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INTRODUCTION/……………………….......................................1                                           

 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE/.........................................................3

 

          General Ecology...............................................................…...3

 

          Ecology of the Three Destructive Species............................6

 

                    Taxonomy.....................................................................6

                    History..........................................................................7

                    Geographical Distribution..........................................7

                    Hosts.............................................................................7

                    Life History..................................................................8

                    Type of Injury.............................................................11

                    Duration of Feeding...................................................11

                    Dispersal.....................................................................12

                    Distribution on Orchard Trees.................................12

 

          Biotic Factors..................................... ..................................13   

 

          Physical Factors…................................... ............................19

 

          Natural and Integrated Control............. ............................20

 

           Considerations in Statistical Analyses...............................26

 

METHODS AND MATERIALS...................................................29

 

          Experimental Design............................................................29

          Insect Survey and Rearing Techniques..............................32

          Apple Aphid Sampling Method..........................................41

           Mensuration of Orchard Trees..........................…............41

           Meteorological Observations.............................................42

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION....................................................43

 

          Lepidopterous Species Collected........................................43

 

          Reared Parasites and Predators.........................................52

 

           Eye-spotted Bud Moth Experiments.................................55

 

                     Development in 1959 and 1960................................55

                     Infectious Diseases..…..............................................85

                     Location of Spring Larvae and Pupae on Trees.....87

 

                     Effect of Collection Date and number of Larvae

                        per Cage on Larval Mobility….............................89

 

                      Effect of Pupation Site on Development….............92

                      Sex Ratio Variation...................................…...........94

                      Distribution of Summer Larvae and Nests............97

                      Occupancy of Summer Nests................................102

 

          Fruit-tree Leaf Roller Experiments.................................104

 

          Red-banded Leaf Roller Experiments.............................109

 

          Apple Aphid Distribution in the Orchard.......................113

 

          Mensuration of Orchard Trees........................................118

 

          Correlation Between Tree Volume and Insects

              Per Tree..........................................................................121

 

          Temperatures and Rainfall in 1959 and 1960..…...........123

 

 

SUMMARY...................................................................…...........126

 

LITERATURE CITED..................................................….........132

 

 

                                 LIST OF FIGURES

 

Fig. 1.....................................36

Fig. 2.....................................36

Fig. 3.....................................37

Fig. 4.....................................37

Fig. 5.....................................38

 

 

                                LIST OF TABLES

 

Table 1..................................46

Table 2..................................49

Table 3..................................50

Table 4..................................54

Table 5..................................57

Table 6..................................58

Table 7..................................59

Table 8..................................59

Table 9..................................61

Table 10................................62

Table 11................................62

Table 12................................66

Table 13................................66

Table 14............................... 70

Table 15................................72

Table 16................................75

Table 17................................76

Table 18................................77

Table 19................................78

Table 20................................80

Table 21................................82

 

 

 

Fig. 6....................................38

Fig. 7....................................64

Fig. 8....................................65

Fig. 9....................................68

Fig. 10..................................69

Fig. 11................................125

 

 

 

Table22.................................88

Table23.................................91

Table 24................................93

Table25.................................95

Table 26................................96

Table 27................................99

Table 28.......... ...................100

Table 29......... ....................101

Table 30............. ................101

Table 31......................... ....103

Table 32........................ .....106

Table 33........................ .....107

Table 34........................ .....108

Table 35..............................111

Table 36..............................112

Table 37..................... ........115

Table 38..............................116

Table 39................... ..........116

Table 40..............................117

Table 41..............................117

Table 42......... ....................120

Table 43................. ............122