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HYMENOPTERA, Elasmidae ( Old category under Chalcidoidea)  --  <Images> & <Juveniles>



          Elasmus is the only Genus in what is presently the subfamily Elasminae and there are about 205 species distributed worldwide. They are mostly parasitoids or hyperparasitoids of Lepidoptera larvae, but a few species are parasitoids of Polistes spp. larvae. References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:  MELVYL Library ]



References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library ]


Burks, B. D.  1965.  The North American species of Elasmus Westwood.  proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 78:  201-08.


Burks, B. D.  1971.  A North American Elasmus parasitic on Polistes.  J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 61:  194-96.


Compere, H.  1947.  A new genus and species, Eurymyiocnema aphelinoides (Hymenoptera Aphelinidae), and a history of the genera Euryischia Riley and Myiocnema Ashmead.  Bull. Ent. Res. 38:  381-88.


Ferrière, C.  1929a.  On three new chalcidoid parasites of Platyhedra.  Bull. Ent. Res. 20:  255-59.


Ferrière, C.  1929b.  The Asiatic and African species of the genus Elasmus, Westw. (Hym., Chalcid.).  Bull. Ent. Res. 20:  411-23.


Franzmann, B. A.  1980.  Parasitism of Phthorimaea operculella [Lep.: Gelechiidae] larvae in Queensland.  Entomophaga 25:  369-72.


Girault, A. A.  1918.  North American Hymenoptera-- Elasmidae.  Private Printing, Sydney, Australia.  4 p.


Girault, A. A.  1926.  New pests from Australia. II. Private publication, Brisbane.


Graham, M. W. R. de V.  1969.  The Pteromalidae of Northwestern Europe (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea).  Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist (Ent.) Suppl. 16:  1-908.


Hedqvist, K. J.  1960.  Hymenoptera (Chalcidoidea) Elasmidae.  In:  South African Animal Life, Chapter 23, Vol. 7.  Uppsala.


Naumann, I. D. & D. P. A. Sands.  1984.  Two Australian Elasmus spp., (Hymenoptera: Elasmidae), parasitoids of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae):  their taxonomy and biology.  J. Aust. Ent. Soc. 23:  25-32.


Peck, O., Z. Bou…ek & A. Hoffer.  1964.  Keys to the Chalcidoidea of Czechoslovakia (Insecta: Hymenoptera).  Mem. Ent. Soc. Canad. 34:  1-120.


Prinsloo, G. L.  1980.  An illustrated guide to the families of African Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera).  Rep. So. Africa, Dept. Agr. & Fisheries Sci. Bull. 395.  66 p.


Reed, H. C. & S. B. Vinson.  1979.  Observations of the life history and behaviour of Elasmus polistis Burks (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae).  J. Kan. Ent. Soc. 52:  247-57.


Riek, E. F.  1967.  Australian Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea family Eulophidae, subfamily Elasminae.  Aust. J. Zool. 15:  145-99.



Sands, D. P. A. & A. R. Hill.  1982.  Surveys for parasitoids of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Australia.  CSIRO Aust. Div. Ent. Rep. 29:  1-18.


Trjapitcyn, V. A.  1978/1987.  Family Elasmidae (Elasmids).  In:  G. S. Medvedev (ed.) 1987, Keys to the Insects of the European Part of the USSR. Vol. 3 Hymenoptera, Pt. 2.  Akad. Nauk., Zool. Inst., Leningrad, SSSR. (trans. fr. Russian, Amerind. Publ. Co., Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi).  1341 p.


Verma, M. & M. Hayat.  1988.  Family Elasmidae.  In:  B. R. Subba-Rao, & M. Hayat (eds.), Oriental Insects, Vol. 19.  Association For The Study of Oriental. Insects, Gainesville, FL.  329 p.


Yoshimoto, C. M.  1984.  The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Part 12.  The Families and Subfamilies of Canadian Chalcidoid Wasps, Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea.  Biosystematics Res. Inst., Ottawa, Ontario, Res. Br. Agr. Canada Publ. 1760.  149 p.