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DIPTERA, Cecidomyiidae (Macquart 1838) --  <Images> & <Juveniles>

 

Please refer also to the following link for details on this group:

 

       Cecidomyiidae:   Link 1

 

Description & Statistics

 

          Cecidomyiidae (sometimes spelled Cecidomyidae) is a family of flies (Order Diptera) known as gall midges or gall gnats.  Most gall midges feed within plant tissue, creating abnormal plant growths called galls.

          These are very delicate small insects usually only 2-3 mm in length and many are less than 1 mm long. They are characterised by hairy wings, unusual in the Order Diptera, and have long antennae. Worldwide there are 3000+ species but since 1,100 are from well-studied North America this may be an underestimate. Many are economically significant especially the important insect pest of wheat, the Hessian fly, the galls causing severe damage to the crop. Other important pests include the lentil flower midge (Contarinia lentis), the lucerne flower midge (C. medicaginis) and the alfalfa sprout midge (Dasineura ignorata) on the Leguminosae; the Swede midge (Contarinia nasturtii) and the brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae) on the Cruciferae; the pear midge (Contarinia pyrivora) the raspberry cane midge (Resseliella theobaldi) on fruit crops; and the rosette gall midge (Rhopalomyia solidaginis) on goldenrod stalks.

 

          Many species are natural enemies of other crop pests. The larvae of these species are predaceous, and some are even reported as parasitoids. The most common prey are aphids and spider mites, followed by scale insects , then other small prey such as whiteflies and thrips and many eat the eggs of other insects or mites. Because the tiny larva are incapable of moving considerable distances, there usually has to be a substantial population of prey present before the adults will lay eggs and Cecidiomyiidae are most frequently be seen during pest outbreaks. One species Aphidoletes aphidomyza is an important component of biological control programs for greenhouse crops and is widely sold in the United States of America.

 

          Cecidomyiidae are also known for the strange phenomenon of paedogenesis in which larvae are able to  reproduces without maturing first. In some species the daughter larvae are even produced within a mother larva , and they consume the mother and in other species reproduction occurs in the egg or pupa.

 

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References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library  ]

 

Barnes, H. F.  1929.  Bull. Ent. Res. 20:  433-42.

 

Cole, F. R.  1969.  The Flies of Western North America.  Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley & Los Angeles.  693 p.

 

Fedotova, Z. A. & E. E. Perkovsky.  2009: New gall midges of the tribe Leptosynini (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) from the Late Eocene ambers and the classification of the supertribe Heteropezidi. Paleontological journal, 43(9): 1101-1147.

 

Felt, E. P.  1940.  Plant and Gall Makers.  Comstock Publ. Co., Ithaca, NY.  364 p.

 

Gagne, R. J.  2004: A catalog of the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) of the world. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington, 25

 

Heong, KL, YH Chen, DE Johnson, GC Jahn, M Hossain, RS Hamilton. 2005. Debate Over a GM Rice Trial in China. Letters. Science, Vol 310, Issue 5746, 231-233 , 14 October 2005.

 

Huang, J., Ruifa Hu, Scott Rozelle, Carl Pray. 2005. Insect-Resistant GM Rice in Farmers' Fields: Assessing Productivity and Health Effects in China. Science (29 April 2005) Vol. 308. no. 5722, pp. 688 – 690

 

Jahn, GC and B. Khiev. 2004. Gall midge in Cambodian lowland rice. pp. 71-76. In: J. Benett, JS Bentur, IC Pasula, K. Krishnaiah, [eds]. New approaches to gall midge resistance in rice. Proceedings of the International Workshop, 22-24 November 1998, Hyderabad, India. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute and Indian Council of Agricultural Research. 195 p.

 

Kocak, A. O. & M. Kemal.  2010: Nomenclatural notes on the genus group names of the order Diptera. Centre for Entomological Studies Ankara miscellaneous papers, 151: 5-7.

 

Maia, V. C.  2010: A new replacement name for Brethesia Maia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Revista brasileira de entomologia, 54(1): 146.

 

Maia, V. C., G. W. Fernandes & D. Negreiros.  2009: A new genus and species of gall midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) associated with Myrcia retorta (Myrtaceae). Revista brasileira de entomologia, 53(1): 38–40.

 

Prichard, A. E.  1951.  Univ. Calif. Publ. Ent. 8:  239-75.

 

Prichard, A. E.  1953.  Calif. Insect Surv. Bull. 2:  125-50.

 

Sato, S. & J. Yukawa.  2009: Descriptions of two new Mikiola species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) that induce leaf galls on Fagus crenata (Fagaceae) in Japan. Studia dipterologica 15 (1/2): 151-164.