File:  <archaic.htm>                                                                                                                                                                Subjects                              Archeology Index                                   <Pre-Columbian Exploration>



                                                      Robert D. Morritt




----Please CLICK on desired underlined categories [to search for Subject Matter, depress Ctrl/F ]:


Early Europeans

Solutrean Hypothesis

Semetic Visitors to New Mexico

Sumerians in North America

Sumerians in Central America

Semetic Indians in Mexico

Old World Artifacts

Kennewick Man

Ancient Egyptians in America

Phoenicians in America

Ancient Explorers

Hebrew Visitors

Minoan inscriptions

Phoenicians in Brazil

King Solomon's Navy

Puratoire River Valley, Colorado


Paleo-Hebrew Inscriptions

Ogam In Western Connecticut

First Atlantic Crossings

Manana Island, Maine

Canada-Ogam Script & Nordic Scripts

Prehistoric Buriel Sites

Ancient Scripts & Petroglyphs


Bibliography          About the Author





       For many years it was postulated that the earliest cultural ‘insurgents’ were paleo-indigenous people in North America, with an origin in Siberia ( possibly from the Ket region ).


       Since the discovery of Clovis points there has been a radical change in how we  consider who were the earliest incumbents of non- indigenous origin. With so much lithic evidence discovered in both Canada and in the United States we can now see how a East to West migration during the European interstadial Glacial Age has given rise to proof of an original European based earlier culture than that of an earlier suppossed Beringian origins of the Clovis Hunters.



Clovis Points


       All over the Americas, and especially in the North is evidence of early explorers searching for additional sources of copper at the end of the Bronze Age.  In recent years paleography has revealed traces of this European based culture This has put a new light upon the origin of the Clovis points.


       It is now conclusive that the Clovis ponts , the most advanced projectiles ever produced in America, originated in southwestern Europe (France, Portugal and in Spain)


       Migrations to America appear to have begun at least 13,000 years ago when the North Atlantic had a bridge of glaciers. Within the interstadial periods the climate was such as to afford a pathway westward to the Americas.


       In recent years new light has been shed on these early Europeans by  lithic evidence they left us of Ogam inscriptions, further, the inscriptions indicate that they spoke in a language that is akin to Old Norse


       The Clovis people by Archaeologists' most precise determinations at present suggest that this radiocarbon age (11,500 RCYBP (radiocarbon years before present) or  is equal to roughly 13,500 to 13,000 calendar years ago.


       It has also been argued that Clovis ended in a very abrupt fashion.Whether the Clovis culture drove the mammoth, and other species, to extinction via overhunting – the so-called Pleistocene overkill hypothesis – is still an open, and controversial, question. Another possibility is that climate change coupled with human predation, disease, and additional pressures from newly arrived herbivores (competition) and carnivores (predation) and isolation made it impossible for many species to reproduce and survive.


       Another factor has been hypothesized that  the Clovis culture saw its decline in the wake of the Younger Dryas cold phase. This 'cold shock', lasting roughly 1,500 years, affected many parts of the world, including North America. It appears to have been triggered by a vast meltwater lake – Lake Agassiz – emptying into the North Atlantic, disrupting the thermohaline circulation.


       The  Clovis tool complex was excavated between 1932 and 1937 in  New Mexico, by a crew under the direction of Edgar Billings Howard from the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences/University of Pennsylvania. Howard's crew left their excavation in Burnet Cave, New Mexico (truly the first professionally excavated Clovis site in August, 1932 and visited Whiteman and his Blackwater Draw site. In November, Howard was back at Blackwater Draw to investigate additional finds from a construction project.




The American Journal of Archaeology (January-March, 1932 V36 #1,  E. B. Howard  in Burnet Cave,  the discovery of  a "Folsom type"  below a Basketmaker burial.  Brief mention of the Clovis point found in place predates any work at Dent, Colorado. First report  from at the Blackwater Draw Clovis site,


November 25, 1932  Science News Refers  to an  earlier article on Burnet Cave in the University Museum Bulletin of November, 1931.


Note [1]

The Dent Site, in Weld County, Colorado, was simply a fossil mammoth excavation in 1932. The first Dent Clovis point was found November 5, 1932 and the in situ point was found July 7, 1933. The in situ Clovis point from Burnet Cave was excavated in late August, 1931 and reported early in 1932. E. B. Howard brought the Burnet Cave point to the 3rd Pecos Conference, September 1931 and showed it around to several archaeologists.




       From recent discoveries, a Solutrean hypothesis was propose by Smithsonian archaeologist


       Dennis Stanford in 1999 ( also Stanford and Bradley 2002) suggesting that the Clovis techology appears to have an origin in southern Europe 21,000-15,000 years ago this was the period of the first Stone Age and of art work in southern France.


       The European link to Clovis is evident from the  similarity in technology between the projectile points of the Solutreans and those of  Clovis people. The model envisions these people making the crossing in small watercraft via the edge of the pack ice in the North Atlantic Ocean that then extended to the Atlantic coast of France, using skills similar to those of the modern Inuit people. Supporters of this hypothesis suggest that stone tools found at Cactus Hill (an early American site in Virginia), are knapped in a style between Clovis and Solutrean.


       Other scholars such as Emerson F. Greenman and Remy Cottevieille-Giraudet have also suggested a Northern Atlantic point of entry, citing toolmaking similarities between Clovis and Solutrean-era artifacts.


       New evidence in the last 4-5 years has demonstrated that the Laurentide Ice-Sheet has been the only continental glacier to reach N.W. Canada and this happened during the Late Pleistocene (30 ka).


       A site in the Smoking Hills (near the Arctic Coast) in the N.W.T. has yielded multiple tills with lithologies of local origin with the exception of the upper lag containing granites from the Canadian Shield (Duk-Rodkin et al., 1010). This further indicates that there was only one continental glacier that reached N.W. Canada. As well, several C14 ages obtained from southern Mackenzie Mountains indicate that the Laurentide ice was present close to 9000 y B.P. just south of Keele River latitude. This coincides with ages obtained for the drainage of glacial Lake Mackenzie in the same area ca. 9ka.



       No archaeological sites have been found in the Mackenzie Mountains or in its foothills except Holocene. In my mapping research in the area between Nahanni and Keele rivers near their confluence with the Mackenzie River a petroglyph was found on the flood plain of the Mackenzie River (see below).  This petroglyph was carved in a quartzite boulder.


Canadian Arctic Coast Petroglyph



Photograph by kind permission of



*Aa-5, 2010.  Duk-Rodkin A., Barendregt R.W., and White J. An extensive Terrestrial record of multiple glaciations preserved in the Tintina Trench of west-central Yukon: stratigraphy, paleomagnetism, paleosols and pollen. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences (July 2010).


2004.  Barendregt R.W. and Alejandra Duk-Rodkin. Chronology and extent of Late Cenozoic ice sheets in North America: A magnetostratigraphic assessment. In Quaternary Glaciations - Extent and Chronology, Part II: North America, Editors J. Ehlers and P.L.Gibbard. Developments in Quaternary Science 2 series editor: Jim Rose.


1996.  Duk-Rodkin A., Barendregt R.W. Tarnocai C. and Phillips F.M.  Late Tertiary to late Quaternary record in the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada: stratigraphy, paleosols, paleomagnetism, and chlorine-36. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences vol 33: 875-895


SEMETIC  VISITORS - New Mexico c. 700 BCE




       The above inscription is very unique for several reasons. First, it is written in an ancient Hebrew script. Second it is located near the small town of Los Lunas in the State of New Mexico, USA. Third, the inscription is of the "Ten Commandments".


       Is this inscription is original this proves that a Semitic people, probably Hebrews, arrived in the Americas long before Columbus or the Vikings. in Newfoundland.


       The above inscription cannot be a fake for the following reasons. The actual time of discovery of the inscription is not known but was known by the locals as far back as the 1850's. At that time, the script of the text was unknown and therefore undecipherable. It was not until the last century that the ancient Hebrew (Paleo-Hebrew) script was discovered in the Near East.Once this ancient script was discovered the Los Lunas inscription could be deciphered and was found to be a copy of the "Ten Commandments". It was an undisturbed site. In 1925 a prospector in the area came upon the stone and mentioned it appeared extremely old and at that time it was covered in lichen and moss


The Los Lunas Hebrew Inscription - Middle Semitic Script




Date of Writing:

c. 700 BCE

Location of Discovery:

Outside of Los Lunas New Mexico

Date of Discovery:

Unknown, brought to the attention of scholastics in the 1850's.

Current Location:

Outside of Los Lunas New Mexico



Writing Surface:

Boulder face


(This line belongs after the next line but appears to have been inserted here after the completion of the writing)
4. {?-A}T ShM YHWH LShWA .


1. i yhwh your god who brought you out from land of
2. no will be gods after over my face
3. egypt and house servants ? no you do to you ? . no you do
4. at name yhwh to vain . remember at day
5. the shabbat to holy him honor at your father and at your mother in order that
6. long ? your days over the ground which yhwh your god
7. give to you no you murder no you adultery no you steal no
8. you humble in your neighbor witness false . no you covet wife of your neighbor
9. and all which to your neighbor

Alternate Translation:

1. I am Yahweh your God who brought you out from the land
2. No gods before me
3. A house of servants ? do not do to you ? do not do
4. the name yhwh in vain . remember the day of
5. the sabbath to make it holy honor your father and your mother in order that
6. your days be long over the land which yhwh your God
7. gives to you do not murder do not commit adultery do not steal do not
8. humble your niehgbor a false witness . do not covet the wife of your neighbor
9. and all that belongs to your neighbor

(Translation by Jeff A. Benner)


Source: Ancient Hebrew Research Center  Jeff A. Benner


Sumerians in the Americas


       The Sumerians [Shem] were in the Americas almost from the very beginning of colonization there  There is a translation of the cuneiform in a section of the Fuente Magna [a votive clay water trough]. "The translation is: ‘The L-rd of Serenity with the light gathers and herds together the large animals and the goats and the kids (weakened by lack of fodder, or wandering in search of food) to the open fields for rest.’ (In this context, "rest" appears to mean slaughter, for sacrifice or butchery, and to convert their hides to leather for apparel)."


       "Inference: The central idea of all the scripts of the Fuente Magna is apparently didactic. It seems that Sumerians, or a person or people employing Sumerian script, wished to serve as a guide to the people of the Altiplano to teach them new skills (how to herd goats and guanaco, to tan and manufacture leather, and so forth), to become their spiritual leaders, themselves adopting the role of teachers and priests. If this interpretation is correct, then it would seem that Sumerians were the first rulers and religious leaders of an American people.


       "In this context it is relevant to recall that the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega tells us that the first Inca, Manco Capac, and his spouse, Mama Oello Huaco, instructed the aboriginal people over whom they held sway the arts of cultivating grain and how to tame and domesticate wild animals. This program of instruction was initiated, so Inca Garcilaso declares, as soon as the first Inca entered his South American domain."


       The Sumerian influence and colonization of the areas of Central America must be explored too. The Maya-Olmec Long Count Calendar in Central America began on August 31, 3114 BCE. Its accuracy reflects knowledge of years, seasons, and events that only a people like the ancient Sumerians could possess. The similarity of Mexican, Colombian, and Egyptian pyramids is interesting . The royal tomb of the Mexican pyramid at Palenque shows the same basic relationship to the overlying pyramid as occurs in the Egyptian pyramids, [1]which pyramid-building knowledge was brought to Egypt from Sumeria.


Note [1] The Mastaba of Faraoun, at Saqqara ( a step pyramid)


       In Genesis 11:4, we find that the expression, "a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven," can refer to a tower with an idolatrous "temple for heaven" on its top. The Temple of Kukulcan, known as El Castillo, "The Castle," which looks almost identical to some of the pyramids of Sumeria, is just one of many that fits this description quite well.  The origin of maize is intriguing.


       Walter Baucom has indicated that researcher Michael Coe has studied this grain and remarked that it has no wild form. Speculation as to its origins places it in New Mexico about 2500 BCE. It is not known if the wild teosinte plant became maize [the source of all corn] from a single mutation or if maize became teosinte the same way. With all the agricultural firsts of the Sumerians, especially of their hybridization of wheat in the Tigris-Euphrates area, and added to this their far reaching trading proclivities, it would not be unrealistic to consider the possibilty that they would introduce through trading this valuable food source into the America’s which would have been a major agricultural innovations, though this remains to be proven.


       Coe stated that although no wild maize appeared in Mexico until the Early Preclassic period (1800 — 1200 BCE), tiny popcorn with pod corn characteristics has been found there showing an age of 3000 to 2200 BCE. This early date fits the time of Sumerian expansion and diffusion to other continents.


       Another writer gives a further hint of Sumerian influence.


    I learned from 22 expeditions to the Cuna Indians, on the offshore San Blas Islands of Eastern Panama, that this tribe has a Turning Tree of Life religion similar to that of ancient Sumeria 3400 BCE. Like Ishtar, the Cuna Earthmother bears in her womb a Tree of Life on which grow plants, animals, and man. It also bears the Golden Apples of Immortality. One must obtain permission from the Cuna Earthmother to pick the apples. The Tree is guarded by a dog, corresponding to Cerberus, that must be appeased before the Golden Apples (Olo Wini) can be picked.


    As in Sumeria, Ishtar had to carry a leafy branch from the Tree of Life (the Golden Bough) in order to be able to return to the surface of the earth, so the Cuna High Priest (Kantule) must break off for protection a golden branch so freshly developed that it has no chlorophyll (‘so freshly developed, say the Cunas, that no bird has yet sat upon it’). [The Babylonians inherited the Sumerians’ civilization and injected their pagan religion into it.]


       "But did the ancient Sumerians really ever get to America? Sargon of Agade, his son Menes, and his grandson Naram Sin all wrote on clay tablets that they had sailed to the Sunset Land, and there founded colonies. The Fuente Magna [1]  was found near the Bolivian shore of Lake Titicaca, bearing an invocation to the gods in ancient Sumerian. "The Cunas originally lived in Columbia that borders on Peru. Evidence also comes from 74 words of native Peruvian that have identical or similar sounds and meanings with words in Sumerian. A list of 42 cultural identities or similarities in culture have been described for Peruvian and Sumerian.


       "Tracing Cuna relgious symbols such as the placental spirit guardian dog, the itinerary of the Soul Boat, the labyrinth of the Underworld, the Amniotic Water of Life, the small Tree of Life symbol, the swastika, and the snake-entwined medicine cane, lead back to Sumeria, Troy, Knossus, Egypt, and Mohenjo Daro."


       Many coins found in North America and South America show pre-Columbian visitations by many peoples. "But vastly more impressive than even the numismatic evidence is that which has begun to accumulate in the epigraphic field. For whereas our sporadic coin finds inferred the pre-Columbian presence of Phoenicians and Hebrews, inscriptions have already added Berbers, Arabs, Basques, Celts, Scandinavians, Hindus, and, most recently, Sumerians.


       Tesla mentioned other discoveries that would indicate Sumerian influence or settlement in Central and South America. "Fell’s researches have proved beyond doubt that Old World cultural diffusion is not merely a side-issue in Native American studies, but a relentless and ubiquitous phenomenon. The discovery at Huace Prieta of cotton hybridized from the Old World variety would push back its beginnings at least to 2,900 BCE (rectified carbon-14 date), and from this it is not much of a jump to the first, tentative shoots of civilization (3,300-3,200 BCE) in Colombia and Ecuador." Dr. Barry Fell was recognizably the world’s foremost epigrapher before his death.


       Note [1] The Fuente Magna, also known as the Fuente Bowl, is a large stone vessel, resembling a libation bowl. It is asserted to have been found in the 1950s by a worker from the CHUA Hacienda near Tiwanaku, west of La Paz, Bolivia. The inscription has been claimed to contain Sumerian writing, and is said to resemble that on the later found Pokotia Monolith.It resides in a small museum in Calle Jaén, La Paz, Bolivia; Museo de metales preciosos "Museo de Oro


Sumerians in Central and South America?


       The Sumerians settled or influenced many early cultures all over the earth, their earliest probably being India [Mohenjo-Daro] and Egypt.


       "However, it is from the 26th century BCE that our archaeological picture really becomes interesting. The epicenter of this civilizing earthquake is along the central and North central coast of Peru. Among archaeologists it is called simply Pre-Ceramic 6, with an originating date (by rectified carbon-14 dating) of about 2,500 BCE. For us, its significance lies not in the label, but in the suddenness of its spectacular developments, and their obvious parallels with contemporaneous civilization in the Near East.


       Civilizations, when they are not imported, proceed by formative, developmental, and classical stages. Thus, the absence of earlier stages preparing the way for the stunning achievements of Pre-Ceramic 6 is in itself quite extraordinary. (Not only that, but) in the temple of Kotosh, the natural order of things is actually reversed: we not only lack earlier stages, but find a technological regression with the additions of subsequent centuries.  "Besides building temples, the people of Pre-Ceramic-6 raised numerous step pyramids and undertook monumental earthworks.


       At Ceulebras, they terraced an entire hillside and fitted it with stone block facings. And all this has been confidently attributed to a simple fishing community which had no prior training in architecture and even preferred to use old gourd vessels rather than make pots of its own."


       Note that 2,500 BCE is right after the Flood. Shem-ites [Sumerians] Japheth-ites, and Ham-ites, including Nimrod’s empire, spread out to different parts of the earth. Who, then, were these first people? Maybe these were early Hamites or Japhethites who had migrated there before Nimrod began his [world] kingdom.


       Whenever we read that later peoples brought instant higher civilizing influences with them and often became ruling classes, could not these just as likely have been Sumerians sent by Shem to neutralize the pagan religious influences on these people? Living near Shem and the great Sumerian civilization, these Hamite and Japhethite peoples could have copied the advanced cultural, astronomical, navigational skills of the Sumerians, but added their own heathen religion to them. Shem, who chased down and killed Nimrod, the arch rebel against the Almighty, could have sent his people to these indoctrinated peoples to re-educate them to the truth of the Creator.


       Do we have any proof of this? Tesla continues.


    "Poma de Avala, a 16th century native historian (of Peru), credited the founding of Peruvian civilization to bearded Caucasian instructors from across the sea, and Sarmiento, in his Historia Indica, quotes a Quipo historian as dating this event at 3,519 years prior to the onset of the Incan age. Archaeologists date the onset of the Incan Empire from about 1,200 CE, but native tradition reckons it at somewhere between 550 and 750 CE. Now if we use the mean date of 650 CE, we would backdate the arrival of Old World culture-bearers to 2,869 BCE, just about the time when Old World cotton makes its appearance in Peru.


       "The people at this time were still ignorant and uncivilized. They dressed in leaves and straw, and lived in caves and among the rocks. The Ayar brothers founded the Pir-huan dynasty. They taught the people agriculture and the building of houses.


       "Traditions also speak of a controversy between Vira Cocha, the (Egyptian?) [more likely Sumerian] founding father, and his flock, on the subject of sacrifices. ‘Vira Cocha…(quoting Poma de Avala) his skin was white, the color of foam, or like pale gold.


       He was a bearded man…and wore a robe down to his feet, and a mantle. He taught a doctrine of love. Seeing a human sacrifice to an idol shaped like a woman on a hill, he threw down the idol and destroyed the hill. Vira Cocha found a loyal disciple in a chief named Apo Tampo, and through him he taught husbandry and left a gold scepter inscribed with seven laws. But the majority of the people would not listen and so he returned across the sea whence he had come.’ "…to which Poma de Avala adds: ‘The people of the first age (i.e., the first period of Peruvian civilization) were born of white men from overseas and native Indian women."


       Berlitz says, "In the vicinity of the village of Ocucaje and Ica, in Peru, a collection of rounded stones totaling perhaps 16,000 and weighing from five pounds up to huge boulders of 800 pounds, has been amassed by Dr. Javier Cabrera, who has about 11,000 of them in his museum. What is unusual about these ‘stones of Ica’ is that they are covered with incised drawings ostensibly made by carvers of past civilizations.


       The engraved drawings show people, extant and extinct animals, star maps, the star rings of the zodiac, and maps of unidentified land areas. People are shown using telescopes, looking at the stars, and performing surgery." No date is given for the above paragraph, but early Spanish reports tell that some of these stones were sent back to Spain by Spanish explorers in 1562, proof that they are not of recent age.


       What are we to make of all this, especially as pertaining to the Sumerians? To speculate, some backward and "heathen" people were settled in Peru almost immediately after the Flood in approximately 2400 BCE. This would conform to the above dates if indeed the archaeologists’ dating method rather than the native tradition were accurate. The native date of 3,519 years before the onset of the Incan age [1200 CE according to archaeologists] would be about 2,319 BCE, a date which also squares with the supposed date of the Flood


       Since it was Shem through whom YHWH gave His laws and Covenants, we can suppose that Hamites and Japhethites were the original and very backward peoples that inhabited that area. The Vira Cocha person who brought the doctrine of love, and who did away with human sacrifice [a very heathen thing], would strongly appear to be a Shemite [Sumerian]. This supposition would agree with our understanding of the very advanced civilization the Sumerians brought with them to many parts of the earth.


       Dankenbring, quoting from the same source (Berlitz, ), mentions that a Danish storekeeper, Waldemar Jusrud, in 1925, found and amassed 33,000 ceramic figurine objects near Acambaro in the Mexican state of Guanajuato, with human figures and [dinosaur-like reptiles and] animals on them. "The human figures show details of dress somewhat resembling those of the ancient Middle East: laced sandals, chain mail, shields, and a variety of weapons.


       "Let us now push forward a thousand years. This will take us to the 15th century BCE, a time of major geological disturbances that submerged islands and clipped the edges of larger land masses all the way from the Peloponnesus to India. By the end of the 13th century BCE, Cretan power was irrevocably broken, leaving the way clear for the Phoenicians to reopen their trade with Western Europe…and beyond. One can well imagine the excitement of these merchant seamen, whose traditions extended not merely to Cadiz, but, as perhaps they alone knew, to the great and almost forgotten continent beyond the Sargasso Sea."


       Our contention is that Phoenicians were mostly Israelites who inherited the colonizing and civilizing proclivities of their forebears, the Sumerians. Hundreds of Phoenician inscriptions have been found cut in stone tablets along the banks of rivers in the jungles of Brazil and on the eastern coast of South America, and even more hundreds have been found in North America.


       The Phoenician influence seems especially evident among the Maya. The Maya alone of all native peoples of the New World were fully literate. Their script was so well-developed that they could write down anything in their language. The early art of the Olmecs, beautiful in its utter simplicity, is called Danzantes [literally "dancers"], although we make no claim of kinship of that word to the Tribe of Dan.


       This art might be associated with the oldest writing in Mesoamerica. At least one Danzantes Olmec bas-relief is bearded, bearded men being both a Sumerian and an Israelite proclivity. Much Sumerian knowledge was passed down through Abraham to the Israelite Tribes. Sumerians also used the concept of zero, as did the ancient Hindus and Mayas, and were able to make mathematical cosmic calculations of fifteen digits, while younger races had difficulty counting in the thousands.


       In some cases, the Sumerians themselves were the first to settle an area. Just as Nimrod developed warfare and conquered some early Sumerian cities in Mesopotamia, so too can we assume that he sent soldiers to conquer some [already established] Sumerian settlements in other areas of the world.


       The Sumerians’ influence on the world was seen in the chapter, "Sumerians: Who Were They?" but this brief glimpse of their influence on other civilizations [or lesser tribes] will give us greater understanding of who they really were, what particular knowledge they gave us, and where this knowledge is today.


       Some of these people undoubtedly were assimilated into the Akkadian, Chaldean, Babylonian, Assyrian, even Egyptian, peoples. Some might have assimilated on a smaller scale into the Medes and Persians. The greater majority of them, however, can be traced in the Abrahamic lineage given in the Hebrew Scriptures.


       Some of these ultimately became the children of Isaac–Esau and Jacob. Jacob became the father of the Israelites, and it was through one of his sons, Joseph, that this knowledge continued to be passed down, and to whom the Birthright promises were given.




       "When the Spaniards came to Mexico and were standing guard on cold nights, they began to wonder who these Indians really were. Some of those soldiers (Bernal Diaz among them) advanced the idea that these Indians might be Jews."Among the Spaniards, the Estemadorans in particular had been raised on Roman history and they knew about the reigns of the Roman emperors Vespasian and his son Titus. Both Vespasian and Titus had been governors of Judea and, after suppressing the Jewish rebellion around 70 CE, they sent whole tribes of Jews into exile.


       The Spaniards…wondered if perhaps these Indians were not descended from those ancient Jews who were exiled from Palestine more than fourteen hundred years before. But how, they asked themselves, would the Jews have got here? Well, the Jews knew how to build ships and it would have been possible to sail across the Mediterranean, through the Strait of Gibraltar, then cross the ocean, wouldn’t it? Furthermore, several of the Spaniards came up with an odd fact to support this theory: Indian priests in Zempoala had shown them how the obsidian knives–the sacrificial knives–were also used for circumcision, which was known to be a Jewish rite. Ergo, these Indians might be Jews. [Dr. Fell traced many of these fleeing Jews to present-day Tennessee.]


       "Antonio de Montezinos, a Marano (secret Jew), while journeying in South America in 1641, (had an) Indian guide (who) greeted him with, ‘Shema Israel (Hear, O Israel).’ Furthermore, the guide reported that many people ‘of the same origin’ were living in the highlands near Quito, Ecuador. He also claimed that he met savages who followed Jewish practices. This story Antonio repeated in Holland in 1644 to Manasseh ben Israel, who printed it in his work, Hope of Israel, in 1650.


       "Early in the 19th Century, a young member of Parliament, Edward King, Viscount Kingsborough, was struck by the beauty and mystery of a Mexican Indian codex, or manuscript, in the Bodleian Library (that arrived) at Oxford. He exhausted his fortune, and perhaps his life, in attempting to prove that the Lost Tribes of Israel were ancestors of the Indians of Mexico. Nearly half of Adair’s book was reprinted by the passionately convinced Kingsborough.


       He sank the bulk of his fortune into the publication of nine magnificent volumes of Mexican codices, with commentary, entitled Antiquities of Mexico. Twice he was thrown into debtors’ prison when he was unable to meet the bills of the printers and paper manufacturers; on his release he doggedly continued his publishing efforts. In 1837, imprisoned a third time, he died at the age of 42. His friends insisted that the cause of death was a broken spirit."


       "Teoamoxtli, ‘the devine book,’ as it was called. According to Ixtlilxochitl, it was composed by a Texcucan doctor, named Huematzin, towards the close of the seventh century. It gave an account of the migrations of his nation from Asia, of the various stations on their journey, and of their social and religious institutions, their science, arts, etc., a good deal too much for one book. Ignotum pro magnifico.


        It has never been seen by a European. A copy is said to have been in possession of the Texcucan chroniclers, on the taking of their capital. (Bustamante, Cronica Mexicana, [Mexico, 1822], Carta 3).


        Lord Kingsborough, who can scent out a Hebrew root, has discovered that the Teoamoxtli was the Penteteuch. Thus, --teo means ‘divine,’ amotl, ‘paper’ or ‘book,’ and moxtli ‘appears to be Moses,’ —‘Divine Book of Moses,’ Antiquities of Mexico, Vol. VI, p. 204, nota [quoting Prescott’s Mexico, Vol. I, p. 93].


       This appears to be associated more with Aztecs than with Maya. The Nahautl [Uto-Aztecan] language itself has been shown to have many Hebraic-Semitic roots and can be traced to NW Palestine, where parts of the Israelite Tribes of Dan, Naphtali, Zebulon, Asher, and Issachar settled.


Old World Artifacts in North America


       Dr. Hugh Moran, in The Alphabet and the Ancient Calendar Signs, was convinced that the lunar zodiac served as the basis for the Maya’s Hieroglyphic writing system. In the chapter on Sumerians, we saw that the calendar of the Israelites was lunar based.


       Ancient tribal traditions of Amerindians in the United States taught that their ancestors crossed the great ocean to the east of America to reach this continent. Their children were later bewildered and confused by the conflict between tribal traditions and what they were being taught in school, the much more recent belief of an alleged ancestry stretching back across the Bering Strait to Asia.


       In recent years, multiple thousands of Old World artifacts have been found, such as Roman pottery, ancient Welsh armor, Viking axes and swords, and Phoenician, Greek, and Roman coins. Celtic Ogam, Norse Runic, Libyan Berber Tifinag, and Greek, Hebrew, and ancient Basque petroglyph writings are continuing to be found all over North America.


       What archeologists in our West call "Great Basin Curvilinear" is in fact writing–ancient Punic, Greek, and Libyan Arabic of North Africa–using alphabets that are proper to those tongues. Interestingly, "…the ancient San Telmo Stone of Portugal, believed to have the oldest form of Basque writing on it, was unreadable until Dr. Barry Fell deciphered it, using the Cree Indian alphabet of North America."


       On the West Coast, Arab petroglyphs are numerous in California, Nevada, and Southern Idaho. Numismatists, serologists, historians, and epigraphers are redefining our past. The same giant dolmens, cairns, and menhirs found in Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa have now been discovered in America. Skull types across the continent show mostly the European types east of the Rocky Mountains, with the rounded Asiatic types found west of them. Blood types [serology] reveal an almost totally nonexistent Asiatic type north of Central and South America. Columbus, it appears, was the last person to discover America, and our Western histories, written from a very Romish point of view, might have to be totally revised.


       The big question is just who were these Celtic, Scandinavian, North African, and Phoenician settlers to America a thousand years before Jesus and two and a half millennia before Columbus? The English language itself can be traced through the Celtic and Scandinavian peoples of Europe, back through the Scythians, Cimmerians, Carthaginian-Phoenicians, all the way back to ancient Israel..


       Geoffrey Keating (1570-1646), who wrote The History of Ireland from the Earliest Period to the English Invasion, and translated by John O’Mahony, New York, 1866, says,


       "This language the Latin writers call the ‘Lingua Humana,’ i.e. the Human Language. But when Nimrud, with his kindred, was attempting to erect the Tower, their language was confounded, in order to prevent their finishing the structure which their pride had prompted them to begin; and the original language, received from Adam, was taken from all that were concerned in building it. It was, however, retained by Heber, the son of Selah, and by his tribe, and, from him, it has been called Hebrew."


 Source: Walter Baucom


Kennewick Man


       The remains of one of the oldest North Americans ever found have been recovered in Washington state. The 9,300-year old skeleton is 90% complete and belongs to a Caucasian male about five foot ten inches tall. Described as one of the most complete skeletons ever unearthed in the Americas it was discovered near Kennewick, Washington in July of 1996 and dubbed "Kennewick Man."


       Now it is the subject of a court battle between anthropologists who desire to learn all they can about it, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which wants to cover it up, both literally and figuratively. The Corps wishes to turn this remarkable find over to American Indian tribes who want it reburied without further study based on the claim that the skeleton is an "Indian" and therefore should not be studied. The Indians had no explanation as to how one of their "ancestors" could be Caucasian. At stake at the center of this controversy is the rewriting of American pre-Columbian history--sooner rather than later.

       As if the discovery of an 9000 year old Caucasian in the United States would not of itself be sensational enough, the excitement over Kennewick man has led to a breaking down of "an iron curtain of silence" which had previously existed in the news media and among some archeologist and anthropologist over the finding of at least SIX OTHER Caucasoids of greater antiquity than any Asiatic Indian remains known in North America!


       Including the nearly ten-thousand-year-old mummy of a Caucasoid male found in Spirit Cave Nevada, and the skeletal remains of a nine year old Caucasoid female child found in Nevada of equal antiquity.


        From their graves, men, women, and children are speaking to us and their tale is that of an ancient culture stretching at the least from Arizona to Washington State.


       Interestingly enough the Kennewick man had imbedded in his pelvic bone a two inch Clovis spear point of gray volcanic rock thrown by an enemy with every intent to kill. Kennewick Man survived the attack but the spear point remained imbedded in his hip. [1]


       What is odd is that there is little proof that there was not a single Indian in the entire Northwest when Kennewick man lived, hunted and fought there. The present non-Caucasian Indians in that region are believed to have been there less than a thousand years, which makes them the invaders and Kennewick man and his people the "native Americans" of the Northwest, for whatever that is worth.

       In fact, such terms as "first", "original" and "native" really have no scientific or historical context in this time period, as so little is known (and if the federal government has its way little will be known) of this era. But such terms are convenient and useful for present day social engineers to provide preferential treatment to one class at the expense of another. As one lawyer involved in the court case stated, "A lot of their [Indian] pride and claims might not be true and that might impact them in financially adverse ways."


       Most Americans, taught the Bering Strait theory as an explanation for the peopling of America, are unaware that it is no longer seen as the sole explanation for the migrations to this continent. Archeological finds in South America, on the Eastern Seaboard of the US and elsewhere show conclusively that there were several distinct and separate migrations of different racial groups to the Americas.


       Furthermore, recent studies point to the hypothesis of a "North Atlantic Crescent" which existed between Europe and the Americas, with both water and ice serving as a "bridge" between the two continents.


       Archaeologists such as Thor Heyerdahl and many others have uncovered the oldest ruins in the Southern Hemisphere of the American Continent. These ruins present politically correct archeologists with the problem of the most ancient civilizations being found at the Southern end of the American continent rather then at the Northern end, where one would expect to find them had the first settlers come across the Bering Strait. It is clear also from genetic DNA sequencing of haplotypes that there was more than one migratory event. Indeed, as one DNA study bluntly stated, "The notion of a homogeneous Amerind genetic pool does not conform with these and other results ".


Note: [1] He was probably attacked by a fellow Soulerian Caucasian, in a dispute of some sort

       In ancient cities of South America, some of which may have been populated by over 50,000 people, were found the mummies of Caucasoid nobles buried in the bowels of ancient temples. As ruins continue to yield their secrets it now appears that many of the ancient pre-Columbian civilizations were sea-faring peoples with a long tradition of open-sea sailing.


       Rather than walking 10,000 miles from Mongolia to Chile, it now seems that the "first Americans" may have sailed first class. And where they came from will soon be firmly resolved by DNA testing. Peru, Chile, and Ecuador are all revealing long forgotten cities of ancient peoples classified as racially part of the Indo-European family of people. From Red headed mummies in pre-Inca graves in Peru to blond headed Toltek warrior priests in central Mexico, this is not the history of your father's generation.

       Pre-Columbian tombs are shattering the adage that "dead men tell no tales." And the exciting tales they relate will force the rewriting of pre-Columbian history.


       The myth of "Indians" as the first Americans, from lithic discoveries in recent years is now apparent. The myth so long supported resounded throughout the hallowed halls of academia into a form of politically correct form of archaeology that has greatly hindered the interpretation and understanding of American pre-history.


 Source : Louis Beam


Ancient Egyptians in America


       About 3,000 years ago, the mummified body of Henut Taui was laid to rest in a desert tomb of ancient Egypt. 


       During her long sleep, Rome rose and fell, the dark ages came and went, Europeans from Napoleon to the Brits conquered her home land, and finally in the early 1800s, the immortality her embalmers had sought for her was attained when her tomb was plundered. Her body, preserved to the consistency of Beef Jerky, found its way to Germany, a museum in Munich, and during toxicological testing in the 1990s was found to contain large amounts of Cocaine and Tobacco , Cocaine and Tobacco are found only in New World plants, and logically should not have been attained by Ancient Egyptians without contact with America.  Of course, the possibility of contamination by modern tomb excavators exists. 


 Some  possibilities:


       There was significant trade between the Americas and Ancient Egypt to allow Cocaine and Tobacco to find its way into circulation. Cocaine and Tobacco once grew in the Old World as well, but later became extinct in these regions. The tissue samples are tainted by later contact with cocaine users, smokers, and potheads Henut Taui is a time traveling Crack head.


       Dr Svelta Balabanova a highly respected forensic toxologist and the inventor of several highly sensitive drug specific tests which are today's standards in establishing drug use, took samples from several mummies, including Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses the Great. Not only was the presence of Cocaine and Tobacco established, but Cannabis as well. Apparently pot and cocaine use was fairly common among the Egyptian elite of antiquity.


       Dr Michele Lescott from the Museum of Natural History in Paris, among others has duplicated the Balabanova test results .It has long been known that the Egyptians used a variety of drugs, this is not in question. However, the presence of the Cocaine and Tobacco in the bodies of these ancient Egyptians establishes a link between Old World and New, many Centuries before the accepted conservative dating that establishment scholars propose.



The Parahyba Inscription


       We are sons of Canaan from Sidon, the city of the king. Commerce has cast us on this distant shore, a land of mountains. We set [sacrificed] a youth for the exalted gods and goddesses in the nineteenth year of Hiram, our mighty king. We embarked from Ezion-Geber into the Red Sea and voyaged with ten ships. We were at sea together for two years around the land belonging to Ham [Africa] but were separated by a storm [lit. 'from the hand of Baal'], and we were no longer with our companions. So we have come here, twelve men and three women, on a shore, which I, the Admiral, control. But auspiciously may the gods or goddesses favor us!




       Dr. Wallace began studying the mtDNA of Native Americans in the mid-1980s in hopes of resolving a long-raging debate over when prehistoric peoples entered the Americas. The presumption long has been that the ancestors of Native Americans came from Siberia. But anthropologists have argued for year over how many, and when such migrations occurred.

       The mtDNA analyses are showing that the ancestors of the Amerinds, who comprise most Native Americans, e