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67.  Derived from:  Legner, E. F.  1970.  Advances in the ecology of Hippelates eye gnats in California indicate means for effective integrated control.  Proc.Calif. Mosq. Contr. Assoc., Inc. 38:  89-90.




          Of the seven species of Hippelates eye gnats in California, one species, H. collusor (Townsend), continues to be of wide spread primary concern.  Being directly involved with agricultural practices, it is also the only species of these pests that is presently capable of being manipulated through integrated control practices.  Such species as H. robertsoni Sabrosky and H. Impressus Becker, of sporadic importance in recreation areas, are not subject to control by other than pure biological means.  The reproduction of these latter two species in undisturbed wild breeding sites precludes the interjection of both chemical and cultural control methods.


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