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HYMENOPTERA, Platygastridae [= Platygasteridae (Westwood 1840)]  (Platygastroidea).----  


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          Platygastridae  (= Platygasteridae) -- These are tiny, shining-black insects with sparce wing venation so that they resemble chalcids.  The antennae usually have 10 segments and are attached very low on the face, next to the clypeus . Most species are parasitoids of the larvae of Cecidomylidae.  Platygdster hiemalis Forbes has been successfully deployed as a biological control the Hessian fly. Polyembryony occurs in some species, with as many as 20 progeny emanating from one egg.


          This is a large group of ca. 1120 species) of parasitoid wasps, mostly very small (1.1-2.2 mm), black, and shining,.  Their antennae are elbowed an 8-segmented flagellum. The wings usually have no venation, but there may be some fringes of  setae.


          There are two subfamilies, the Platygastrinae and the Sceliotrachelinae. The former subfamily includes ca. 42 genera, all of which are koinobionts on cecidomyiid flies.  Oviposition is in the host's egg or early instar larva, and the wasp larva completes development when the host reaches the prepupal or pupal stage. The latter subfamily is smaller, including ca 22 genera.  They regularly have a rudimentary vein in the forewings. They are commonly idiobionts, which attack the eggs of beetles and Hemiptera.


          Most of the platygasterids are of average appearance, but the genus Inostemma is different in that there is a long structure that arises from the dorsum of the first abdominal segment that serves as a sheath for the ovipositor.


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References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:  MELVYL Library]


Austin, A.D. 1983. Morphology and mechanics of the ovipositor system of Ceratobaeus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) and related genera. Internat. J. of Insect Morphology and Embryology 12(2/3):139‑lSS.


Austin, A.D. 1985. The function of spider egg sacs in relation to parasitoids and predators, with special reference to the Australian fauna. J. of Natural History 19:359‑379.


Bin, F., and S.B. Vinson. 1986. Morphology of the antennal sex‑glands in male Trissolcus basalis (Woll.) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), and egg parasitoid of the green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Internat. J. of Morphology and Embryology 15(3):359‑376.


Delvare, G., and H.‑P. Aberlenc. 1989. Les insectes d'Afrique et d'Amerique tropicale. Cles pour la reconnaissance des familles PRIFAS,CIRAD‑GERDAT, Montpellier, France. 302 pp.


Dodd, A.P. 1930. A revision of the Australian Teleasinae (Hymenoptera: Proctotrypoidea). Proc. of the Linnaean Soc. of New South Wales 4(2):41‑‑91.


Fouts, R.M. 1947. Parasitic wasps of the genus Trimorus in North America. Proc. of the United States National Museum 98:91‑‑148.


Galloway, I.D., and A.D. Austin. 1984. Revision of the Scelioninae (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) in Australia. Australian J. of Zoology, Supplemental Series. 138 pp.


Johnson, N.F. 1984. Systematics of Nearctic Telenomus: Classification and revision of the podisi and phymatae species groups (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). Ohio State University, Knull Series No. 2:1‑‑113.


Johnson, N.F. 1992. Catalog of world species of Proctotrupoidea, exclusive of Platygastridae (Hymenoptera). Mem. of the American Entomol. Institute No. 51. 825 pp.


Kieffer, J. J.  1926.  Das Tierreich, Lief. 48:  557-844.


Kozlov, M. A.  1978/1987.  Family Platygastridae (Platygastrids).  In:  G. S. Medvedev (ed.) 1987, Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. Vol. 3 Hymenoptera, Pt. 2.  Akad. Nauk., Zool. Inst., Leningrad, SSSR. (trans. fr. Russian, Amerind. Publ. Co., Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi).  1341 p.


Kozlov, M.A., and S.V. Kononova. 1983. Telenomines of the fauna of USSR. Nauka, Leningrad. 335 pp. [In Russian.]


Kozlov, M.A. 1987. Superfamily Proctotrupoidea (Proctotrupoids). Pages 983‑ 1212 in Medvedev, G.S., ed. Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR, Volume III, Part 2. Amerind, New Delhi, India. 1341 pp.


Leiby, R. W. & C. C. Hill.  1924.  J. Agr. Res. 28:  829-939.


Masner, L. 1956. First preliminary report on the occurrence of genera of the group Proctotrupoidea (Hym.) in CSR. (First part-- Family Scelionidae). Acta Faunica Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 1:99‑126.


Masner, L.  1964.  Acta Soc. Ent. echos. 61:  146-62.


Masner, L. 1972. The classification and interrelationships of Thoronini (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea, Scelionidae). Canadian Entomologist 104:833‑849.


Masner, L. 1976. Revisionary notes and keys to world genera of Scelionidae (Hymenoptera;


Proctotrupoidea). Mem. of the Entomol. Soc. of Canada 97. 87 pp.


Masner, L. 1980. Key to the Holarctic genera of Scelionidae, with descriptions of new genera and species (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea). Mem. of the Entomol. Soc. of Canada 113. 54 pp.


Masner, L., and L. Huggert. 1989. World review and keys to genera of the subfamily Inostemmatinae with reassignment of the taxa to the Platygastrinae and Sceliotrachelinae (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Mem. of the Entomol. Soc. of Canada No. 147. 214 pp.


Richards, O.W., and R.G. Davies. 1977. Imms' general textbook of entomology. 10th ed., Vol. 2, Classification and biology. Chapman and Hall, London, England. 1354 pp.


Silvestri, F.  1921.  Boo. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agr. Portici 11:  299-326


Vlug, H.J. 1985. The types of Platygastridae (Hymenoptera, Scelionoidea) described by Haliday and Walker and preserved in the National Museum of Ireland and in the British Museum (Natural History). 2. Keys to species, redescriptions, synonymy. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 127:179--224.