow and black and finely sculptured, except for thimblelike punctations in Ormyridae;

fore wing not folded longitudinally; female ovipositor protrudes slightly from gaster or at least is not

recurved over gaster......................................................................................................................................12

 


12a.    Prepectus invisible or represented by small, inconspicuous plate near tegula (Fig. A); body not metallic,

usually black or with white, yellow, or red markings; thorax coarsely sculptured......................Chalcididae

 

12b.    Prepectus large and conspicuous (Fig. A); body usually metallic; thorax usually finely sculptured...............13

 

13a.    Inner margins of eyes diverge decidedly ventrally; antennae inserted below ventral margins of eyes (Figs. A-

B)...................................................................................................................................Pteromalidae  (part)

 

13b.    Inner margins of eyes at most only slightly diverging ventrally; antennae inserted at least slightly above

ventral margins of eyes (Fig. A).........................................................................................Torymidae  (part)

 

14a.    Mesopleuron greatly enlarged and swollen (Figs. A-B); mid tibial spur large and thickened (Fig. B); basal

segments of mid tarsus of females thickened, and at least 1st segment with 2 rows of short, stout ventral

spines (Fig. B)...............................................................................................................................................15

 

14b.    Mesopleuron not enlarged and swollen (Fig. A); mid tibial spur usually not thickened and without ventral

spines (Fig. B); basal segments of mid tarsus of female not thickened, and segments without spines

above............................................................................................................................................................16

 

15a.    Mid coxae inserted at about middle of mesopleuron; gaster straight (in dried specimens) and usually short

and stocky; mesonotum usually evenly convex (Fig. A), though rarely with linear notauli; winged forms

with marginal vein usually short or obsolete (Figs. B-C)...................................................Encyrtidae  (part)

 

15b.    Mid coxae inserted at or behind posterior end of mesopleuron (Figs. A-B); gaster usually elongated, typically

U-shaped in dried specimens; mesonotum broadly depressed at least posteriorly (Fig. C); winged forms

with marginal vein longer (much longer than stigmal vein)..............................................Eupelmidae  (part)

 

16a.    Prepectus fused with and lying in same plane as lateral part of pronotum; thorax usually high and short in

lateral view (Figs. A-B); gaster usually with tergites 1 & 2 somewhat concealing posterior ones..............17

 

16b.    Prepectus not fused with and not lying in same plane as lateral part of pronotum; thorax usually not high and

short in lateral view; gaster usually with more than 2 visible tergites.........................................................18

 

17a.    Pronotum clearly visible in dorsal view, though narrow (Fig. A); mandibles not sickle-shaped; petiole usually

short, transverse, at most 2X as wide as long; gaster typically triangular (Fig. A) ........ Pteromalidae  (part)

 

17b.    Pronotum not visible in dorsal view, hidden by decidedly convex mesoscutum (Fig. A); mandibles sickle-

shaped (Fig. B); petiole longer than broad, often very much so; gaster typically shaped like a rudder (Fig.

C)................................................................................................................................................Eucharitidae

 


18a.    Body not metallic; pronotum ca. 1/2 as long as mesonotum (Figs. A-C), or longer; thorax usually with

distinct thimble-like punctation (Fig. B), or if finely sculptured, then antennae with 4-6 funicle

segments......................................................................................................................................................19

 

18b.    Body at least partially metallic; pronotum definitely less than 1/2 length of mesonotum (Figs. A-C); thorax

finely sculptured and antennae with 7-9 funicled segments .......................................................................20

 

19a.    Body usually with obvious thimblelike punctation (Fig. A), but if finely sculptured, then antennae inserted

above ventral margin of eyes (Fig. B); face without interantennal crest; marginal vein of fore wing at most

3X length of stigmal vein (Fig. C); propodeum often flattened medially or with medial longitudinal

channel; genae sometimes with sharp edges (Fig. D)...............................................................Eurytomidae

 

19b.    Body finely sculptured and antennae inserted at or below ventral margin of eyes; face with intrantennal crest;

marginal vein of fore wing 4X or more as long as stigmal vein (Fig. A); propodeum without medial

longitudinal channel, sometimes evenly convex; genae rounded..................Pteromalidae  (part)  (for

subfamilies, go to 25)

 

20a.    Gaster with transverse rows of pits at least on middle segments (Fig. A); females with ovipositor only slightly

exserted from apex of gaster (Fig. A) ...........................................................................................Ormyridae

 

20b.    Gaster smooth, without transverse rows or pits; female ovipositor sometimes projects greatly from gaster

apex..............................................................................................................................................................21

 

21a.    Gaster sessile, with petiole not visible and with base of gaster almost as broad as propodeum (Fig. A); body

not metallic; antenna (excluding ringlike anelli) with at most 8 segments; winged forms with stigmal and

postmarginal veins reduced, indistinct (Fig. A); minute insects, usually 1.0 mm. or less in length

...........................................................................................................................................Aphelinidae  (part)

 

21b.    Gaster constricted at junction with propodeum (Fig. A), petiole present, though possibly wider than long;

body often at least partially metallic; antenna (excluding ringlike anelli) with more than 8 segments;

winged forms with stigmal and postmarginal veins developed (Fig. B-C); insects usually much longer than

1.0 mm ........................................................................................................................................................22

 

22a.    Males only:  mid tibial spur noticeably longer than hind tibial spurs (Fig. A) ................... Eupelmidae  (part)

 

22b.    Males & females:  mid tibial spur shorter or at most only slightly longer than inner hind tibial spur (Fig.

A).................................................................................................................................................................23

 

23a.    Hind coxa large, elongated, 2/3rds or more as long as femur (Fig. A), in cross section triangular, with dorsal

edge angular; female ovipositor much exserted from gaster apex (Fig. A), possibly longer than body;

mesepimeron often with sinuate posterior margin (Fig. A); fore wing sometimes with knob-like stigma

(Fig. B) ...............................................................................................................................Torymidae  (part)

 


23b.    Hind coxa smaller, in cross section somewhat circular, with dorsal edge rounded; female with ovipositor only

slightly exserted from abdomen apex; mesepimeron with posterior edge straight or evenly curved; fore

wing without knob-like stigma ....................................................................................................................24

 

24a.    Propodeum usually pilose, with median 1/3rd having several hairs that converge toward midline (Fig. A);

fore tibial spur straight..................................................................................................Tetracampidae  (part)

 

24b.    Propodeum with at least median 1/3rd bare (Fig. A); fore tibial spur usually strongly curved (Fig. B) .

.............................................................................................Pteromalidae  (part)  (for subfamilies, go to 25)

 

25a.    Prepectus firmly fused with pronotum (Fig. A); gaster convex, in form of high triangle (Fig. B)

.........................................................................................Perilampidae  [Yoshimoto, 1984 considered this

Perilampinae, as subfamily of Pteromalidae].

 

25b.    Prepectus not fused with pronotum; gaster not in form of high triangle.........................................................26

 

26a.    Antenna attached close to clypeus (Fig. A), with 8-10 segments, none being ringlike; body usually not

metallic........................................................................................................................................................27

 

26b.    Antenna attached high above clypeus (Figs. A-C), or, if antenna attached close to clypeus, then hind femur

enlarged with ventral edge serrate; antenna with 11-13 segments (except in Eunotinae = 6-10 segments)

and with 0-3 ringlike segments; body usually metallic ..............................................................................28

 

27a.    Body entirely black (Fig. A); head, pronotum, and mesoscutum with conspicuous piliferous punctures

................................................................................................................................................(Spalangiinae)

 

27b.    Body entirely or partly yellowish; body lacking piliferous punctures..................................(Cerocephalinae)

 

28a.    Fore wing with radial cell fully or partly developed (Fig. A); hind wing without distinct stigma; vein

sometimes translucent............................................................................................(Brachyscelidiphaginae)

 

28b.    Fore and hind wings without previous combination of characters.................................................................29

 

29a.    Propodeal spiracles located about midway between anterior and posterior angles of propodeum (Fig. A);

antennae inserted at each side of clypeus, near mouth edge ...........................................................(Ceinae)

 

29b.    Propodeal spiracles closer to anterior end of propodeum; antennae inserted far from edge of mouth...........30

 

30a.    Vertex with 6-12 large conspicuous bristles (Fig. A); scutellum with 4 long bristles, usually longitudinally

marked with parallel fine impressed lines.....................................................................................(Diparinae)

 


30b.    Vertex without large conspicuous bristles; scutellum with 4 or more bristles, usually not longitudinally

marked with parallel fine impressed lines...................................................................................................31

 

31a.    Head crescent-shaped; first tergite large, quadrate, extends over more than 1/2 of gaster; anterior margin of

costal cell decidedly curved, meeting base of marginal vein, thus appearing as incised (Fig. A); scutellum

large, usually extends posteriorly beyond gaster base (Fig. A)....................................................(Eunotinae)

 

31b.    Head not crescent-shaped; first tergite not large and quadrate, extending over less than 1/2 of gaster; anterior

margin of costal cell not very curved and without incision; scutellum normal, does not extend beyond

gaster base...................................................................................................................................................32

 

32a.    Notauli of mesoscutum complete (Fig A), meeting transcutal suture.............................................................33

 

32b.    Notauli of mesoscutum incomplete, not reaching transcutal suture (Fig. A)..................................................44

 

33a.    Funicle of antenna with 7 segments.................................................................................................................34

 

33b.    Funicle of antenna with 5-6 segments.............................................................................................................36

 

34a.    Mid tarsus of female with 4 segments; fore and hind tarsi with 5 segments; face of male and female with

longitudinal impressed line mesad of malar groove, extending from eye to mouth edge (Fig. A)       ..............................................................................................................................................(Macromesinae)

 

34b.    Mid tarsus of both sexes with 5 segments; face without longitudinal impressed line ...................................(11)

 

35a.    Head and thorax yellow and black, not metallic; head projects forward; postmarginal vein longer than stigmal

vein.............................................................................................................................(Miscogastrinae)  (part)

 

35b.    Head and thorax metallic; head not projecting forward; postmarginal vein short or not developed

........................................................................................................................................(Eutrichosomatinae)

 

36a.    Parastigma of fore wing similar in thickness to submarginal vein (Fig. A); antennae inserted below to well

below ventral eye margin (Fig. B)................................................................................................(Asaphinae)

 

36b.    Parastigma of fore wing distinctly different in thickness from submarginal vein (Fig. A); antennae usually

inserted at or above ventral margin of eye...................................................................................................37

 

37a.    Antennae with 13 segments, often with 2 ringlike segments and 6 funicle segments (Fig. A), or 3 ringlike

segments and 5 funicle segments.................................................................................................................39

 

37b.    Antennae with 10-12 segments, often with 2 ringlike segments and 5 funicle segments, without ringlike

segments and with 6 funicle segments, or with 3-4 ringlike segments and 3 funicle segments ..................38

 


38a.    Hind femora greatly swollen, with ventral serration or dentate; eyes greatly divergent ventrally; antennae

inserted below ventral eye margin.......................................................................................(Chalcedectinae)

 

38b.    Hind femora normal, without ventral serration or dentate; eyes not divergent ventrally; antennae inserted

above ventral eye margin..........................................................................................(Miscogastrinae)  (part)

 

39a.    Antennae inserted above middle of face; antennal sockets closer to anterior ocellus than to clypeus; head

subglobose.............................................................................................................................(Panstenoninae)

 

39b.    Antennae inserted below middle of face; sockets halfway between frontal ocellus and anterior clypeus

margin; head not subglobose........................................................................................................................40

 

40a.    Marginal vein of fore wing more than 3.5-6X as long as stigmal vein (Fig. A); gaster petiole definitely

sculptured..........................................................................................................................(Chrysolampinae)

 

40b.    Marginal vein of fore wing at most 3X as long as stigmal vein; petiole, if present, with surface moderately

sculptured to smooth.....................................................................................................................................41

 

41a.    Fore wing with postmarginal vein longer than marginal vein.........................................................................42

 

41b.    Fore wing with postmarginal vein not longer than marginal vein...................................................................43

 

42a.    Prepectus narrow laterally................................................................................................(Pteromalinae)  (part)

 

42b.    Prepectus broad laterally (Fig. A).................................................................................(Miscogastrinae)  (part)

 

43a.    Gaster petiolate..............................................................................................................(Miscogastrinae)  (part)

 

43b.    Gaster sessile or subsessile...............................................................................................(Pteromalinae)  (part)

 

44a.    Head with crests on face and frons (Fig. A); inner orbits of eyes straight; clypeus with conspicuous radiating

striae covering face and genae...................................................................................................(Cratominae)

 

44b.    Head without crests on face and frons; inner orbits of eyes not straight; clypeus without conspicuous

radiating striae..............................................................................................................................................45

 

45a.    Antennae with 10-12 segments........................................................................................................................46

 

45b.    Antennae with 13 segments.............................................................................................................................47

 

46a.    Antennae inserted at or below level of ventral eye margin, with or without ringlike segments; club with 2-3

segments, not acutely pointed....................................................................................(Miscogastrinae)  (part)

 

46b.    Antennae inserted above level of ventral eye margin, with 2-3 ringlike segments; club solid or with indistinct

segments, acutely pointed.............................................................................................(Pteromalinae)  (part)

 


47a.    Hind tibia with 2 apical spurs; axillae produced forward beyond scutellar base (Fig.  A) ...............................

...............................................................................................................................................(Colotrechinae)

 

47b.    Hind tibia with single apical spur; axillae rarely produced forward beyond scutellar base (Fig. A)...............24

 

48a.    Antennae with 1 ringlike segment; body, including eyes, wings, and gaster, densely hairy; pronotum as long

as broad, narrower than mesoscutum (Fig. A) ...........................................................................Cleonyminae

 

48b.    Antennae with 2-3 ringlike segments; body not densely hairy; pronotum broader than long, narrower than or

as broad as mesoscutum (Fig. A)...............................................................................................Pteromalinae

 

 

REFERENCES:

 

Yoshimoto, C. M.  1984.  The Insects and Arachnids of Canada, Part 12.  The Families and Subfamilies of Canadian

     Chalcidoid Wasps.  Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea.  Biosys. Res. Ins., Res. Br. Canada, Publ. 1760.  149 p.