FILE: <insect2.key.htm> Bibliography Bibliography #2 Terminology [Navigate to MAIN MENU ]

 

For educational purposes only; do not review, quote or abstract:--

A Public Service on the basics of Insect Identification

 

 

GUIDE TO INSECT ORDERS & FAMILIES, WITH EMPHASIS ON

PARASITOIDS & PREDATORS

 

E. F. Legner, University of California, Riverside

(Email Contacts)

This key is in a form commonly used in North America. If the statement is true, proceed to the designated couplet, whereas if it is false, go to the "b" portion of the couplet. Numbers in parentheses refer to the previous couplet or couplets read. Details on families may be found in <Principal Groups>. See MORPHOLOGY to learn about insect structure. [For less powerful connections, please try <insect1.htm> ] -- The Class Entognatha is included herein Citations

 

[NOTE: Scan to bottom of the file before using key in order to activate all the links]

 

(For References, please refer to <Biology References> & <General References> [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library]

 

Navigate directly to: Coleoptera Diptera Hemiptera Lepidoptera Neuroptera

 

Strepsiptera Hymenoptera (Chalcidoidea Pteromalidae Subfamiliea)

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2

1a. Adults have well-developed wings

 

28

1b. Adults wingless or with wings vestigial or rudimentary (nymphs, larvae & some adults)

 

3

2a (1a). Wings membranous, not hardened or leathery

 

24

2b. Front wings hardened or leathery, at least at base (Figs.A-E); hind wings, if present, usually membranous . . . A

 

4

3a (3a). Only 1 pair of wings

 

10

3b. Two pairs of wings

 

---

4a (3a). Body shaped like a grasshopper; pronotum ( = dorsal plate or sclerite of prothorax) extends back over abdomen and is pointed apically; hind legs enlarged (Figs.A-F) [pygmy grasshoppers... A.. Orthoptera

 

5

4b. Body not shaped like a grasshopper; pronotum not as previous; hind legs not so enlarged.

 

217

5a (4b). Antennae with at least 1 segment bearing along lateral process; front wings minute, hind wings like a fan (Figs.A-B); minute insects [male twisted-winged parasitoids) A Strepsiptera

 

6

5b. Does not fit previous description exactly

7

6a (5b). Abdomen with 1-3 thread-like or bristle-like caudal (= tail) filaments; mouthparts vestigia

 

8

6b. Abdomen without thread-like or bristle-like caudal filaments; mouthparts almost always developed, mandibulate (= chewing) or for sucking

 

---

7a (6a). Antennae long and conspicuous; abdomen terminates in one long style (rarely 2); wings with a single forked vein (Fig.A); halteres (= knobbed modified hind wings) present and usually terminating in a hooklike bristle; minute insects, usually <5 mm in length [male scale insects] ...... A.,,,,,,..Homoptera

 

---

7b. Antennae short, bristle-like, and inconspicuous; abdomen with 2-3 thread-like caudal filaments; wings with numerous veins and cells; halteres absent; usually >5 mm in length (Fig. A) [mayflies] ......Ephemeroptera

 

88

8a (6b). Tarsi almost always with 5 segments; mouthparts for sucking; hind wings knob-like, reduced to halteres (Figs.A-E); body lightly sclerotized (= hardened) [flies]..... A. .Diptera

 

9

8b. Tarsi with 2-3-segments; mouthparts variable; hind wings reduced or absent, not haltere-like

 

---

9a (8b). Mouthparts mandibulate (Figs.A-E)[psocids]...... A ...Psocoptera (Corrodentia)

 

---

9b. Mouthparts for sucking (Figs.A-C) [some planthoppers & leafhoppers] .........Homoptera

 

227

10a (3b). Wings mostly or entirely covered with scales (Fig. A); mouthparts usually in the form of a coiled proboscis (Fig.B); antennae with many segments (Figs.C-G) [butterflies & moths] .......A. ..... Lepidoptera

 

11

10b. Wings not covered with scales; mouthparts not a coiled proboscis, antennae variable

 

---

11a (10b). Wings long and narrow, veinless or with only 1-2 veins, and fringed with long hairs (Fig.A); tarsi with 1-2 segments, the last segment swollen; minute insects, usually <5 mm in length (Figs.A-D) [thrips]....... A..........Thysanoptera

 

12

11b. Wings not as previously described , or if wings are somewhat linear, then the tarsi have more than 2 segments

 

---

12a (11b). Front wings relatively large and usually triangular; hind wings small and usually rounded, the wings at rest held together above the body; wings usually with many veins and cells; antennae short, bristle-like, and inconspicuous; abdomen with 2-3 thread-like caudal filaments (Fig.A); delicate, soft-bodied insects (Fig.B) [mayflies]... A........ Ephemeroptera

 

13

12b. Not as previously described

 

14

13a (12b). Tarsi with 5 segments

 

17

13b. Tarsi with 4 or less segments

 

---

14a (13a). Front wings obviously hairy; mouthparts usually very much reduced except for the palps; antennae usually as long as body or longer; somewhat soft-bodied insects (Figs.A-F) [caddis flies.... A.......Trichoptera

 

15

14b. Front wings not hairy, at the most with microscopic hairs; mandibles well developed; antennae shorter than body

 

118

15a (14b). Body quite hard, wasplike insects; clypeus not elongated; the abdomen often constricted at base, 1st abdominal segment fused to thorax; fore wings distinctly larger than hind wings and with fewer veins; front wings with 20 or less cells (Figs.A-F)[sawflies, bees and wasps]....... A.........Hymenoptera

 

16

15b. Body soft, not wasplike, the abdomen not constricted at base; hind wings about the same size as front wings and usually with about as many veins; front wings frequently with more than 20 cells

 

194

16a (15b). Costal area of front wings (= area just behind anterior margin) nearly always with numerous cross veins per pair of longitudinal veins (Fig.A), or if not (Fig.B) then hind wings shorter than front wings; mouthparts not prolonged ventrally into a beak (Figs.C-G) [lacewings, dobsonflies, antlions] ... A.........Neuroptera

 

---

16b. Costal area of front wings with not more than 2-3 cross veins per pair of longitudinal veins (Fig.A); mouthparts prolonged ventrally to form a beak-like process (Figs.B-D [scorpionflies]..........Mecoptera

---

17a (13b). Hind wings as long as front wings and of the same shape or wider at base, the wings at rest held above the body or extended out (never held flat over abdomen); wings with many veins and cells; antennae short, bristle-like, and inconspicuous; abdomen long and slender (Figs.A-B); tarsi with 3 segments; length 20-85 mm [dragonflies, damselflies) A ....Odonata

 

18

17b. Not as previously described

 

19

18a (17b). Mouthparts for sucking

 

20

18b. Mouthparts mandibulate (= chewing)

 

140

19a (18a). Beak arises from front part of head (Figs.A-E) [gnat bugs..Hemiptera /Heteroptera ...A

 

---

19b. Beak arises from hind part of head (Fig.A) [cicadas, some hoppers, aphids, some psyllids and whiteflies] ...Homoptera

 

---

20a (18b). Tarsi with 4 segments; front and hind wings similar in size, shape and venation (Figs.A-E) cerci tiny or absent [termites]..... A.......Isoptera

 

21

20b. Tarsi with 3 or less segments; hind wings usually shorter than front wings; cerci either present or absent

 

---

21a (20b). Hind wings with anal area nearly always enlarged and forming a lobe, which is \ folded like a fan at rest; venation varying from normal to very dense, the front wings usually with several cross veins between Cu-1 and M and between Cu-1 and Cu-2 (Fig. A); cerci present and often fairly long; mostly 10 mm or more in length; nymphs aquatic, and adults usually near water (Figs.A-F) [stoneflies] .... A...... Plecoptera

 

22

21b. Hind wings without an enlarged anal area and not folded at rest; venation normal or reduced, with no extra cross veins; short cerci present or absent; mostly 10 mm in length or less; nymphs not aquatic and adults not regularly near water

---

22a (21b). Tarsi with 3 segments, basal segment of front tarsi enlarged A ....(Figs.A-B) [webspinners].Embioptera

 

23

22b. Tarsi with 2-3 segments, basal segment of front tarsi not enlarged

 

---

23a (22b). Cerci present; tarsi with 2 segments; wing venation reduced (Figs.A-D); moniliform (= bead-like) antennae with 9 segments ..... A........ Zoraptera

 

---

23b. Cerci absent; tarsi with 2-3 segments; wing venation not much reduced (Figs.A-D) ;antennae not moniliform, usually long and hairlike, with 13 or more segments ...... Psocoptera (= Corrodentia)

 

25

24a (2b). Mouthparts for sucking, beak elongated and usually segmented (Figs.A-B)...... A

 

26

24b. Mouthparts mandibulate

 

140

25a (24a). Beak arises from front of head (Fig.A); basal portion of fore wing usually thickened and leathery, but membranous at tip, the tips overlapping at rest (Fig.B) A [true bugs] .....Hemiptera / Heteroptera

 

---

25b. Beak arises from hind part of head, often appearing to begin at base of front legs; front wings of uniform texture throughout, the tips not, or only slightly, overlapping at rest [leafhoppers & some psyllids] .......Homoptera

 

---

26a (24b). Abdominal cerci like forceps (Fig.A); front wings short, leaving most of abdomen exposed; tarsi with 3 segments (Fig.A) [earwigs] ..... A........ Dermaptera

 

27

26b. Abdominal cerci not like forceps, or if cerci appear as such, then front wings cover most of abdomen; tarsi variable

 

152

27a (26b). Front wings entirely leathery and without veins and usually meet in a straight line down middle of back; antennae generally with 11 or fewer segments and have diverse shapes (Figs.A-I); hind wings narrow, usually longer than front wings when unfolded, and with few veins (Figs.J-O) [beetles].... A....... Coleoptera

 

---

27b. Front wings with veins and either held like a roof over abdomen or overlapping over abdomen when at rest; antennae generally with >12 segments; hind wings broad, usually shorter than front wings, and with many veins (Fig.A), usually folded like a fan at rest [crickets, grasshoppers, cockroaches and preying mantids].......Orthoptera

 

29

28a (1b). Body usually insect-like, with segmented legs and usually segmented antennae

 

74

28b. Body generally worm-like, body regions (except possibly head) not well differentiated, and segmented thoracic legs absent; antennae present or absent

 

88

29a (28a). Front wings present but rudimentary; hind wings absent or represented by halteres;tarsi almost always with 5 segments [some flies].........Diptera

 

30

29b. Wings entirely absent or with 4 rudimentary wings and no halteres; tarsi variable

 

---

30a (29b). Antennae absent; length 1.5 mm or less (Fig.A); usually occur in soil or leaf litter. A ....... Protura (in Class Entognatha)

 

31

30b. Antennae usually present (sometimes small); size and habitat variable..........

 

32

31a (30b). Ectoparasites of birds, mammals, or honey bees and usually found on the host; body somewhat leathery and usually flattened dorsoventrally or laterally

 

36

31b. Free-living (not ectoparasitic), terrestrial or aquatic

 

33

32a (31a). Tarsi with 5 segments; antennae short and usually concealed in grooves on head; mouthparts for sucking

 

34

32b. Tarsi with fewer than 5 segments; antennae and mouthparts variable

 

---

33a (32a). Body flattened laterally; usually jumping insects, with rather long legs (Fig.A) A [fleas] ......Siphonaptera

 

---

33b. Body flattened dorsoventrally; not jumping insects, legs usually short (Fig.A) [louse flies, bat flies & bee lice].........Diptera

 

---

34a (32b). Antennae decidedly longer than head; tarsi 3-segmented (Fig.A) [bed bugs and A bat bugs] .......Hemiptera / Heteroptera

 

35

34b. Antennae not longer than head; tarsi with 1 segment

 

---

35a (34b). Head as wide as or wider than prothorax; mouthparts mandibulate; parasites of birds (with 2 tarsal claws) and mammals (with 1 small tarsal claw) (Figs.A-D) A [chewing lice] Mallophaga

 

---

35b. Head usually more narrow than prothorax; mouthparts haustellate (= for sucking); parasites of mammals with 1 large tarsal claw (Figs.A-B) [sucking lice] Phthiraptera (= Anoplura)

 

37

36a (31b). Mouthparts for sucking, with a conical or elongated beak enclosing stylets

 

41

36b. Mouthparts mandibulate (sometimes hidden in head), not beaklike

38

37a (36a). Tarsi with 5 segments; maxillary or labial palps ( = segmented processes) present

 

39

37b. Tarsi with 4 or fewer segments; palps small or absent

 

227

38a (37a). Body covered with scales; beak usually in the form of a coiled tube; antennae long and with many segments [wingless moths] .......... Lepidoptera

 

88

38b. Body not covered with scales; beak not coiled; antennae variable, but often short, with 3 or less segments [wingless flies] ............Diptera

 

---

39a (37b). Mouthparts in the form of a cone located basally on ventral side of head; palps present but short; body elongated, usually <5 mm in length; antennae about as long as head and prothorax combined, not bristle-like, and 4-9 segmented; tarsi 1-2 segments, often without claws (Fig.A) [thrips....... A ....... Thysanoptera

 

40

39b. Mouthparts as an elongated segmented beak; palps absent; other characters variable

 

140

40a (39b). Beak arises from front part of head; antennae with 4-5 segments and not bristle-like; tarsi usually with 3 segments; abdomen without cornicles (= dorsal tubular structures on posterior abdomen ) [true bugs]. ... A. Hemiptera / Heteroptera

 

---

40b. Beak arises from rear of head; antennae either with >5 segments (and tarsi with 2 segments) or bristle-like (and tarsi with 3 segments); abdomen often with a pair of cornicles (Fig.A) [aphids, hoppers, etc.]...... Homoptera

 

118

41a (36b). Abdomen very constricted at base; antennae often elbowed; tarsi with 5 segments; bodies hard, ant-like [ants & wingless wasps ........Hymenoptera

 

42

41b. Abdomen not very constricted at base; antennae not elbowed; tarsi variable

 

43

42a (41b). Abdomen with 3 long thread-like caudal filaments and with style-like appendages on some abdominal segments (Fig.A); mouthparts mandibulate, but often somewhat A retracted into head; body almost always covered with scales; terrestrial [bristletails]

 

44

42b. Abdomen with only 2 thread-like caudal filaments or none; if with 3 [mayfly nymphs] then aquatic; other characters variable

 

---

43a (42a). Compound eyes large and usually contiguous; body somewhat cylindrical, with thorax arched; ocelli present; middle and hind coxae often with styli; abdominal styli (= bristlelike processes) on segments 2-9 (Fig.A).... A......Class: Insecta; Subclass Monocondylia: Order: Arachaeognatha......Microcoryphia

 

---

43b. Compound eyes small and widely separated or absent; body somewhat flattened dorsoventrally, thorax not arched; ocelli present or absent; middle and hind coxae without styli; abdominal segments 1-6 (sometimes 7) without styli (Fig.A) [silverfish]........Thysanura

 

45

44a (42b). Aquatic insects, often with tracheal gills (= protruding externally at spiracles)

 

52

44b. Terrestrial insects, without tracheal gills

 

46

45a (44a). Nymphs; compound eyes and usually wing pads present

 

48

45b. Larvae; compound eyes and wing pads absent

 

---

46a (45a). Prehensile labium (= lower lip), folded under head at rest, and when extended much longer than head (Figs.A-G) [dragonfly and damselfly nymphs]...... A.........Odonata

 

.47

46b. Labium normal, not as previously described

 

---

47a (46b). Having 3 caudal filaments; tarsi with 1 claw; gills located on lateral margins of abdominal terga (= dorsal plates or sclerites) and usually leaflike or plate-like A... (Figs.A-C) [mayfly nymphs].... .....Ephemeroptera

 

---

47b. With 2 caudal filaments; tarsi with 2 claws; gills mostly present, somewhat fingerlike, usually located on underside of thorax (Figs.A-D) [stonefly nymphs]..........Plecoptera

 

227

48a (45b). Having 5 pairs of prolegs (= fleshy abdominal legs) on ventral side of abdomen, the prolegs with tiny hooks (crochets) [aquatic caterpillars) ............Lepidoptera

 

49

48b. Abdominal segments without prolegs or with only one terminal pair

 

194

49a (48b). Mouthparts with 2 slender and elongated structures, longer than head; antennae long and slender, or least 1/3rd as long as body; tarsi with 1 claw (Fig.A); live in freshwater sponges [Sisyridae larvae]... A................. Neuroptera

 

50

49b. Mouthparts, and usually also antennae, short and not as described previously

 

194

50a (49b). Tarsi with 2 claws; abdomen with long slender lateral processes and a long slender terminal process (Figs A & B) [Sialidae] or with slender lateral processes and a pair of hooklike structures apically (Fig. C.) [Corydalidae, fishfly and alderfly larvae ...... A.........Neuroptera

 

51

50b. Tarsi with 1-2 claws; if with 2, then abdomen not as described previously

 

---

51a (50b). Abdomen with a pair of hooks, usually on anal prolegs, at posterior end and without long lateral processes (but at times with finger-like gills); tarsi with 1 claw; usually living in cases (Figs.A-F) [caddisfly larvae]..... A........Trichoptera

 

152

51b. Abdomen with 4 hooks at posterior end or none, and with or without long lateral processes; tarsi with 1-2 claws (Fig.A); not living in cases [beetle larvae].......... Coleoptera

 

53

52a (44b). Mouthparts usually withdrawn into head and not obvious; abdomen with stylelike appendages on some segments or with a forked appendage near end of abdomen; usually <7 mm long

 

54

52b. Mouthparts usually distinct, mandibulate or haustellate (= for sucking); abdomen without appendages as described previously; size variable

 

---

53a (52a). Antennae long, with many segments; abdomen with at least 9 segments and with stylelike appendages on ventral side of some segments; without a forked appendage near end of abdomen, but with well developed cerci (Figs.A-C) ... A ......... Diplura (in Class Entognatha)

 

---

53b. Antennae short, with 6 or less segments; abdomen with 6 or less segments and usually with a forked appendage near posterior end (Figs.A-G) [springtails]............ Collembola (in Class Entognatha)

 

152

54a (52b). Body larviform ( = shaped like a worm or larva), thorax and abdomen not differentiated; compound eyes present [larviform beetles] .............Coleoptera

 

55

54b. Body shape variable, but if larviform, then without compound eyes

 

56

55a (54b). Compound eyes usually present; body shape variable, but usually not worm-like; wing pads often present [adults & nymphs]

 

65

55b. Compound eyes and wing pads absent, body usually worm-like in shape [larvae]

 

57

56a (55a). Tarsi with 5 segments

 

59

56b. Tarsi with 4 or less segments

 

---

57a (56a). Mouthparts prolonged ventrally into a snout-like process (Fig.A); body somewhat A .......cylindrical and usually <15 mm long (Fig.A) [wingless scorpionflies].... Mecoptera

 

58

57b. Mouthparts not as previously described; body shape and size variable

 

217

58a (57b). Antennae with 5 segments; Texas (some && twisted-winge parasitoids;Mengeidae] .... Strepsiptera

 

---

58b. Antennae with >5 segments; widely distributed (Figs.A-G) [rock crawlers, walking A sticks & some cockroaches..........Orthoptera

 

60

59a (56b). Cerci like forceps; tarsi with 3 segments

 

61

59b. Cerci absent or, if present, not like forceps; tarsi variable

 

---

60a (59a). Antennae more than 1/2 as long as body; cerci short; western U.S.A. [Timemidae] ........ Orthoptera

 

---

60b. Antennae usually less than 1/2 as long as body; cerci long (Fig.A); widely distributed A [earwigs] .......... Dermaptera

 

---

61a (59b). Tarsi with 3 segments, basal segment of front tarsi enlarged (Figs.A-B) [webspinners] ............... Embioptera

 

62

61b. Tarsi with 2-4 segments, basal segment of front tarsi not enlarged

 

---

62a (61b). Appearance like grasshoppers, with hind legs enlarged and fitted for jumping; length usually >15 mm (Figs.A-E) [grasshoppers] A..... Orthoptera

 

63

62b. Not like grasshoppers, hind legs usually not as previously described; length <10 mm

 

---

63a (62b). Tarsi with 4 segments; pale, soft bodies, wood- or ground-inhabiting insects A (Figs.A-E) [termites]........Isoptera

 

64

63b. Tarsi with 2-3 segments; color and habits variable

 

---

64a (63b). Cerci present, 1 segmented, and terminating in a long bristle; antennae with 9 segments and moniliform (Figs.A-C); compound eyes and ocelli absent (= simple yes); tarsi with 2 segments.... A..........Zoraptera

 

---

64b. Cerci absent; antennae with 13 or more segments and usually hair-like (Fig.A); compound eyes and 3 ocelli usually present; tarsi with 2-3 segments [psocids........Psocoptera (= Corrodentia)

 

66

65a (55b). Ventral prolegs (= fleshy abdominal legs) present on 2 or more abdominal segments (Figs.A-B)..... A.

 

68

65b. Abdominal prolegs absent or on terminal segment only

 

227

66a (65a). Have 5 pairs prolegs (on abdominal segments 3-6 & 10) or fewer (Fig. A), the prolegs with tiny hooks (crochets); several (usually 6) ocelli on each side of head [caterpillars] ............. Lepidoptera

 

67

66b. Have 6 or more pairs of abdominal prolegs, the prolegs without crochets; ocelli number variable

 

---

67a (66b). Ocelli, 7 or more, on each side of head; prolegs on segments 1-8 or 3-8, usually faint pointed structures (Fig.A) [scorpionfly larvae]........ A.......... Mecoptera

 

118

67b. Ocellus (one) on each side of head; prolegs fleshy and not pointed, usually on abdominal segments 2-8 & 10, sometimes on 2-7 or 2-6 & 10 (Figs.A-B) [sawfly larvae] .....Hymenoptera

 

194

68a (65b). Mandible and maxilla on each side united to form a sucking jaw that is often long (Figs.A-B); tarsi with 2 claws; labrum absent or fused with head capsule; maxillary A palps absent [Planipennia: lacewing & antlion larvae] .............Neuroptera

 

69

68b. Mandibles and maxillae not as previously described; tarsi with 1-2 claws; labrum and maxillary palps usually present

 

70

69a (68b). Head and mouthparts prognathous (= directed forward), the head ca. as long along mid ventral line as along middorsal line and usually cylindrical or a bit flattened

 

72

69b. Head and mouthparts hypognathous (= directed ventrally), the head much longer along middorsal line than along midventral line and usually rounded

 

---

70a (69a). Tarsi with 1 claw [some beetle larvae].............. Coleoptera

 

71

70b. Tarsi with 2 claws

 

194

71a (70b). Distinct labrum (= upper lip) and clypeus (= hardened plate on lower face between frons and labium) present [Raphidiodea: snakefly larvae] ............... Neuroptera

 

---

71b. Labrum absent or fused with head capsule [most Adephaga: beetle larvae]..... Coleoptera

 

---

72a (69b). Front legs noticeably smaller than other pairs; middle and hind legs projecting laterally much more than front legs; a small group of ocelli (usually 3) on each side of head behind bases of antennae; tarsal claws absent; length <5 mm; usually found in moss [Boreidae larvae] .............. Mecoptera

 

73

72b. Legs not as previously described, front and middle legs ca. same size and position; ocelli variable; tarsi with 1-3 claws; size and habitat variable

 

---

73a (72b). Tarsi with 1-2 claws; abdomen usually without caudal filaments; antennae variable [beetle larvae]...... Coleoptera

 

---

73b. Tarsi usually with 3 claws; abdomen with 2 caudal filaments ca. 1/3rd as long as body (Fig.A); antennae usually short with 3 segments [triungulin (= active 1st instar) larvae A of some beetles, Meloidae, and twisted-winged parasitoids]............ Coleoptera ..... 152 and ....... Strepsiptera....217

 

---

74a (28b). Aquatic [fly larvae]..........Diptera

 

75

74b. Terrestrial or parasitic (not aquatic)

 

---

75a (74b). Sessile, plant feeding; body covered by a scale or waxy substance; mouthparts for sucking, long and thread-like [female scales]............... Homoptera

 

76

75b. Not the same as previously described

 

222

76a (75b). Head and thorax almost fused, and abdominal segmentation indistinct (Fig.A); A internal parasitoids of other insects [female twisted-winged parasitoids]............ Strepsiptera.

 

77

76b. Head not fused with thorax, body segmentation distinct; habitat variable

 

78

77a (76b). Head distinct, sclerotized, and usually pigmented and exserted

 

85

77b. Head indistinct, incompletely or not at all sclerotized, sometimes retracted into thorax

 

79

78a (77a). Head and mouthparts prognathous (= directed forward), the head ca. as long along midventral line as along middorsal line and usually cylindrical or slightly flattened

 

82

78b. Head and mouthparts hypognathous (= directed ventrally), the head much longer along middorsal line than along midventral line and usually rounded

 

---

79a (78a). Terminal abdominal segment with a pair of short pointed processes; several long setae on each body segment (Fig.A) [flea larvae]... A............. Siphonaptera

 

80

79b. Not exactly as previously described

 

227

80a (79b). Labium with a protruding spinneret (= silk-producing structure); antennae arising from membranous area at bases of mandibles; mandibles well developed, opposable; body usually slightly flattened; ventral prolegs usually with crochets; mostly leaf miners in leaves, bark, or fruits [moth larvae] ...............Lepidoptera

 

81

80b. Labium without a spinneret; antennae, if present, arising from head capsule; prolegs without crochets

 

---

81a (80b). Mouthparts distinctly mandibulate, with opposable mandibles; spiracles usually present on thorax and 8 abdominal segments; body shape variable [beetle larvae] ..... Coleoptera

 

---

81b. Mouthparts as previously described or with mouth hooks somewhat parallel and moving vertically; spiracles variable, but usually not as previously described; body elongated [Nematocera & some Brachycera fly larvae]............Diptera

 

---

82a (78b). Abdominal segments usually with 1 or more longitudinal folds laterally or lateroventrally; body C-shaped, scarabaeiform (Fig.A); 1 pair of spiracles on thorax and usually 8 pairs on abdomen [beetle larvae, white grubs].......... A......... Coleoptera

 

83

82b. Abdominal segments without longitudinal folds, or if present, then spiracles not as previously described

 

---

83a (82b). Head with adfrontal areas (= pair of narrow oblique sclerites on head) (as in Fig.A); labium with a projecting spinneret; if present, antennae arise from membranous area at base of mandibles; often 1 or more ocelli (usually 6) on each side of head; ventral prolegs, if present, with crochets [moth larvae]..........Lepidoptera

 

84

83b. Head without adfrontal areas, and labium without a spinneret; antennae and ocelli not as previously described; prolegs, if present, without crochets

 

118

84a (83b). Mandibles not heavily sclerotized and not brush-like; spiracles usually present on thorax and most abdominal segments, the posterior pair not enlarged; larvae occur in plant tissues as phytophagous parasites, or in cells constructed by adults [Apocrita] ..Hymenoptera

 

---

84b. Mandibles usually brush-like; spiracles usually not as previously described-- if present on several abdominal segments, the posterior pair is much larger than the rest; occur in wet places, in plant tissues, or as internal parasites (Fig.A) A [fly larvae, mainly Nematocera] ............... Diptera

 

---

85a (77b). Mouthparts mandibulate, with opposable mandibles and maxillae; antennae usually present [beetle larvae] .......... Coleoptera

 

86

85b. Mouthparts reduced or modified, with only the mandibles opposable, or with parallel mouth hooks present; antennae usually absent

 

---

86a (85b). Body behind "head" (first body segment) consisting of 13 segments; full grown larvae usually with a sclerotized ventral plate ("breast bone") located ventrally behind head [Cecidomyiidae larvae]............ Diptera

 

87

86b. Body with fewer segments than previously described; no "breast bone"

 

---

87a (86b). Mouthparts consist of 1-2 (if 2 then parallel, not opposable) median, dark colored, down curved mouth hooks [Cyclorrhapha maggots].............. Diptera

 

---

87b. Mandibles opposable, but at times reduced, without mouth hooks as described previously [Apocrita larvae] ................ Hymenoptera

 

Major Families of Adult Entomophagous Diptera

(for muscoid flies see Figs C-D wing venation)

 

89

88a (8a, 29a & 38b). Antennae moniliform, 6-39 segments, longer than thorax

 

94

88b. Antennae with 3-4 segments, ring-like segments may be present; antennae shorter than thorax

 

90

89a (88a). Costa (= longitudinal wing vein) extends completely around wing, occasionally weakened behind

 

92

89b. Costa does not reach to or extend only slightly beyond wing tip

 

91

90a (89a). Mesonotal suture (= dorsal sclerite of mesothorax) transverse, not V-shaped

 

---

90b. Mesonotum with an entire V-shaped suture; females with long sclerotized ovipositor (Figs.A-B) (larvae are predators of aquatic or semiaquatic arthropods) A ....... ( Diptera) Tipulidae

 

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91a (90a). Ocelli present and/or venation reduced; eyes meet above antennae; wing not scaly (Figs.A-C) A (larvae are predators of Homoptera & mites) ......... (Diptera) Cecidomyiidae

 

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91b. Ocelli absent; probosis extends far beyond clypeus; wing venation strong; wing veins and margin covered with scales, usually also on body (Figs.A-G) (larvae of some species are predators of aquatic arthropods).................(Diptera) Culicidae

 

93

92a (89b). Ocelli absent

 

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92b. Ocelli present; tibiae with apical spurs; discal cell in wing (= enlarged cell in basal or central part of wing) absent (Figs.A-C) A (larvae spin webs & feed on entrapped arthropods) ............. (Diptera) Mycetophilidae

 

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93a (92a). Head rounded behind, mouthparts piercing; metanotum short and rounded, without a longitudinal groove (Fig.A) A (adults are blood-suckers; larvae are predators) .................. (Diptera) Ceratopogonidae

 

---

93b. Head flat behind, mouthparts without mandibles, not piercing ;metanotum long, with a median longitudinal groove (Figs.A-B) (most are predators, one species parasitizes mayflies) ........... (Diptera) Chironomidae

 

95

94a (88b). Empodium (= pad or bristlelike structure at apex of last tarsal segment between the claws) developed lobelike, the 3 pads almost equal

 

99

94b. Empodium hair-like or absent

 

96

95a (94a). Third antennal segment compound, composed of ring-like segments

 

97

95b. Third antennal segment simple, frequently bearing an elongated style or arista

 

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96a (95a). Tegula (= scale-like structure overlying front wing base) large and conspicuous female abdomen large (Figs.A-F) A (adults are blood-suckers; larvae are predators of aquatic arthropods) ........... (Diptera) Tabanidae

 

---

96b. Tegula small or vestigial; tibial spurs usually absent (Figs.A-F) (larvae are predators of arthropods in several habitats) ............... (Diptera) Stratiomyiidae

 

98

97a. Tegula small or vestigal

 

---

97b. Tegula large, covering haltere; head very small, positioned low down and composed almost entirely of compound eyes; body humpbacked (Fig.A) A (parasitoids of spiders) .......... (Diptera) Acroceridae

 

---

98a (97a). Tibiae without apical spurs; wing venation intricate with many veins ending before wing tip (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of grasshoppers).... A. .... (Diptera) Nemestrinidae

 

---

98b. At least middle tibia with apical spurs; antennae have long terminal style; wing venation normal, not complex (Figs.A-B) (both adults and larvae are predators of other arthropods) ............ (Diptera) Rhagionidae

 

100

99a (94b). Wing with 2 or more submarginal cells (vein R-4+5 forked); 3-4 posterior cells

 

106

99b. Wing with only one submarginal cell or none at all (vein R-4+5 not forked)

 

101

100a (99a). Front strongly concave at vertex

 

102

100b. Front not concave between eyes, vertex flat or convex

 

---

101a (100a). Three ocelli present; palpi normally prominent; proboscis adapted for piercing (Figs.A-E); top of head hollowed out between eyes; abdomen tapering or oval; lobe A (alula) usually at base of wing (both larvae & adults are predators) ... (Diptera) .. Asilidae

 

---

101b. One ocellus or none present; antennae with 4 segments; palpi vestigial; proboscis with fleshy labellae (= exposed tip of labium); large flies (Figs.A-C) (both larvae & adults are predators) ............ (Diptera) Mydaidae

 

103

102a (100b). Costa continues around wing

 

---

102b. Costa reaches only to wing apex; 4th vein (M-1) ends before wing tip; 3 posterior cells (Figs.A-B) (larvae are predators of larvae of Coleoptera).. A..... (Diptera) Scenopinidae

 

104

103a (102a). Wing has 5 posterior cells

 

105

103b. Wing has at most 4 posterior cells

 

---

104a (103a). Fourth vein (M-1) ends beyond apex of wing (Figs.A-C) (larvae & adults are A predators of other arthropods) ............. (Diptera) Therevidae

 

---

104b. Fourth vein (M-1) ends before apex of wing (Fig.A) (both adults & larvae are predators of other arthropods; rare in arid regions of western North America) ..... (Diptera) Apioceridae

 

---

105a (103b). Anal cell open or closed near wing margin; antennal style short, never longer than 3rd antennal segment; body usually hairy, stocky and somewhat humpbacked; brown or grayish flies (Figs.A-C) (parasitize a variety of immature arthropods; most common in southwestern United States)....... A......... (Diptera) Bombyliidae

 

---

105b. Anal cell short and closed far from wing margin; anal vein does not reach wing margin; antennal style (= bristle) usually longer than 3rd antennal segment; body usually bare, slender and black (Fig.A) (predators of small arthropods) ....................... (Diptera) Empididae

 

107

106a (99b). Wing normal, not obviously rounded apically; venation normal

 

---

106b. Wing rounded apically; veins very well developed anteriorly; antennae appear one- segmented with long arista (= bristle on apical segment); long hind legs and flattened femora; body humpbacked (Fig.A) (parasitoids of ant pupae, larvae & pupae of Lepidoptera & Hymenoptera; some species are predators ... A ............. (Diptera) Phoridae

 

108

107a (106a). Spurious vein (= vein-like thickening of wing membrane between 2 true veins) in wing absent; anal cell usually short

 

---

107b. Spurious vein in wing present; anal cell long, closed near wing margin; body brightly colored; they resemble bees or wasps) (Figs.A-E) (predators of Homoptera) A .......... (Diptera) Syrphidae

 

109

108a (107a). Frontal lanule (= crescent-shaped sclerite above base of antennae) completely absent

 

111

108b. Frontal lunule present as a crescent-shaped sclerite above antennae

 

110

109a (108a). Head normal, not exceptionally large; front and face usually wide

 

---

109b. Head large, hemispherical; front and face narrow; probosis small and soft; body stocky and humpbacked, brown or grayish (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of treehoppers & leafhoppers) ..A... (Diptera) Pipunculidae

 

---

110a (109a). Crossvein r-m located beyond basal 1/4th of wing; anal cell pointed apically; proboscis usually rigid; body not metallic; %% genitalia terminal, not folded under abdomen (Fig.A); relatively slender and usually black flies (adults and larvae are A ..predaceous on smaller insects) (please also refer to couplet 105)............ (Diptera) Empididae

 

---

110b. Crossvein r-m located in basal 1/4th of wing; 2nd basal and discal cells united; anal cell when present rounded apically; body usually metallic; %% genitalia frequently folded forward under abdomen (Fig.A) (predators of small arthropods) ............. (Diptera) Dolichopodidae

 

112

111a (108b). Second antennal segment with a lateral subdorsal longitudinal seam; thorax with a complete transverse suture; calypter (= lobe at wing base) large

 

115

111b. Second antennal segment without a longitudinal seam; thorax without a complete transverse suture; calypter small or rudimentary

 

113

112a (111a). Hypopleural bristles (rather vertical row usually above hind coxae) present

 

---

112b. Hypopleural bristles absent; 3rd (R-5) and 4th (M-1) veins almost parallel at wing tip or 4th vein bends forward; undersurface of scutellum with fine erect hairs (Figs.A-B) A (predators of dipterous larvae)....(Diptera) Anthomyiidae

 

---

113a (112a). Postscutellum developed; hypopleura with strong bristles; eyes usually bare; body of && large, variously colored, but usually blackish (Figs.A-G) (parasitoids of many types of insects)..... A ....... (Diptera) Tachinidae

 

114

113b. Postscutellum not developed; hypopleura with a row of bristles

 

---

114a (113b). Body usually gray with 3 black stripes on mesonotum, bare but not metallic; usually 4 notopleural bristles; arista usually plumose (= featherlike) in basal half A (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of grasshoppers & other arthropods) .... (Diptera) Sarcophagidae

 

---

114b. Body usually metallic, usually 2 (rarely 3) notopleural bristles; arista usually plumose beyond basal half (Figs.A-D) (generally predaceous...... (Diptera) Calliphoridae

 

116

115a (111b). Proboscis shorter than head; head never broader than thorax; first posterior cell not quite narrowed apically

 

---

115b. Proboscis longer than head, slender and rigit, often folding; head wider than thorax; first posterior cell narrowed or closed apically; abdomen clavate (= club-like), bent downward at apex (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of wild bees)..... A. ....... (Diptera) Conopidae

 

---

116a (115a). Costa broken at humeral crossvein; wings without pattern; postcellar bristle divergent, if absent, arista is also absent (Fig.A)...... A......... (Diptera) Agromyzidae

 

---

116b. Eyes oval horizontally, 2X as long as high; costa not broken; postocellar bristles converge or are absent, if absent, arista present; body grayish with yellowish markings on lateral thorax and abdomen and on front (Fig.A) (predators of mites & Homoptera)............ (Diptera) Chamaemyidae

 

[Skip couplet 117a/117b]

 

Parasitic and Predatory Hymenoptera

 

119

118a (15a, 41a, 67b & 84a). Last sternite (= ventral plate) of female abdomen divided longitudinally; ovipositor issues from anterior to tip of abdomen and has a pair of exserted sheathes capable of covering ovipositor tip; hind wing usually without lobes

 

126

118b. Last sternite of && abdomen not divided longitudinally; ovipositor (or sting) issues from the tip of abdomen and without a pair of exserted sheathes; hind wing often with an anal lobe

 

120

119a (118a). Wing venation well developed; stigma (= thickening of wing membrane along costal border) well developed; hind trochanter with 2 segments........Hymenoptera)........... (Ichneumonoidea & Evanioidea)

 

122

119b. Wing venation reduced; stigma absent or poorly developed; trochanter with 1 segment

 

121

120a (119a). Costal cell absent; antennae with 16 or more segments (Figs.A-B)... Wing Types ..... A. ....... (Hymenoptera) (Ichneumonoidea)

 

---

120b. Costal cell present; antennae with fewer than 16 segments; abdomen short with long petiole arising on propodeum (= posterior part of thorax that is actually 1st abdominal segment), far above bases of hind coxae (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of cockroach egg capsules) ........... (Hymenoptera) (Evanioidea) Evaniidae

 

122

121a (120a). Wing with one or no recurrent veins; propodeum not prolonged beyond hindcoxae

 

---

121b. Wing with 2 recurrent veins (= transverse veins posterior to cubital vein) or the abdomen is 3X the body length (Figs.A-C) (parasitoids of numerous insect orders ) A ........ (Hymenoptera) (Ichneumonoidea) Ichneumonidae

 

---

122a (121a). Abdominal terga 2 & 3 not fused (Fig.A) (parasitoids of aphids) .(Hymenoptera) A ....... (Ichneumonoidea) Braconidae (Aphidiinae)

 

---

122b. Abdominal terga 2 & 3 fused or the cubitus (= longitudinal vein just posterior to medial) in fore wing arises from the radial cell (Figs.A-F) (parasitoids of many kinds of hosts, excluding aphids) ..........(Hymenoptera) (Ichneumonoidea) Braconidae

 

124

123a (119b). Pronotum extends to tegula; antennae not geniculate (= elbow-shaped) ; body often compressed .............. (Hymenoptera) (Cynipoidea)

 

248

123b. Pronotum does not reach tegula; prepectus (= area along anterior ventral margin of mesepisternum outlined by a suture) present; antennae geniculate, with one or more proximal segments of flagellum often reduced to ring-like segments; abdominal segment behind propodeum always in form of a petiole, although not always clear......(Hymenoptera) (Chalcidoidea)

 

125

124a (123a). Largest segment of abdomen (side view) tergites 2 or 3 and never more than one short tergite in front of the largest tergite

 

---

124b. Largest segment of abdomen (side view) tergites 4, 5 or 6, with at least 2, 3 or 4 short tergites behind petiole and preceding the largest tergite; abdomen very compressed laterally; ovipositor curved under "membranous flap" (Fig.A) (parasitoids of sawflies A in family Siricidae)........... (Hymenoptera) (Cynipoidea) Ibaliidae

 

---

125a (124a). Tergite 2 longest and usually forming at least 1/2 the abdomen; radial cell open (except in Charips) and petiole without enlarged ring bearing longitudinal striations (gall-formers and hyperparasitoids in aphids). If radial cell is closed and petiole has striated ring, then tergites 2 & 3 are fused into a single saddle-shaped tergite that covers entire abdomen (Figs.A-C) (Synergus inquilines in oak galls)........ A .. (Hymeoptera) (Cynipoidea) Cynipidae [also see fly-par.htm ]

 

---

125b. Tergite 2 clearly forming less than 1/2 of abdomen; radial cell closed; petiole with slightly enlarged ring structure bearing longitudinal striations; mesopleura without spines or scratches (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of Diptera) ....... (Hymenoptera) (Cynipoidea) Figitidae [also see fly-par.htm ]

 

127

126a (118b). Pronotum almost reaches or does reach tegula, but lacks a rounded lobe on lateral margin

 

---

126b. Pronotum short, does not reach tegula, with lateral rounded lobe; body hairs not branched (Figs.A-L)...... A. ....... (Hymenoptera) (Sphecoidea) Sphecidae

 

128

127a (126a). Venation of fore wing well developed; hind wing with veins or a basal lobe

 

137

127b. Venation of fore wing reduced; hind wing not lobed...(Hymenoptera) (Proctotrupoidea)

 

129

128a (127a). Venation of hind wing reduced, lacking closed cells ..(Hymenoptera) (Bethyloidea)

 

131

128b. Venation of hind wing not reduced, with at least one closed cell

 

130

129a (128a). Antennae with 12-13 segments; tarsi normal

 

---

129b. Antennae with 10 segments; fore tarsi of females often pincer-like (Figs.A-C)... (parasitoids of leafhoppers) ....A......(Hymenoptera) (Bethyloidea) Dryinidae

 

---

130a (129a). Abdomen with 3 or less visible tergites (4 in male Parnopes); abdominal sternites concave; body metallic green or blue (Figs.A-F) (parasitoids of wasps) ....... A. ........... (Hymenoptera) (Bethyloidea) Chrysididae

 

---

130b. Abdomen with 6 (females) or 7 (males) tergites; sternites convex; body not metallic (Figs.A-C) (parasitoids of Coleoptera & Lepidoptera)............ (Hymenoptera) (Bethyloidea) Bethylidae

 

132

131a (128b). Petiole without nodes or node-like swellings

 

---

131b. Petiole medially with nodes or node-like swellings; antennae geniculate (Figs.A-E) (general predators)....... A....... (Hymenoptera) (Formicoidea) Formicidae

 

133

132a (131a). First discoidal cell shorter than submedian cell; fore wings rarely folded

 

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132b. First discoidal cell much longer than submedian cell; fore wings when at rest folded longitudinally (Figs.A-D) (general predators)...... A....(Hymenoptera) (Vespoidea) Vespidae

 

134

133a (132a). Mesopleuron not divided by an oblique suture; hind femur does not extend to tip of abdomen

 

---

133b. Mesopleuron divided by an oblique suture; hind femur extends to tip of abdomen; mid tibia with 2 apical spurs (Figs.A-D) (parasitoids of spiders) ...... A.........(Hymenoptera) (Pompiloidea) Pompilidae

 

135

134a (133a). Mesosternum and metasternum separate, not forming a single large plate; wings without wrinkles

 

---

134b. Mesosternum and metasternum form a flat plate divided by a sinuous transverse suture; fore wing with fine longitudinal wrinkles beyond the closed cells (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of Scarabaeidae)...... A........(Hymenoptera) (Scolioidea) Scoliidae

 

136

135a (134a). Mesosternum simple, without appendages

 

---

135b. Mesosternum with 2 laminae which overlay or project between the bases of the middle coxae, extending to midline; spur on tip of abdomen (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of Scarabaeidae)..... A..... (Hymenoptera) (Tiphioidea) .. Tiphiidae

 

---

136a (135a). Body bare or nearly so; hind wing with a prominent separated lobe at the anal angle (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of bees). ... A...... (Hymenoptera) (Tiphioidea) Sapygidae

 

---

136b. Body almost always obviously hairy; hind wing of %% without a lobe at the anal angle; 2 spurs on tip of abdomen (Figs.A-C) (parasitoids of Hymenoptera .......... (Hymenoptera) (Tiphioidea) Mutillidae

 

138

137a (127b). Antennae inserted near clypeus

 

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137b. Antennae inserted near middle of face on a shelf-like protuberance; fore wing with stigma (Figs.A-C) (parasitoids of Diptera).... A..... (Hymenoptera) (Proctotrupoidea) Diapriidae [also see fly-par.htm ]

 

139

138a (137a). Abdomen sharply margined at sides

 

---

138b. Abdomen rounded laterally; marginal vein usually stigmated (Fig.A) (parasitoids of insects in several orders...A....(Hymenoptera) (Ceraphronoidea) Ceraphronidae

 

---

139a (138a). Fore wing with a marginal and stigmal vein (Figs.A-C) (parasitoids of insect eggs) ......A ..... (Hymenoptera) (Proctotrupoidea) Scelionidae

 

---

139b. Fore wing without marginal and stigmal veins (Figs.A-C) (most parasitoids of Diptera & Homoptera) ...... (Hymenoptera) (Proctotrupoidea) Platygastridae

 

Major Families of Adult Entomophagous Hemiptera / Heteroptera:

 

141

140a. (19a & 40a). Antennae short, usually concealed.....(Hemiptera / Heteroptera) suborder Cryptocerata (= aquatic bugs)

 

144

140b. Antennae longer than previously described, at least as long as head, not concealed .(Hemiptera Heteroptera) suborder Gymnocerata (= terrestrial bugs)

 

142

141a (140a). Hind tarsi with claws

 

---

141b. Hind tarsi without claws, hind tarsi only flattened (Fig.A) (general predators) ..A...... Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Notonectidae

 

143

142a (141a). Membrane of hemelytra without veins

 

---

142b. Membrane of hemelytra (= front wings) with veins (Fig.A) (predators of other aquatic arthropods) . A...... (Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Belostomatidae

 

---

143a (142a). Eyes strongly protruding; toad-like (Fig.A) (general predators)....A......... Hmiptera / Heteroptera) ........Gelastocoridae

 

---

143b. Eyes flattened to form one smooth surface with head (Fig.A) (general predators)(Hemiptera / Heteroptera) ---.... Naucoridae

 

145

144a (140b). Fore legs relatively short and slender compared to other legs; tarsal claws anteapical (especially obvious on fore legs)

 

146

144b. Fore legs not noticeably shorter than other legs; if so, then fore legs thick and modified for grasping; tarsal claws apical

 

---

145a (144a). Hind femora extend well beyond apex of abdomen; middle legs arise closer to hind than to fore legs (Fig.A) (general predators) ........ A.......(Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Gerridae

 

---

145b. Hind femora extend little if any beyond apex of abdomen; if middle legs arise close to hind legs than to fore legs, then fore tarsi have only 1 segment (Fig.A) (general predators) .......... Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Vellidae

 

147

146a (144b). Antennae with 4 segments

 

---

146b. Antennae with 5 segments (Figs.A-D) (mostly phytophagous, but some species are general predators)........ A....... emiptera / Heteroptera) Pentatomidae

 

148

147a (146a). Absence of pad-like arolium at base of each tarsal claw, of if present, fore legs are modified for grasping prey (raptorial)

 

---

147b. Pad-like arolium present; membrane of hemelytron with only 4-5 veins (Figs.A-B) (predatory & phytophagous)..... A.......(Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Lygaeidae

 

149

148a (147a). Fore legs not raptorial; without a presternal groove

 

151

148b. Fore legs not raptorial

 

150

149a (148a). Proboscis with 3 segments; cuneus absent; ocelli present

 

---

149b. Proboscis with 4 segments; cuneus present; ocelli absent (Figs.A-C) (a few general predatory species) .....A....... (Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Miridae

 

---

150a (149a). Hemelytra with a cuneus (= triangular apical part of thickened portion of wing); 0.5-5.0 mm. long (Figs.A-C) (general predators) .... A....(Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Anthocoridae

 

---

150b. Hemelytra without a cuneus; length variable; membrane of hemelytra with 4-5 closed cells (Fig.A) (general predators) ......... (Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Saldidae

 

---

151a (148b). Prosternum with a groove to receive proboscis; proboscis with 3 segments (Figs.A-B) (general predators).......... A........(Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Reduviidae

 

---

151b. Prosternum without a groove; proboscis usually with 4 segments (Figs.A-C) (general predators) ...........(Hemiptera / Heteroptera) Nabidae

 

Major Families of Adult Predatory & Parasitic Coleoptera:

 

153

152a (27a, 51b, 54a & 73b). Head not prolonged into a beak; gular sutures (= longitudinal sutures demarking sclerite on ventral side of head) double, at least anteriorly and posteriorly

 

---

152b. Head usually prolonged into a beak; gular sutures fused or lacking; antennae not elbowed; elytra cover base of pygidium (= last dorsal segment of abdomen) (Figs.A-C) (predators of Coccidae)....... A. ......(Coleoptera) Anthribidae

 

154

153a (152a). First abdominal sternite divided by the hind coxal cavities ......... (Coleoptera) (Adephaga)

 

158

153b. First abdominal sternite not interrupted by hind coxal cavities............. (Coleoptera) (Polyphaga)

 

155

154a (153a). Abdomen with 6 or more visible sternites; antennae filiform

 

---

154b. Abdomen with only 4 visible sternites; antennae very much thickened apically, clavate or laminate (Fig.A) (predators of ants)... ..... A........(Coleoptera) Paussidae

 

156

155a (154a). Eyes entire, not divided; antennae elongated, slender......... (Coleoptera) Caraboidea)

 

---

155b. Eyes divided, appear as 2 pairs; antennae short and somewhat clubbed; front legs elongated and slender (Figs.A-B) (predators of aquatic arthropods). ......A.........(Coleoptera) (Gyrinoidea) Gyrinidae

 

157

156a (155a). Metasternum with a distinct transverse suture demarking a triangular antecoxal suture

 

---

156b. Metasternum without a transverse suture or antecoxal sclerite; body smooth and hard; hind legs flattened and fringed with long hairs (Figs.A-C) (predators of aquatic arthropods)...... A.........(Coleoptera) Dytiscidae

 

---

157a (156a). Antennae inserted on front above base of mandibles; clypeus extends laterally beyond the base of antennae; often brightly colored insects (Figs.A-C) (general predators) ........A.......(Coleoptera) Cicindelidae

 

---

157b. Antennae inserted on side of head between base of mandible and eye; clypeus does not extend laterally beyond base of antennae; most are dark, shiny and flattened (Figs.A-F) (general predators)......... (Coleoptera) Carabidae

 

159

158a (153b). Antennae usually not clubbed, but if so, segments are not lamellate

 

---

158b. Antennae with the last 3-7 segments enlarged, club-like; body heavy, oval or elongated and usually convex (Figs.A-F) (considered predators of grasshopper egg pods). ...... .A.... (Coleoptera) Scarabaeidae

 

160

159a (158a). Hind tarsi with 4 segments, front and middle tarsi with 5 segments

 

166

159b. Hind tarsi with at least as many segments as fore and middle tarsi

 

161

160a (159a). Front coxal cavities closed behind

 

162

160b. Front coxal cavities open behind

 

---

161a (160a). Abdominal sternites freely movable (%% only; also refer to couplet 182); abdomen tip exposed beyond elytra; last tarsal segment elongated, others are short (Figs.A-D) (predators)........A(Coleoptera) Rhizophagidae

 

---

161b. First 2-4 abdominal sternites somewhat fused or immovable; eyes usually notched; most are black or brownish (Figs.A-H) (predators).......... (Coleoptera) Tenebrionidae

 

163

162a (160b). Head very much and abruptly constricted behind eyes

 

---

162b. Head not much and suddenly constricted behind eyes .......(Coleoptera) Pythidae

 

164

163a (162a). Prothorax usually rounded on sides, without a sharp lateral margin

 

---

163b. Prothorax with a sharp lateral margin; body somewhat humpbacked, with head bent down; abdomen pointed apically, extending beyond tips of elytra (Figs.A-B) (may be predators) ........A........(Coleoptera) Mordellidae

 

165

164a (163a). Base of prothorax narrower than elytra

 

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164b. Base of prothorax as wide as elytra; antennae pectinate (= comb-like); abdomen blunt (Figs.A-B) (parasitoids of Hymenoptera) .........A........Coleoptera) Rhipiphoridae

 

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165a (164a). Hind coxae large and prominent; elytra soft and flexible; pronotum narrower than either head or elytra (Figs.A-F) (parasitoids of Hymenoptera) ........A........ (Coleoptera) Meloidae

 

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165b. Hind coxae transverse