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HYMENOPTERA, Bradynobaenidae (Vespoidea). --  <Images> & <Juveniles>




          There were about 157 species in this family known as of 2000.  Most of them occur in tropical areas.  However, the family is absent from Australasia, Adults are often hairy and black, brown, reddish, or bicolored and sometimes marked with bands.  The integument is often thick and hard, and the females give a nasty sting.  Sex associations are very difficult (Brothers & Finnamore 1993).  All species are probably solitary.  Some information indicates that the larvae are ectoparasitic on Solifugae (Arachnida)


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References:   Please refer to  <biology.ref.htm>, [Additional references may be found at:  MELVYL Library]