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HYMENOPTERA, Tanaostigmatidae (Chalcidoidea) --  <Images> & <Juveniles>



          Tanaostigmatidae. -- This is a small family of parasitic wasps, most of which are phytophagous tropical and subtropical insects that form galls in plant stems, leaves, or seeds. There are only ca.  95 species in 10 genera, and


          They are typically short, squat wasps, best recognized by a protruding prepectus, and the mesonotum is often strongly arched, so the pronotum is nearly vertical.  Most of these phytophagous insects are associated with galls, and probably are the gall-formers. There are many records of species reared from galls, however little detailed biologies are studied, but exceptions to gall-forming species are known. Sole seed infestation without gall formation has been reported from India (Lateef, 1977; Lateef, et al. 1985); and inquinilism in cecidomyiid galls is known from Brazil and Japan (LaSalle, 1987). Cynipencyrtus flavus Ishii of Japan is the only known parasitic species known.  It  attacks gall-forming cynipids (Tachikawa, 1973, 1978). Preferred host plants for members of this family are woody trees and shrubs in the pea family Fabaceae, although species have been reared from galls on Triplaris (Polygonaceae), Scutia and Condalia (Rhamnaceae) and Psidium (Myrtaceae), and recorded as collected on several other families.


          The galls are of many types, and may be found on stems, leaves, seeds of flowers (usually in deformed ovaries).  Four species occur in the Southwestern United States and Florida.  The larvae are primarily gall makers.


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References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:  MELVYL Library]


LaSalle, J. 1987. New World Tanaostigmatidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). Contribution of the American Entomological Institute 23(1):1-181.


Lateef, S.S. 1977. A new hymenopteran pest, Tanaostigmodes sp. (Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmodae) recorded on pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan Millsp.) at ICRISAT, Hyderabad, India. Tropical Grain Legume Bulletin No 7:6-7.


Lateef, S.S., Reed, W. & LaSalle, J. 1985. Tanaostigmodes cajaninae LaSalle sp.n. (Hymenoptera: Tanaostigmatidae), a potential pest of the pigeon pea in India. Bulletin of Entomological Research 75(2): 305-313.


Prinsloo, G. L.  1980.  An illustrated guide to the families of African Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera).  Rep. So. Africa, Dept. Agr. & Fisheries Sci. Bull. 395.  66 p.


Subba-Rao, B. R.  1988.  Family Tanaostigmatidae.  In:  B. R. Subba-Rao, & M. Hayat (eds.), Oriental Insects, Vol. 19.  Association For The Study of Oriental. Insects, Gainesville, FL.  329 p.


Tachikawa, T. 1973. Discovery of the hosts of Cynipencyrtus bicolor Ishii and Microterys tarumiensis Tachikawa (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea - Encyrtidae). Transactions of the Shikoku Entomological Society 11(4): 133-134.


Tachikawa, T. 1978. A note on the genus Cynipencyrtus Ishii (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea - Encyrtidae). Transactions of Shikoku Entomological Society 14(1/2):69-71.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1984.  The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Part 12.  The Families and Subfamilies of Canadian Chalcidoid Wasps, Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea.  Biosystematics Res. Inst., Ottawa, Ontario, Res. Br. Agr. Canada Publ. 1760.  149 p.