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HYMENOPTERA, Perilampidae (Forster) - (Chalcidoidea) --  <Images> & <Juveniles>



          Perilampidae. -- Perilampids are robust chalcids with a large thorax that bears pock marks.  Their abdomen is small, shiny and triangular shaped.  Some species are metallic green that resembles cuckoo wasps, while others are black. 


          These wasps occur on flowers, and most species are hyperparasitoids that attack Diptera and Hymenoptera which are parasitoids of caterpillars.  Some attack free-living insects in various orders. Perilampus  platygdster Say is a hyperparasitoid that attacks Meteorus dimididtus Cresson, a braconid parasite of the grape leaf folder. The perilampids, like the eucharitids, lay their eggs on foliage, and the eggs hatch into larvae of the planidium type.  The planidia remain on the foliage, attach to a passing host and penetrate into its body cavity. If a hyperparasitic species enters a caterpillar that is not parasitized, it usually does not develop, but if the caterpillar is parasitized, then the perilampid larva usually remains inactive in the caterpillar until the caterpillar parasitoid has pupated, and then attacks the parasitoid. The perilampids regularly attack the pupae of tachinids, braconids, or ichneumonids.



References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:   MELVYL Library ]


Bergold, G. & W. Ripper.  1937.  Leitsch. Parasit. 9:  394-417.Bouek, Z.  1956.  Acta Fauna Ent. Mus. Natl. Prague 1:  83-98.


Bouek, Z.  1978.  A generic key to the Perilampinae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) with a revision of Krombeinius n. gen. and Euperilampus Walker.  Ent. Scand. 9:  299-307.


Bouek, Z.  1980.  A revision of the genus Monacon Waterston (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Perilampinae), parasites of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Platypodidae).  Bull. Ent. Res. 70:  73-96.


Bouek, Z.  1988.  Australasian Chalcidoidea, a biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species.  CAB Internatl., Wallingford, UK.  832 p.


Crawford, J. C.  1916.  The species of Perilampidae of America north of Mexico.  Proc. Ent. Soc. WAsh. 16(2):  69-76.


Prinsloo, G. L.  1980.  An illustrated guide to the families of African Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera).  Rep. So. Africa, Dept. Agr. & Fisheries Sci. Bull. 395.  66 p.


Smith, H. S.  1912.  U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Ser. 19(4):  33-69.


Smulyan, R.  1936.  Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 83:  369-412.


Subba-Rao, B. R.  1988.  Family Perilampidae.  In:  B. R. Subba-Rao, & M. Hayat (eds.), Oriental Insects, Vol. 19.  Association For The Study of Oriental. Insects, Gainesville, FL.  329 p.


Trjapitcyn, V. A.  1978/1987.  Family Perilampidae (Perilampids).  In:  G. S. Medvedev (ed.) 1987, Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. Vol. 3 Hymenoptera, Pt. 2.  Akad. Nauk., Zool. Inst., Leningrad, SSSR. (trans. fr. Russian, Amerind. Publ. Co., Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi).  1341 p.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1984.  The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Part 12.  The Families and Subfamilies of Canadian Chalcidoid Wasps, Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea.  Biosystematics Res. Inst., Ottawa, Ontario, Res. Br. Agr. Canada Publ. 1760.  149 p.