`File:  <image.htm>                                                         <American Archeology>              <Narrative>                     Dedications                      <Home URL>   <Navigate to Main Menu>

 

 

CIVILIZATIONS IN AMERICA

 (Chronological order)

   (Contacts)

 

 

          Please CLICK on Periods and Figure numbers to view.  Depress Ctrl/F for subject search.

               

                =======================================================================

 

PRECLASSIC PERIOD in America (1800 BC - 150 AD) – [Previews]

 

CLASSIC PERIOD in America (150 AD - 900 AD)  – [Previews]

 

POST-CLASSIC PERIOD in America (900 AD - 1521 AD)  – [Previews]

 

                      Ethnic Diversity       Source & Location of Artifacts      Related Websites 

 

                ======================================================================================

                NOTE:  Estimated dates to the following are given by citations noted (see Bibliography),  Location of Artifacts

 

PRECLASSIC PERIOD IN AMERICA (1800 BC - 150 AD)   [See Previews]

 

Fig. 5.  The 260-day period of the Aztec year, or “tonalpohualli.”  Twenty days on wheel at right intermesh with

              numbers 1-13 on left wheel, in a true gear system (redrawn & modified from Coe 1994).

 

Fig. 263.  Olmec stone sculpture (15 in. high), Xochipala, Guerrero, Mexico, 1500-1000 BC. (Rose Art Mus.1981)

 

Fig. 264.  Sculpture of a woman (9.25 in. high), Xochipala, Guerroro, Mexico, 1500-1000 BC. (Rose Art Mus. 1981)

 

Fig. 265.  Olmec sculpture of a ballplayer (15.5 in. high), Xochipala, Guerroro, Mexico, 1500-1000 BC. (Rose Art

                  Mus. 1981)

 

Fig. 266.  Olmec sculpture of a woman (7 in. high), Puebla, Mexico, 1500-1000 BC. (Rose Art Mus.1981)

 

Fig. 258.  Ceramic woman, Tlatilco, Mexico, Pre-Classic (1000-600 BC.) (Lothrop 1964)

 

Fig. 259.  Ceramic woman (21 in. high), Nayarit, Mexico, Pre-Classic (Lothrop 1964)

 

Fig. 275.  Maize God sculpture, Copán, Honduras, Pre-Classic (Coe et al. 1986)

 

Fig. 6.  Stone sculpture, ca 9 ft. high, from San Lorenzo, Veracruz, dated 1200 - 500 BC.

 

Fig. 7.  Stone sculpture, 5 ft. high, from San Larenzo, Veracruz, dated 900-1200 BC (Kubler 1962).

 

Fig. 8.  Stone sculpture, ca 4 ft. high, from Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, dated 900-1200 BC (Kubler 1962).

 

Fig. 9.  Stone sculpture, ca 4 ft high, from La Venta, Tabasco, dated 900-1200 BC. (Kubler 1962).

 

Fig. 10.  Stone sculpture, ca 8 3/4 ft. high, from La Venta, Tabasco, dated 500-1200 BC.

 

Fig. 11.  Stone sculpture from Searsmont, Maine that Fell (1982) claimed bears Bronze Age European inscriptions.

 

Fig. 12.  Ceramic sculptures from Xochipala, Mexico, dated 1200 BC or earlier (Kubler 1984).

 

Fig. 13.  Solid ceramic figures from Valdivia, Ecuador dated ca. 1500-2000 BC (Kubler 1984).

 

Fig. 14.  Facial expressions on Olmec colossal heads found in southern Mexico since 1862.  They are believed

               to be portraits of prominent leaders (redrawn & modified from Stuart 1993).

 

Fig. 15.  Stone sculpture from Essex, Massachusetts, that Fell (1982) maintained is Breton style Norse (before

               Christ).

 

Fig. 16.  Stone sculpture from the Palangana phase at San Lorenzo, Veracruz, dated 1000 BC or earlier (Coe &

               Diehl 1980).

 

Fig. 17.  Clay statues shaped and posed deliberately to form a scene, from San Jose Mogote, Oaxaca, dated

                 1200-1800 BC (Fagan 1989).

 

Fig.186.  Ceramic of a person seated, Central Mexico (12.5 in. high)-- Pre-Classic (Von Winning 1968)

 

Fig 187.  Ceramic image of a person seated, Central Mexico (14.5 in. high)-- Pre-Classic (Von Winning 1968)

 

Fig.188.  Ceramic, man on stool, Colima, Mexico (20 in. high) -- Pre-Classic

 

Fig.189.  Ceramic, man with boomerang-like device, Colima, Mexico (13.8 in. high) -- Pre-Classic

 

Fig 190.  Ceramic, man with bowl, Colima, Mexico (13.3 in. high) -- Pre-Classic

 

Fig.191.  Ceramic, man seated, Colima, Mexico (11.8 in. high) -- Pre-Classic

 

Fig.192.  Ceramic, head of man?, Colima, Mexico (9.5 in. high) -- Pre-Classic

 

Fig 193.  Ceramic, woman & man, Autlán, Jalisco, Mexico (9.5 & 10 in. high) -- Pre-Classic

 

Fig.194.  Ceramic, woman, Autlán, Jalisco, Mexico (8.8 in. high) -- Pre-Classic

 

Fig.195.  Ceramic, man seated, Autlán, Jalisco, Mexico (24.5 in. high) -- Pre-Classic

 

Fig 196.  Ceramic, woman seated, Etzatlán, Jalisco, Mexico (19 in. high) -- Pre-Classic

 

Fig.197.  Ceramic, woman, South Nayarit, Mexico (23.5 in. high) -- Pre-Classic

 

Fig.198.  Ceramic, man & woman, South Nayarit, Mexico (18.8 & 17.5 in. high) -- Pre-Classic

 

Fig. 18.  Early Ogam alphabet, expressing only consonants, the diphthong “ui” and semivowel “ya.”  Use of

               the ogam alphabet was suppressed in  Roman colonies in 133 BC (after Fell 1982).

 

Fig. 19.  Norse inscriptions found in Western North America.

 

Fig. 20.  Evidence for sheep farming in Bronze Age North America or 1,700 BC (Fell 1982).

 

Fig. 21.  Stone sculpture, 2 1/5th ft. high, from Santa Maria, Uxpanapan, Mexico, dated 400-1200 BC

               (Feuchtwanger 1953).

 

Fig. 22.  Polychrome painting in Juxtlahuaca Cave, Guerrero, Mexico, showing image of a bearded man, dated

                400-1200 BC (Coe 1994).

 

Fig. 23.  Jade statue, 4 3/4 in. high, or a crying child, from Cerro de las Mesas, Veracruz, dated 550-1150 BC

               (Easby & Scott 1970).

 

Fig. 24.  Jade Mask in Olmec style, ca. 7 in high, from Veracruz area, Mexico, dated 500-1000 BC (Berjonneau et al. 

               1985).

 

Fig. 25.  Jade mask in Olmec style, ca. 6 2/3rds in. high, from Puebla, Mexico, dated 500-1000 BC (Berjonneau et al.

               1985).

 

Fig. 26.  Argillite sculpture, ca. 5 in. high, from Guerrero, Mexico, dated 500-1000 BC (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 27.  Ceramic sculpture of a young woman, 4 in. high, from the Rio Balsas area, Guerrero, Mexico, dated 500-

               1500 BC  (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 28.  Ceramic sculpture, 1.2 ft. high, from Las Bocas, Puebla, Mexico, dated 500-1000 BC (Berjonneau et al.

              1985).

 

Fig. 29.  Hollow ceramic sculpture, 13 in. high, from Las Bocas, Puebla, Mexico, dated 900-1200 BC (Stuart 1993).

 

Fig. 30.  Ceramic figure, 1 2/3rds in. high, from Tlatilco, Mexico, dated 600-1000 BC (Von Wuthenau 1969)

 

Fig. 31.  Ceramic figure, 2 in. high, from Tlapacoyan, Mexico, dated 100-1000 BC  (Von Wuthenau 1969)

 

Fig. 32.  Ceramic figure, 5 1/2 in. high, from Tlatilco, Mexico, dated 600-1000 BC  (Von Wuthenau 1969)

 

Fig. 33.  Ceramic sculpture, 2.7 in. high, from Xochipala, Guerrero, Mexico, dated 500-1500 BC (Berjonneau et al.

               1985).

 

Fig. 34.  Ceramic sculpture of a woman, 7 in. high, from Xochipala, Guerrero, Mexico, dated 500-1500 BC

              (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 35.  Ceramic figure, 9 in. high, from Guerrero, Mexico, dated 500-1000 BC (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 36.  Ceramic sculpture of two women, left = 5 1/4 in. high, right = 7 1/2 in. long, from Las Bocas, Puebla,

               Mexico, dated 500-1000 BC  (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 37.  Two views of jadeite figure, 9 1/2 in. high, from southern Mexico, dated 500-1200 BC (Kelemen 1956).

 

Fig. 38.  Jadeite sculpture from Puebla, Mexico, dated 400-1200 BC (Kelemen 1956).

 

Fig. 39.  Jadeite sculpture, 5 in. high, from southern Mexico, dated ca. 500-1200 BC (Kelemen 1956).

 

Fig. 40.  Dark stone sculpture, ca 3 3/4 in. high, from southern Mexico, dated ca. 400-1200 BC (Kelemen 1956).

 

Fig. 41.  Fuchsite sculpture from Tamahu, Guatemala, dated 200-400 BC (Easby & Scott 1970).

 

Fig. 42.  Pyrite figure, ca. 4 in. high, from southern Mexico, dated ca. 400-1200 BC (Kelemen 1956).

 

Fig. 43.  Dark jade sculpture, ca 3 1/2 in. high, from La Lima, Honduras, dated 400-1200 BC (Kelemen 1956).

 

Fig. 44.  “The Acrobat” from Tlatilco, Mexico, dated ca. 800 BC (Bernal 1968).

 

Fig. 45.  Jadeite sculpture from El Tejar, Veracruz, dated ca. 900 BC (Bernal 1968).

 

Fig. 46.  Sculptured stone head & upper body from the La Venta culture of Tres Zapotes, Mexico, dated prior to

               900 BC (Westheim 1950).

 

Fig. 47.  Ceramic head, 1.5 in. high from Tlatilco, Mexico, dated 600-1000 BC (Von Wuthenau 1965).

 

Fig. 48.  Ceramic sculpture from Tiahuanaco, Peru, dated 1000 BC or earlier (Bailey 1994).

 

Fig. 49.  The adolescent “Irish Girl” from Tlatilco, Valley of Mexico, dated 600-1200 BC (Tibon 1967).

 

Fig. 50.  The “Lady with the Solemn Face” from Tlatilco, Valley of Mexico, dated 100-1200 BC (Tibon 1967).

 

Fig. 51.  Stone figure from La Venta, Tabasco, dated 1000 BC or earlier (Bailey 1994).

 

Fig. 52.  Stone sculpture, 4 1/2 in. high, of Olmec culture, southern Mexico, dated 200-1200 BC (Coe 1994).

 

Fig. 53.  Greenstone sculpture, 1.8 ft. high, from Las Limas, Veracruz, dated 100-1200 BC (Coe 1994).

 

Fig. 212.  Stone implement, Wayne Co., Michigan (12.7 cm. high), 2000-1000 BC (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 213.  Stone implement (12 cm. high), Madison Co., Illinois, 2000-1000 BC (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 214.  Stone implement (9.7 cm. high), Well Co., Indiana, 2000-1000 BC. (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 216.  Ceramic bowl (11 cm. high), Olmec, Guerrero, Mexico, 1250-900 BC (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 217.  Ceramic bowls (11 cm. high), Olmec, Las Bocas, Puebla, Mexico, 1250-900 BC (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 218.  Ceramic bowl (11 cm. high), Olmec, Las Bocas, Puebla, Mexico, 1250-900 BC (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 229.  Ceramic seated woman (25.7 cm. high), Santa Ana Betijogue, Trujillo, Venezuela, 1000 - 300 BC (van

                  Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 239.  Stone seated man, Olmec, La Venta, Tabasco, Mexico, 1500-300 BC

 

Fig. 240.  Jadite man (9.5 in. high), Olmec, Mexico, 1500-300 BC

 

Fig. 241.  Jadite man (9.4 in. high), Olmec, Mexico, 1500-300 BC

 

Fig. 242.  Ceramic man (16.25 in. high), Olmec, Mexico, 1500-300 BC

 

Fig. 243.  El Lanzόn, granite, (14.75 ft. high), Chavín de Huántar, Ancash, Peru, 1200-600 BC

 

Fig. 244.  Diorite stela (6.5 ft. high), Chavín de Huántar, Ancash, Peru, 1200-600 BC

 

Fig. 230.  Ceramic woman (31 cm. high), Chorrera, Ecuador, 1200-300 BC. (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 231.  Ceramic woman (41.5 cm. high), Ecuador, 1200-300 BC (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 236.  Ceramic man (13.5 in. high), Colima, Mexico, 1000-300 BC

 

Fig. 219.  Jade comb in shape of a hand (20 cm. long), Olmec, 900-400 BC (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 220.  Onyx bowl (12.5 cm. high), Olmec, 900-400 BC (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 221.  Ceramic figure (11 cm. high), Olmec, Las Bocas, Puebla, Mexio, 900-400 BC

 

Fig. 54.  Ceramic sculpture, 4 1/3rd in. high, from El Salvador, dated ca. 600 BC (Von Wuthenau 1969).

 

Fig. 55.  Ceramic sculpture, 2 3/4 in. high, from Guerrero, Mexico, dated ca. 600 BC. (Von Wuthenau 1969).

 

Fig. 56.  Jade pendant, 3 1/4 in. high, from southern Mexico, Olmec/Maya region, dated 200-600 BC (Kelemen

               1956).

 

Fig. 57.  Green jadeite sculpture, 7 in. high, from Veracruz area, Mexico, dated 500-1000 BC (Berjonneau et al.

               1985).

 

Fig. 58.  Stone relief from Monte Alb<n, Oaxaca, Mexico, dated 300-700 BC (Kubler 1962).

 

Fig. 59.  Figures carved from serpentine and jade, from La Venta, Tabasco, dated ca. 600 BC (Stuart 1993).

 

Fig. 60.  Ceramic sculpture, front and lateral view, 2 1/3rd in. high, from La Venta area, Tabasco, dated 400 BC or

               earlier (Von Wuthenau 1975).

 

Fig. 61.  Olmec basalt sculpture of a man gazing at the sky with both hands clasped behind his neck, from la

               Venta, Tabasco, dated 600 BC or earlier (Stierlin 1981).

 

Fig. 185  Clay seal with inscription from La Venta,, Tabasco, Mexico, dated ca. 600 B.C. (Zackowitz 2003)

 

Fig. 62.  Olmec mask from Las Choapas, Mexico, dated 600-500 BC (Stierlin 1981).

 

Fig. 63.  Olmec mask from Las Choapas, Mexico, dated 400-500 BC (Stierlin 1981).

 

Fig. 64.  Stone lintel above a church door in Tihosuco, Yucatan, Mexico, that Marx (1992) claimed shows a

               Phoenician inscription.

 

Fig. 65.  Ceramic sculpture from la Venta, Tabasco, Mexico, dated 400 BC or earlier (Kubler 1984).

 

Fig. 66.  Clay sculpture, 8 1/3rd in. high, dated 100-600 BC or earlier, from Esmeraldas Peninsula, Ecuador (Von

                Wuthenau 1969).

 

Fig. 67.  Ceramic sculpture with large ears, 2 ft. high, from Colima, Mexico, dated 200 BC - 300 AD (Berjonneau et

                al. 1985).

 

Fig. 68.  Stone sculpture, 1.6 in. high, from Poapuil, Guatemala, dated 100-300 BC (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 69.  Ceramic sculpture of woman (left) and man (right), 8 2/5ths in. long, from Colima, Mexico, dated 300 BC -

               100 AD (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 70.  Ceramic sculpture on a Zapotec vessel, ca. 2 1/rd in. high, from Oaxaca, Mexico, dated 400 BC - 150 AD

(Von Wuthenau 1975).

 

Fig. 71.  Ceramic sculpture, 1 3/4 in. high, from Guerrero, Mexico, dated 400 BC - 150 Ad (Von Wuthenau 1975).

 

Fig. 72.  Jadeite mask from southern Mexico, dated ca. 100 BC (Easby & Scott 1970).

 

Fig. 73.  Ceramic figure, 2 3/4 in. high, dated earlier than 300 Ad, from plateau of southern Mexico (Von Wuthenau

               1969).

 

Fig. 74.  Ceramic sculpture, from Jalisco, Mexico, dated 100 AD or earlier (Kubler 1984.).

 

Fig. 75.  “The Scribe” of Cuilapan, Oaxaca, Mexico, dated 1-150 BC (Easby & Scott 1970).

 

Fig. 76.  Roman amphorae from a Roman shipwreck found by Marx (1992) off the Brazilian coast.  Dated ca. 100

               AD.

 

Fig. 77.  Ceramic figures of a dog and baby, 10 1/2 and 11 in. high, from Colima, Col., Mexico, dated 400 BC to 150

               AD.

 

Fig. 78.  Ceramic bowls of Olmec culture, from Guerrero, Mexico, dated 500-1000 BC (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 79.  Ceramic bowl of Olmec culture, Guerrero, Mexico, dated 500-1000 BC (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 80.  Ceramic sculpture of a duck, 6 in. high, from Olmec culture, Puebla, Mexico, dated 500-1000 BC

               (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 81.  Ceramic bowl of Olmec culture, Guerrero, Mexico, dated 500-1000 BC (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 82.  Ceramic bowl of Olmec culture, from Las Bocas, Puebla, dated 500-1000 BC (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig.188.  Ceramic, man on stool, Colima, Mexico (20 in. high) -- Pre-Classic (Von Winning 1968)

 

Fig.189.  Ceramic, man with boomerang-like device, Colima, Mexico (13.8 in. high) -- Pre-Classic (Von Winning

                1968)

 

Fig 190.  Ceramic, man with bowl, Colima, Mexico (13.3 in. high) -- Pre-Classic (Von Winning 1968)

 

Fig.191.  Ceramic, man seated, Colima, Mexico (11.8 in. high) -- Pre-Classic (Von Winning 1968)

 

Fig.192.  Ceramic, head of man?, Colima, Mexico (9.5 in. high) -- Pre-Classic (Von Winning 1968)

 

Fig 193.  Ceramic, woman & man, Autlán, Jalisco, Mexico (9.5 & 10 in. high) -- Pre-Classic (Von Winning 1968)

 

Fig.194.  Ceramic, woman, Autlán, Jalisco, Mexico (8.8 in. high) -- Pre-Classic (Von Winning 1968)

 

Fig.195.  Ceramic, man seated, Autlán, Jalisco, Mexico (24.5 in. high) -- Pre-Classic (Von Winning 1968)

 

Fig 196.  Ceramic, woman seated, Etzatlán, Jalisco, Mexico (19 in. high) -- Pre-Classic (Von Winning 1968)

 

Fig.197.  Ceramic, woman, South Nayarit, Mexico (23.5 in. high) -- Pre-Classic (Von Winning 1968)

 

Fig.198.  Ceramic, man & woman, South Nayarit, Mexico (18.8 & 17.5 in. high) -- Pre-Classic (Von Winning 1968)

 

Fig. 232.  Ceramic woman (11.7 cm. high), Chorrera, Ecuador, 400-200 BC (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 233.  Ceramic woman, (14.5 cm. high), Chorrera, Ecuador, 400-200 BC (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 222.  Stone carving (27 cm. high), Maya, 300-100 BC  (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 209.  Ceramic, boy seated (28 cm high), Colima, Mexico -- 200 BC – 300 AD, late Pre-Classic

 

Fig. 208.  Ceramic, person seated (33.5 cm high), Michocán, Mexico -- 200 BC – 300 AD, late Pre Classic

 

Fig. 210.  Walrus tusk (19.4 cm.), St. Lawrence Is., Alaska, 100 BC – 100 AD (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 211.  Walrus tusk (12.5 cm.), St. Lawrence Is., Alaska, 200 BC – 100 AD (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 215.  Wilmington Table, (9.8 cm. high), Clinton Co., Ohio, 100 BC – 1 AD (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 223.  Marble bowl (9.5 cm. high), Maya, 100 BC – 300 AD (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 204.  Ceramic, group of women (21.5 cm. high), Jalisco, Mexico--  200 BC – 300 AD, late Pre-Classic

 

Fig. 205.  Ceramic, man (33.5 cm high), Colima, Mexico--  200 BC – 300 AD, late Pre-Classic

 

Fig. 245.  Figure of a man in gold (10.25 in. high), Cauca  Valley, Colombia, Quimbaya Culture, 200 BC-500 AD

 

Fig. 209.  Ceramic, boy seated (28 cm high), Colima, Mexico-- 200 BC – 300 AD, late Pre Classic

 

Fig. 208.  Ceramic, person seated (33.5 cm high), Michocán, Mexico--  200 BC – 300 AD, late Pre Classic

 

Fig. 1.  .Pottery image of a dog-like animal with a crown from Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, dated ca. 100-200 AD.  Such

              “toys” were able to be pulled, but they are believed to be funeral offerings because they shown no ear

               (Pettit & Pettit 1978).

 

Fig. 2.  A wheeled “toy” from Mexico and dated from ca. 100-200 AD (Jairazbhoy 1976)

 

Fig. 273.  Ceramic figures from Jalisco, Mexico, Late Pre-Classic (Coe et al. 1986)

 

Fig. 267.  Ceramic male athlete, 11 in. high, Colima, Mexico, 300 BC – 250 AD. (Rose Art Mus 1981)

 

Fig. 268.  Ceramic woman (16 in. high), Jalisco, Mexico, 300 BC. – 250 AD. (Rose Art Mus. 1981)

 

 

CLASSIC PERIOD IN AMERICA (150 AD - 900 AD)  [See Previews]

 

Fig. 280.  Beaver stone pipe, Bedford Mount, Illinois, 100 BC. – 600 AD. (Coe et al. 1986)

 

Fig. 3.  Ceramic deer on wheels, from Remojadas, Veracruz, dated ca. 600-800 AD (Coe 1994)

 

Fig. 4.  Wheeled cat-like whistle of clay, 9.25 in. high from Veracruz, Mexico, dated 550-950 AD (Easby & Scott

                              1970)

.

Fig. 252.  Standing woman of gold, Cerro Ladrillo Blanco, Peru, 200 BC-800 AD

 

Fig. 251.  Ceramic man, (10.5 in. high) Mochica culture Peru (200 BC-800 AD)

 

Fig 199.  Ceramic, woman, Remojadas, Veracruz, Mexico (25.3 in. high)-- early Classic (Von Winning 1968)

 

Fig.200.  Ceramic, ballplayer with helmet, Remojadas, Veracruz, Mexico (27 in. high)-- early Classic (Von Winning

                1968)

 

Fig. 83.  Warrior-king, Harvest Mountain Lord, from La Mojarra, Mexico (his name in glyphs at right).  This

                writing, dated 143-156 AD, was the earliest known in America until the 2002 findings in Veracruz, Mexico

                of earlier 600 BC Olmec writings (see Fig. 185).

 

Fig. 84.  Ceramic sculpture, 1 ft. high, from Jalisco, Mexico, dated 200 BC - 300 AD (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 85.  Ceramic sculpture, 1 1/2 ft. high, from Jalisco, Mexico, dated 200 BC - 300 AD (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 86.  Ceramic sculpture from Teotihuacan, Mexico, dated 100-200 AD (Chan 1960).

 

Fig. 156.  Ceramic vessel with relief of dancing deer, from the Mochica culture, northern Peru, dated 200-500 AD

                 (Kubler 1984).

 

Fig. 157.  Ceramic figure of a bird, 11 in. high, from Colima, Mexico, dated 200 BC - 300 AD (Berjonneau et al.

                 1985).

 

Fig. 158.  Ceramic figure of a dog, 13 1/2 in. high, from Colima, Mexico, dated 200 BC - 300 AD (Berjonneau et al.

                 1985).

 

Fig. 159.  Ceramic sculpture of two young dogs, 1 1/4 ft high, from Colima, Mexico, dated 200 BC - 300 AD

                 (Bernonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig 4.  Wheeled cat-like whistle of clay, 9 1/4 in. high, from Veracruz, Mexico, dated 550-950 AD. (Easby & Scott

            1970).

 

Fig. 160.  Stone hatchet from Tuxtla Mts., Veracruz, dated 550-750 AD (Easby & Scott 1970).

 

Fig. 161.  Stone hatchet, from Veracruz area, Mexico, dated 500-900 AD (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 162.  Ceramic sculpture of a Mochica man, from northern Peru, dated 400-800 AD (Lehmann 1960).

 

Fig. 87.  Ceramic sculpture from Jalisco, Mexico, dated ca. 200 AD (Kubler 1984).

 

Fig. 89.  Ceramic sculpture from Veracruz, Mexico, dated 300 AD or earlier (Von Wuthenau 1969).

 

Fig. 90.  Jade sculpture from southern Veracruz, Mexico, dated 300 AD or earlier (Kubler 1962).

 

Fig. 91.  Jadeite sculpture with torch and hilt of sword, from Puebla, Mexico, dated 500 AD or earlier (Soustelle

               1979).

 

Fig. 92.  Jadeite stature from Pesquero, Veracruz, dated 500 AD or earlier (Soustelle 1979).

 

Fig. 93.  Clay statue from Teotihuacan, Mexico, dated 500 AD or earlier (Stuart 1995).

 

Fig. 94.  Mold (top) and mask produced from it (bottom), from Teotihuacan, Mexico, dated 500 Ad or earlier

                (Stuart 1995).

 

Fig. 95.  Olmec stone sculpture from Azuzul, Mexico, dated 500 AD or earlier (Stuart 1993).

 

Fig. 96.  “Le Prince” of Sayula, Veracruz, dated 500 AD or earlier (Soustelle 1979).

 

Fig. 97.  “La Abuela” of La Venta, Tabasco, Mexico, dated 500 AD or earlier (Soustelle 1979).

 

Fig. 98.  Clay statue from Teotihuacan, Mexico, dated 500 AD or earlier (Stuart 1995).

 

Fig. 99.  Ceramic vessel of the Mochica culture, northern Peru, dated 200-500 AD (Kubler 1984).

 

Fig. 100.  Ceramic sculpture, 1 1/2 ft. high, from Veracruz area, Mexico, dated 250-550 AD (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 101.  Ceramic figure, 2 3/4 in. high, from northern Veracruz, Mexico, dated 100-600 AD (Von Wuthenau 1969).

 

Fig. 102.  Ceramic figure, 1 2/3rds in. high, from northern Veracruz, Mexico, dated 100-600 AD (Von Wuthenau

                 1969).

 

Fig. 103.  Ceramic sculpture, ca. 6 in. high, from Teotihuacan, Mexico, dated ca. 150-600 AD (Von Wuthenau

                 1975).

 

Fig. 104.  Ceramic figure, 2 1/3rd in. high, from northern Veracruz, Mexico, dated 100-600 AD (Von Wuthenau

                  1969).

 

Fig. 105.  Ceramic figure from Teotihuacan, Mexico, dated ca. 600 AD (Chan 1960).

 

Fig. 106.  Sculpture of a woman from the Valley of Mexico, dated 100-650 AD (Tibon 1967).

 

Fig. 107.  Sculpture of a woman athlete, 4 in. high, from Veracruz area, Mexico, dated 100-650 AD (Tibon 1967).

 

Fig. 108.  Jadeite figures, 3 1/8th and 4 1/3rd in. high, from Teotihuacan, Mexico, dated 300-600 AD (Berjonneau et

                al. 1985).

 

Fig. 109.  Ceramic vase, 12.6 in. high, from Xpalanque, Mexico, dated 300-600 AD (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 110.  Ceramic sculpture, 3 1/2 in. high, from Veracruz, Mexico, dated 300-600 AD (Von Wuthenau 1969).

 

Fig. 111.  Ceramic sculpture on a Mochica vessel, 5 1/2 in. high, from northern Peru, dated ca. 600 AD (Von

                 Wuthenau 1975).

 

Fig. 112.  Ceramic statues with Hindu characteristics, reported by Marx (1992) from Guatemala, dated 600-700 AD.

 

Fig. 113.  Maya stone sculpture, in Japanese style, from southern Mexico, dated 600-800 AD (Jairazbhoy 1976).

 

Fig. 114.  Ceramic sculpture, 3.9 in. high, from Veracruz area, Mexico, dated 300-900 AD (Von Wuthenau 1969).

 

Fig. 115.  Ceramic figure, 4 1/3rd in. high, from Zapotec culture, Oaxaca, Mexico, dated 300-900 AD (Von

                 Wuthenau 1969).

 

Fig. 116.  Ceramic sculpture on a flute, ca. 2 in. high, from Tuxtla area, Veracruz, Mexico, dated 300-900 AD (Von

                 Wuthenau 1969).

 

Fig. 117.  Ceramic figure, 6 3/4 in. high, from Veracruz, Mexico, dated 300-900 AD (Von Wuthenau 1969).

 

Fig. 118.  Ceramic figure, 6 3/4 in. tall, from Veracruz, Mexico, dated 300-900 AD (Von Wuthenau 1969).

 

Fig. 119.  Ceramic sculpture of a Mochica man. 12 in. high, from Trujillo, Peru, dated 500-800 AD (Lehman 1956).

 

Fig. 120.  Ceramic sculpture of a Mochica man, 5 in. high, from Trujillo, Peru, dated 500-800 AD (Kelemen 1956).

 

Fig. 121.  Ceramic sculpture of a Mochica man, 7 1/4 in. high, from Chicama, Peru, dated 500-800 AD (Kelemen

                 1956).

 

Fig. 122.  Ceramic sculpture of a Mochica man, 8 1/2 in. high, from Chicama, Peru, dated 500-800 AD (Kelemen

                 1956).

 

Fig. 123.  Ceramic sculpture of a Mochica man, from northern Peru, dated 200-800 AD (Kubler 1962).

 

Fig. 124.  Jade plaque from Nebaj, Guatemala, dated ca. 600 AD (Kubler 1984).

 

Fig. 125.  Ceramic vase from San Agustin, southern Mexico, dated ca. 700 AD (Kubler 1962).

 

Fig. 126.  Maize god from Copan, Honduras, dated ca. 700 AD (Shao 1976).

 

Fig. 127.  Stone sculpture of a Maya warrior-king from Guatemala, dated ca. 731 AD (Stuart 1993).

 

Fig. 128.  Stela at Copan, Honduras, dated 731 AD.  Shao (1976) noted that the two joined heads with long snouts

                 closely resemble the pair of elephants on the north gate of the Great Stupa, Stanci, India.

 

Fig. 129.  Ceramic sculpture of a woman, 2 1/4 ft. high from Guanacaste, Costa Rica, dated 500-800 AD (Abel-

                 Vidor et al. 1981).

 

Fig. 130.  Sculpture of a conquered warrior named Jaguar Paw Jaguar, from Seibal, Guatemala, dated ca. 735 AD

                 (Stuart 1993).

 

Fig. 131.  Elephant headdress with curled tusks and large ears on stela from Copan, Honduras, dated 756 AD

                 (Shao 1976).

 

Fig. 132.  Relief sculpture on a building at Copan, Guatemala, dated 750-782 AD (Stierlin 1981).

 

Fig. 133.  Chac, the long-nosed god and rain symbol for the Maya in Yucatan, Mexico, dated ca. 800 AD.  Stierlin

                 (1981) compared the nose with an elephant, but is more likely the tongue of a rattlesnake.

 

Fig. 134.  Stela from Copan, Honduras, dated from 782 AD (Shao 1976).

 

Fig. 135.  Copán, Honduras stela with Tibetan style beaded skirt, dated 782 AD (Shao 1976).

 

Fig. 136.  Oriental style sailing ship reported by Marx (1992) to be carved on an Inca ruin in Peru (location

                  unknown).

 

Fig. 137.  Stone sculpture from Comalcalco, Tabasco, Mexico, dated 700-800 AD (Stierlin 1981).

 

Fig. 138.  Stone sculpture, 1 ft. high, from Veracruz, Mexico, dated 500-900 AD (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 139.  Ceramic sculpture from Veracruz, Mexico, dated 800 AD (Kubler 1984).

 

Fig. 140.  Stone hatchet, 8.9 in. high, from Tonina, Veracruz, dated 500-900 AD (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 141.  Stone hatchet, 1.2 ft. high, from Veracruz, Mexico, dated 500-900 AD (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 142.  Ceramic sculpture from Veracruz, Mexico, dated 600-900 AD (Von Wuthenau 1969).

 

Fig. 143.  Stone sculpture from Campeche, Mexico, dated 600-900 AD (Shao 1976).

 

Fig. 144.  Ceramic sculpture of a Maya soldier, 6 1/8th in. high, from Jaina Is., Campeche, Mexico, dated 600-900

                 AD (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 145.  Ceramic figure from Campeche, Mexico, dated 700-900 AD, that Shao (1976) noted is almost an exact

                 counterpart of the Asian Asparas of the 5th Century Wei Dynasty.

 

Fig. 146.  Stone relief from Palenque, Mexico, dated ca. 780-900 AD (Kubler 1984).

 

Fig. 147.  Ceramic incense burner, 7 in. high, from Acatlan, Puebla, Mexico, dated ca. 800-900 AD (Berjonneau et

                 al. 1985).

 

Fig. 149.  Stone sculpture of a bound person, 3.2 ft. high, from Linea Vieja, Costa Rica, dated ca. 1000 AD (Abel-

                 Vidor 1981).

 

Fig. 150.  Ceramic sculpture, 3 1/2 in. high, from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, dated 500-1000 AD (Abel-

                 Vidor et al. 1981).

 

Fig. 151.  Stone sculpture of a warrior, 5.2 ft. high, from Azul de Turrialba, Costa Rica, dated 700-1000 AD (Abel-

                 Vidor et al. 1981).

 

Fig. 152.  Stone sculpture of a warrior, 1.4 ft. high, from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, dated 700-1000 AD

                 (Abel-Vidor et al. 1981).

 

Fig. 153.  Stone sculpture, 1.8 ft. high, from Azul de Turrialba, Costa Rica, dated 700-1000 AD (Abel-Vidor et al.

                  1981).

 

Fig. 154.  A bull carved on the wall of a ruin at Tulum, Mexico, dated by Marx (1992) as 1000 AD or earlier.

 

Fig. 163.  Stone hatchet, 9 in. high, from Veracruz area, Mexico, dated 500-900 AD (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 164.  Stone hatchet from Veracruz area, Mexico, dated 500-900 AD (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 165.  Stone hatchet, from Veracruz area, Mexico, dated 500-900 AD (Berjonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 238.  Ceramic Man (17.25 in. high), Jalisco, Mexico, ca. 500 AD

 

Fig. 253.  Ceramic man, Mochica culture Peru (ca. 500 AD)

 

Fig. 207.  Ceramic, woman seated (36 cm high), Monte Albán, Oaxaca, Mexico—300 – 600 AD, Classic

 

Fig. 234.  Ceramic vase (30.5 cm. high), Mochica from Peru, 300-600 AD (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 237.  Ceramic woman (14.5 in. high), Jalisco, Mexico, 300-900 AD

 

Fig. 254.  Ceramic woman, Maya, Jaina Island, Campeche, Mexico, 700-900 AD

 

Fig. 255.  Olmec stone statue, “The Acrobat” (ca. 500-800 AD)

 

Fig. 256.  Ceramic Maya warrior (ca. 500-800 AD)

 

Fig. 257.  Ceramic Maya god of corn. (ca 500-800 AD)

 

Fig. 235.  Ceramic Vase (22.3 c. high), La Aguada, Peru, 650-850 AD (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 246.  Façade at Uxmal, Yucatán, Mexico, Maya culture, “Tongue of Snake”, 600-900 AD.

 

Fig. 247.  Ceramic man (9.5 in. high), Jaina, Campeche, Mexico, Maya Classic Period (600-900 AD)

 

Fig. 248.  Ceramic man (8 in. high), Jaina, Campeche, Mexico, Maya Classic Period (600-900 AD)

 

Fig. 249.  Ceramic man (10.5 in. high), Jaina, Campeche, Mexico, Maya Classic Period (600-900 AD)

 

Fig. 250.  Ceramic man (9.75 in. high), Jaina, Campeche, Mexico, Maya Classic Period (600-900 AD)

 

Fig. 227.  Basalt carving of a man (56 cm. high), Atlantic Coast of Costa Rica, 500-1000 AD

 

Fig. 228.  Basalt carving of a man (30 cm. high), Atlantic Coast of Costa Rica, 100-1200 AD (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 224.  Ceramic warrior (ca. 25 cm. high), Jaina, Campeche, Mexico, 700-900 AD (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 225.  Ceramic Head (24.5 cm. high), Jaina, Campeche Mexico, 700-900 AD (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 201.  Basalt, head of man, Central Veracruz, Mexico (10 in. high)-- late Classic (Von Winning 1968)

 

Fig. 202.  Basalt, head of man, Central Veracruz, Mexico (9 in. high)-- late Classic (Von Winning 1968)

 

Fig.203.  Basalt, man seated, Jaina, Campeche, Mexico, Mexico (6.8 in. high)-- late Classic (Von Winning 1968)

 

Fig. 269.  Clay figures (20 in. high), Remojads, Veracruz, Mexico, 500-900 AD.  (Rose Art Mus. 1981)

 

Fig. 270.  Stone bottle shaped as a woman nursing (15 cm. high), Cahokia, Illinois, 600-1250 AD (Coe et al. 1986)

 

Fig. 271.  Stone vessel (16 cm. high), Paducah, Kentucky, 600+ AD. (Coe et al. 1986)

 

Fig. 274.  Ceramic smiling boy, Remojadas, Veracruz, Classic (600-800 AD.) (Coe et al. 1986)

 

Fig. 272.  Stone pipe (17 cm. long), Emerald Mound, Mississippi, 600+ AD. (Coe et al. 1986)

 

Fig. 260.  Ceramic man (9 in. high), Jaina, Campeche, Mexico, Late Classic Maya (600-900 AD) (Lothrop 1964)

 

Fig. 261.  Ceramic figure (10 5/8 in. high), Jaina, Campeche, Mexico, Late Classic Maya (600-900 AD) (Lothrop

                 1964)

 

Fig. 262.  Jade carving, Depto. Quiché, Guatemala, Late Classic Maya (600-900 AD) (Lothrop 1964)

 

Fig. 276.  Man & woman sculpture, Jaina, Campeche, Mexico, Late Classic (600-900 AD) (Coe et al. 1986)

 

Fig. 277.  Ceramic man (10.5 in. high), Jaina, Campeche, Mexico, Late Classic (600-900 AD) (Von Winning 1968)

 

Fig. 278.  Ceramic woman and man whistle (6 in. high), Jaina, Campeche, Mexico, Late Classic  (600-900 AD) (Von

                  Winning 1968)

 

Fig. 279.  Bone carving of a man (3.3 in. high), Jaina, Campeche, Mexico, Late Classic (600-900 AD) (Von Winning

                 1968)

 

Fig. 281.  Ceramic woman (10 cm. high), Jaina, Campeche, Mexico, Classic (600-900 AD) (Von Winning 1968)

 

Fig. 226.  Stone carving of a warrior (156 cm. high), Atlantic Coast of Costa Rica, 700-1000 AD (van Geluwe 1992)

 

Fig. 155.  Wooden statue in pose common to Buddhist art and wearing Buddhist-like attire, from Tabasco,

                  Mexico, dated 600-1200 AD (Shao 1976).

 

 

POST-CLASSIC PERIOD IN AMERICA (900 AD - 1521 AD)  [See Previews]

 

Fig. 166.  Ceramic figure from Chehuayo, Michoacan, Mexico, dated ca. 1100 - 1250 AD (Chan 1960).

 

Fig. 167.  Stone sculpture of an old man, from the Totonac culture in the Valley of Mexico, dated 1000 AD or

                 earlier (Simoni-Abbat  1976).

 

Fig. 168.  Sculpture of the Toltec god Quetzalcoatl in the National Museum of Mexico, dated 1000 AD or earlier

                 (Simoni-Abbat 1976).

 

Fig. 169.  Statue from El Tamuin, Veracruz, dated 1000 AD or earlier (Simoni-Abbat 1976).

 

Fig. 170.  Ceramic figure, 7 in. high, from Oaxaca, Mexico, dated 900-1300 AD (Von Wuthenau 1969).

 

Fig. 171.  Stone sculpture, 2 ft. high, from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, dated 1000 - 1200 AD (Abel-Vidor et

                 al. 1981).

 

Fig. 172.  Sculpture of a dancer from the Totonac Period of southern Mexico, dated 1000 AD or earlier (Simoni-

                 Abbat 1976).

 

Fig. 173.  Basalt sculpture, 4 1/4 ft. high, from Linea Vieja, Costa Rica, dated 800-1500 AD (Easby & Scott 1970).

 

Fig. 174.  Ceramic sculpture, 7.8 in high, from the Mixtec Culture, Oaxaca, Mexico, dated 1200-1400 AD

                 (Bernonneau et al. 1985).

 

Fig. 175.  Jade mask, 10 in. high, from Veracruz area, Mexico, dated ca. 1200 - 1400 AD.

 

Fig. 176.  Ceramic sculpture, 5 1/2 in. high, from a site in the Valley of Mexico, dated 1200 - 1300 AD (Von

                 Wuthenau 1969).

 

Fig. 177.  Stone sculpture of a dead man from the Malinche culture, Tabasco, Mexico, dated 1000 AD or earlier

                 (Simoni-Abbat 1976).

 

Fig. 178.  Aztec sculpture over 2 ft. high, probably from Veracruz, Mexico, dated 1200 - 1400 AD (Kelemen 1956).

 

Fig. 179.  Ceramic sculpture, 1 ft. high, from Jalisco, Mexico, dated ca. 1100 AD (Von Wuthenau 1969).

 

Fig. 180.  Ceramic sculpture, 6.7 in. high, from Linea Vieja, Costa Rica, of the Huetar culture, dated ca. 800-1200

                AD (Lehmann 1960).

 

Fig. 181.  Stone sculpture of a woman, 1 2/3rds ft. high, from Guaniles, Costa Rica, dated 1000 AD or earlier

                  (Anton 1973).

 

Fig. 182.  Stone sculpture of Aztec god Quetzalcoatl, 1.4 ft. high on display in the Musee de l’Homme, Paris, dated

                 1400 AD or earlier (Lehmann 1960).

 

Fig. 148.  Stone sculpture of an “eagle warrior” of the Aztec culture, dated ca. 1200 AD or earlier (Westheim 1950).

 

Fig. 183.  Dog sculpture, 17 in. high, from Puebla, Mexico, dated 1200 - 1400 AD.

 

Fig. 184.  Stone sculpture of a toad, 6 in. long, from Puebla, Mexico, dated 1200 - 1400 AD.

 

Fig. 206.  Ceramic pitcher, 20 cm high, Central Highlands, Mexico (Aztec)—1400-1521 AD, Post Classic

 

 

                =============================

 

                Bibliography