File:  <archaic.htm>                                                                                                                            Subjects                   Archeology Index                   <Pre-Columbian Exploration>




                                                             A Summary of Salient Events

                                                                       Robert D. Morritt



----Please CLICK on underlined categories and pictures for detail [to search for Subject Matter, depress Ctrl/F ]:


Early Europeans

Solutrean Hypothesis

Semetic Visitors to New Mexico

Sumerians in North America

Sumerians in Central America

Semetic Indians in Mexico

Old World Artifacts

Kennewick Man

Ancient Egyptians in America

Phoenicians in America

Ancient Explorers

Hebrew Visitors

Minoan inscriptions

Phoenicians in Brazil

King Solomon's Navy

Puratoire River Valley, Colorado


Paleo-Hebrew Inscriptions

Ogam In Western Connecticut

First Atlantic Crossings

Manana Island, Maine

Canada-Ogam Script & Nordic Scripts

Prehistoric Buriel Sites

Ancient Scripts & Petroglyphs


Bibliography          About the Author





       For many years it was postulated that the earliest cultural ‘insurgents’ were paleo-indigenous people in North America, with an origin in Siberia ( possibly from the Ket region ).


       Since the discovery of Clovis points there has been a radical change in how we  consider who were the earliest incumbents of non-indigenous origin. With so much lithic evidence discovered in both Canada and in the United States we can now see how a East to West migration during the European interstadial Glacial Age has given rise to proof of an original European based earlier culture than that of earlier suppossed Beringian origins of the Clovis Hunters.



Clovis Points


       All over the Americas, and especially in the North is evidence of early explorers searching for additional sources of copper at the end of the Bronze Age.  In recent years paleography has revealed traces of this European based culture This has put a new light upon the origin of the Clovis points.


       It is now conclusive that the Clovis ponts , the most advanced projectiles ever produced in America, originated in southwestern Europe (France, Portugal and in Spain)


       Migrations to America appear to have begun at least 13,000 years ago when the North Atlantic had a bridge of glaciers. Within the interstadial periods the climate was such as to afford a pathway westward to the Americas.


       In recent years new light has been shed on these early Europeans by  lithic evidence they left us of Ogam inscriptions, further, the inscriptions indicate that they spoke in a language that is akin to Old Norse


       The Clovis people by Archaeologists' most precise determinations at present suggest that this radiocarbon age (11,500 RCYBP (radiocarbon years before present) or  is equal to roughly 13,500 to 13,000 calendar years ago.


       It has also been argued that Clovis ended in a very abrupt fashion.Whether the Clovis culture drove the mammoth, and other species, to extinction via overhunting – the so-called Pleistocene overkill hypothesis – is still an open, and controversial, question. Another possibility is that climate change coupled with human predation, disease, and additional pressures from newly arrived herbivores (competition) and carnivores (predation) and isolation made it impossible for many species to reproduce and survive.


       Another factor has been hypothesized that  the Clovis culture saw its decline in the wake of the Younger Dryas cold phase. This 'cold shock', lasting roughly 1,500 years, affected many parts of the world, including North America. It appears to have been triggered by a vast meltwater lake – Lake Agassiz – emptying into the North Atlantic, disrupting the thermohaline circulation.


       The  Clovis tool complex was excavated between 1932 and 1937 in  New Mexico, by a crew under the direction of Edgar Billings Howard from the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences/University of Pennsylvania. Howard's crew left their excavation in Burnet Cave, New Mexico (truly the first professionally excavated Clovis site in August, 1932 and visited Whiteman and his Blackwater Draw site. In November, Howard was back at Blackwater Draw to investigate additional finds from a construction project.




       The American Journal of Archaeology (January-March, 1932 V36 #1,  E. B. Howard  in Burnet Cave,  the discovery of  a "Folsom type"  below a Basketmaker burial.  Brief mention of the Clovis point found in place predates any work at Dent, Colorado. First report  from at the Blackwater Draw Clovis site,


       November 25, 1932  Science News Refers  to an  earlier article on Burnet Cave in the University Museum Bulletin of November, 1931.


Note [1]

       The Dent Site, in Weld County, Colorado, was simply a fossil mammoth excavation in 1932. The first Dent Clovis point was found November 5, 1932 and the in situ point was found July 7, 1933. The in situ Clovis point from Burnet Cave was excavated in late August, 1931 and reported early in 1932. E. B. Howard brought the Burnet Cave point to the 3rd Pecos Conference, September 1931 and showed it around to several archaeologists.




From recent discoveries, a Solutrean hypothesis was proposed

 by Smithsonian archaeologist


       Dennis Stanford in 1999 ( also Stanford and Bradley 2002) suggesting that the Clovis techology appears to have an origin in southern Europe 21,000-15,000 years ago this was the period of the first Stone Age and of art work in southern France.


       The European link to Clovis is evident from the  similarity in technology between the projectile points of the Solutreans and those of  Clovis people. The model envisions these people making the crossing in small watercraft via the edge of the pack ice in the North Atlantic Ocean that then extended to the Atlantic coast of France, using skills similar to those of the modern Inuit people. Supporters of this hypothesis suggest that stone tools found at Cactus Hill (an early American site in Virginia), are knapped in a style between Clovis and Solutrean.


       Other scholars such as Emerson F. Greenman and Remy Cottevieille-Giraudet have also suggested a Northern Atlantic point of entry, citing toolmaking similarities between Clovis and Solutrean-era artifacts.


       New evidence in the last 4-5 years has demonstrated that the Laurentide Ice-Sheet has been the only continental glacier to reach N.W. Canada and this happened during the Late Pleistocene (30 ka).


       A site in the Smoking Hills (near the Arctic Coast) in the N.W.T. has yielded multiple tills with lithologies of local origin with the exception of the upper lag containing granites from the Canadian Shield (Duk-Rodkin et al., 1010). This further indicates that there was only one continental glacier that reached N.W. Canada. As well, several C14 ages obtained from southern Mackenzie Mountains indicate that the Laurentide ice was present close to 9000 y B.P. just south of Keele River latitude. This coincides with ages obtained for the drainage of glacial Lake Mackenzie in the same area ca. 9ka.



       No archaeological sites have been found in the Mackenzie Mountains or in its foothills except Holocene. In my mapping research in the area between Nahanni and Keele rivers near their confluence with the Mackenzie River a petroglyph was found on the flood plain of the Mackenzie River (see below).  This petroglyph was carved in a quartzite boulder.


Canadian Arctic Coast Petroglyph



       *Aa-5, 2010.  Duk-Rodkin A., Barendregt R.W., and White J. An extensive Terrestrial record of multiple glaciations preserved in the Tintina Trench of west-central Yukon: stratigraphy, paleomagnetism, paleosols and pollen. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences (July 2010).


       2004.  Barendregt R.W. and Alejandra Duk-Rodkin. Chronology and extent of Late Cenozoic ice sheets in North America: A magnetostratigraphic assessment. In Quaternary Glaciations - Extent and Chronology, Part II: North America, Editors J. Ehlers and P.L.Gibbard. Developments in Quaternary Science 2 series editor: Jim Rose.


       1996.  Duk-Rodkin A., Barendregt R.W. Tarnocai C. and Phillips F.M.  Late Tertiary to late Quaternary record in the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada: stratigraphy, paleosols, paleomagnetism, and chlorine-36. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences vol 33: 875-895.


SEMETIC  VISITORS - New Mexico c. 700 BCE


Los Lunas Inscriptions, New Mexico


       The above inscription is very unique for several reasons. First, it is written in an ancient Hebrew script. Second it is located near the small town of Los Lunas in the State of New Mexico, USA. Third, the inscription is of the "Ten Commandments".


       Is this inscription is original this proves that a Semitic people, probably Hebrews, arrived in the Americas long before Columbus or the Vikings. in Newfoundland.


       The above inscription cannot be a fake for the following reasons. The actual time of discovery of the inscription is not known but was known by the locals as far back as the 1850's. At that time, the script of the text was unknown and therefore undecipherable. It was not until the last century that the ancient Hebrew (Paleo-Hebrew) script was discovered in the Near East.Once this ancient script was discovered the Los Lunas inscription could be deciphered and was found to be a copy of the "Ten Commandments". It was an undisturbed site. In 1925 a prospector in the area came upon the stone and mentioned it appeared extremely old and at that time it was covered in lichen and moss


The Los Lunas Hebrew Inscription - Middle Semitic Script




Date of Writing:

c. 700 BCE

Location of Discovery:

Outside of Los Lunas New Mexico

Date of Discovery:

Unknown, brought to the attention of scholastics in the 1850's.

Current Location:

Outside of Los Lunas New Mexico



Writing Surface:

Boulder face


(This line belongs after the next line but appears to have been inserted here after the completion of the writing)
4. {?-A}T ShM YHWH LShWA .


1. i yhwh your god who brought you out from land of
2. no will be gods after over my face
3. egypt and house servants ? no you do to you ? . no you do
4. at name yhwh to vain . remember at day
5. the shabbat to holy him honor at your father and at your mother in order that
6. long ? your days over the ground which yhwh your god
7. give to you no you murder no you adultery no you steal no
8. you humble in your neighbor witness false . no you covet wife of your neighbor
9. and all which to your neighbor

Alternate Translation:

1. I am Yahweh your God who brought you out from the land
2. No gods before me
3. A house of servants ? do not do to you ? do not do
4. the name yhwh in vain . remember the day of
5. the sabbath to make it holy honor your father and your mother in order that
6. your days be long over the land which yhwh your God
7. gives to you do not murder do not commit adultery do not steal do not
8. humble your niehgbor a false witness . do not covet the wife of your neighbor
9. and all that belongs to your neighbor

(Translation by Jeff A. Benner)


Source: Ancient Hebrew Research Center  Jeff A. Benner


Sumerians in the Americas


       The Sumerians [Shem] were in the Americas almost from the very beginning of colonization there  There is a translation of the cuneiform in a section of the Fuente Magna [a votive clay water trough]. "The translation is: ‘The L-rd of Serenity with the light gathers and herds together the large animals and the goats and the kids (weakened by lack of fodder, or wandering in search of food) to the open fields for rest.’ (In this context, "rest" appears to mean slaughter, for sacrifice or butchery, and to convert their hides to leather for apparel)."


       "Inference: The central idea of all the scripts of the Fuente Magna is apparently didactic. It seems that Sumerians, or a person or people employing Sumerian script, wished to serve as a guide to the people of the Altiplano to teach them new skills (how to herd goats and guanaco, to tan and manufacture leather, and so forth), to become their spiritual leaders, themselves adopting the role of teachers and priests. If this interpretation is correct, then it would seem that Sumerians were the first rulers and religious leaders of an American people.


       "In this context it is relevant to recall that the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega tells us that the first Inca, Manco Capac, and his spouse, Mama Oello Huaco, instructed the aboriginal people over whom they held sway the arts of cultivating grain and how to tame and domesticate wild animals. This program of instruction was initiated, so Inca Garcilaso declares, as soon as the first Inca entered his South American domain."


       The Sumerian influence and colonization of the areas of Central America must be explored too. The Maya-Olmec Long Count Calendar in Central America began on August 31, 3114 BCE. Its accuracy reflects knowledge of years, seasons, and events that only a people like the ancient Sumerians could possess. The similarity of Mexican, Colombian, and Egyptian pyramids is interesting . The royal tomb of the Mexican pyramid at Palenque shows the same basic relationship to the overlying pyramid as occurs in the Egyptian pyramids, [1]which pyramid-building knowledge was brought to Egypt from Sumeria.


Note [1] The Mastaba of Faraoun, at Saqqara ( a step pyramid)


       In Genesis 11:4, we find that the expression, "a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven," can refer to a tower with an idolatrous "temple for heaven" on its top. The Temple of Kukulcan, known as El Castillo, "The Castle," which looks almost identical to some of the pyramids of Sumeria, is just one of many that fits this description quite well.  The origin of maize is intriguing.


       Walter Baucom has indicated that researcher Michael Coe has studied this grain and remarked that it has no wild form. Speculation as to its origins places it in New Mexico about 2500 BCE. It is not known if the wild teosinte plant became maize [the source of all corn] from a single mutation or if maize became teosinte the same way. With all the agricultural firsts of the Sumerians, especially of their hybridization of wheat in the Tigris-Euphrates area, and added to this their far reaching trading proclivities, it would not be unrealistic to consider the possibilty that they would introduce through trading this valuable food source into the America’s which would have been a major agricultural innovations, though this remains to be proven.


       Coe stated that although no wild maize appeared in Mexico until the Early Preclassic period (1800 — 1200 BCE), tiny popcorn with pod corn characteristics has been found there showing an age of 3000 to 2200 BCE. This early date fits the time of Sumerian expansion and diffusion to other continents.


       Another writer gives a further hint of Sumerian influence.


    I learned from 22 expeditions to the Cuna Indians, on the offshore San Blas Islands of Eastern Panama, that this tribe has a Turning Tree of Life religion similar to that of ancient Sumeria 3400 BCE. Like Ishtar, the Cuna Earthmother bears in her womb a Tree of Life on which grow plants, animals, and man. It also bears the Golden Apples of Immortality. One must obtain permission from the Cuna Earthmother to pick the apples. The Tree is guarded by a dog, corresponding to Cerberus, that must be appeased before the Golden Apples (Olo Wini) can be picked.


    As in Sumeria, Ishtar had to carry a leafy branch from the Tree of Life (the Golden Bough) in order to be able to return to the surface of the earth, so the Cuna High Priest (Kantule) must break off for protection a golden branch so freshly developed that it has no chlorophyll (‘so freshly developed, say the Cunas, that no bird has yet sat upon it’). [The Babylonians inherited the Sumerians’ civilization and injected their pagan religion into it.]


       "But did the ancient Sumerians really ever get to America? Sargon of Agade, his son Menes, and his grandson Naram Sin all wrote on clay tablets that they had sailed to the Sunset Land, and there founded colonies. The Fuente Magna [1]  was found near the Bolivian shore of Lake Titicaca, bearing an invocation to the gods in ancient Sumerian. "The Cunas originally lived in Columbia that borders on Peru. Evidence also comes from 74 words of native Peruvian that have identical or similar sounds and meanings with words in Sumerian. A list of 42 cultural identities or similarities in culture have been described for Peruvian and Sumerian.


       "Tracing Cuna relgious symbols such as the placental spirit guardian dog, the itinerary of the Soul Boat, the labyrinth of the Underworld, the Amniotic Water of Life, the small Tree of Life symbol, the swastika, and the snake-entwined medicine cane, lead back to Sumeria, Troy, Knossus, Egypt, and Mohenjo Daro."


       Many coins found in North America and South America show pre-Columbian visitations by many peoples. "But vastly more impressive than even the numismatic evidence is that which has begun to accumulate in the epigraphic field. For whereas our sporadic coin finds inferred the pre-Columbian presence of Phoenicians and Hebrews, inscriptions have already added Berbers, Arabs, Basques, Celts, Scandinavians, Hindus, and, most recently, Sumerians.


       Tesla mentioned other discoveries that would indicate Sumerian influence or settlement in Central and South America. "Fell’s researches have proved beyond doubt that Old World cultural diffusion is not merely a side-issue in Native American studies, but a relentless and ubiquitous phenomenon. The discovery at Huace Prieta of cotton hybridized from the Old World variety would push back its beginnings at least to 2,900 BCE (rectified carbon-14 date), and from this it is not much of a jump to the first, tentative shoots of civilization (3,300-3,200 BCE) in Colombia and Ecuador." Dr. Barry Fell was recognizably the world’s foremost epigrapher before his death.


       Note [1] The Fuente Magna, also known as the Fuente Bowl, is a large stone vessel, resembling a libation bowl. It is asserted to have been found in the 1950s by a worker from the CHUA Hacienda near Tiwanaku, west of La Paz, Bolivia. The inscription has been claimed to contain Sumerian writing, and is said to resemble that on the later found Pokotia Monolith.It resides in a small museum in Calle Jaén, La Paz, Bolivia; Museo de metales preciosos "Museo de Oro


Sumerians in Central and South America?


       The Sumerians settled or influenced many early cultures all over the earth, their earliest probably being India [Mohenjo-Daro] and Egypt.


       "However, it is from the 26th century BCE that our archaeological picture really becomes interesting. The epicenter of this civilizing earthquake is along the central and North central coast of Peru. Among archaeologists it is called simply Pre-Ceramic 6, with an originating date (by rectified carbon-14 dating) of about 2,500 BCE. For us, its significance lies not in the label, but in the suddenness of its spectacular developments, and their obvious parallels with contemporaneous civilization in the Near East.


       Civilizations, when they are not imported, proceed by formative, developmental, and classical stages. Thus, the absence of earlier stages preparing the way for the stunning achievements of Pre-Ceramic 6 is in itself quite extraordinary. (Not only that, but) in the temple of Kotosh, the natural order of things is actually reversed: we not only lack earlier stages, but find a technological regression with the additions of subsequent centuries.  "Besides building temples, the people of Pre-Ceramic-6 raised numerous step pyramids and undertook monumental earthworks.


       At Ceulebras, they terraced an entire hillside and fitted it with stone block facings. And all this has been confidently attributed to a simple fishing community which had no prior training in architecture and even preferred to use old gourd vessels rather than make pots of its own."


       Note that 2,500 BCE is right after the Flood. Shem-ites [Sumerians] Japheth-ites, and Ham-ites, including Nimrod’s empire, spread out to different parts of the earth. Who, then, were these first people? Maybe these were early Hamites or Japhethites who had migrated there before Nimrod began his [world] kingdom.


       Whenever we read that later peoples brought instant higher civilizing influences with them and often became ruling classes, could not these just as likely have been Sumerians sent by Shem to neutralize the pagan religious influences on these people? Living near Shem and the great Sumerian civilization, these Hamite and Japhethite peoples could have copied the advanced cultural, astronomical, navigational skills of the Sumerians, but added their own heathen religion to them. Shem, who chased down and killed Nimrod, the arch rebel against the Almighty, could have sent his people to these indoctrinated peoples to re-educate them to the truth of the Creator.


       Do we have any proof of this? Tesla continues.


    "Poma de Avala, a 16th century native historian (of Peru), credited the founding of Peruvian civilization to bearded Caucasian instructors from across the sea, and Sarmiento, in his Historia Indica, quotes a Quipo historian as dating this event at 3,519 years prior to the onset of the Incan age. Archaeologists date the onset of the Incan Empire from about 1,200 CE, but native tradition reckons it at somewhere between 550 and 750 CE. Now if we use the mean date of 650 CE, we would backdate the arrival of Old World culture-bearers to 2,869 BCE, just about the time when Old World cotton makes its appearance in Peru.


       "The people at this time were still ignorant and uncivilized. They dressed in leaves and straw, and lived in caves and among the rocks. The Ayar brothers founded the Pir-huan dynasty. They taught the people agriculture and the building of houses.


       "Traditions also speak of a controversy between Vira Cocha, the (Egyptian?) [more likely Sumerian] founding father, and his flock, on the subject of sacrifices. ‘Vira Cocha…(quoting Poma de Avala) his skin was white, the color of foam, or like pale gold.


       He was a bearded man…and wore a robe down to his feet, and a mantle. He taught a doctrine of love. Seeing a human sacrifice to an idol shaped like a woman on a hill, he threw down the idol and destroyed the hill. Vira Cocha found a loyal disciple in a chief named Apo Tampo, and through him he taught husbandry and left a gold scepter inscribed with seven laws. But the majority of the people would not listen and so he returned across the sea whence he had come.’ "…to which Poma de Avala adds: ‘The people of the first age (i.e., the first period of Peruvian civilization) were born of white men from overseas and native Indian women."


       Berlitz says, "In the vicinity of the village of Ocucaje and Ica, in Peru, a collection of rounded stones totaling perhaps 16,000 and weighing from five pounds up to huge boulders of 800 pounds, has been amassed by Dr. Javier Cabrera, who has about 11,000 of them in his museum. What is unusual about these ‘stones of Ica’ is that they are covered with incised drawings ostensibly made by carvers of past civilizations.


       The engraved drawings show people, extant and extinct animals, star maps, the star rings of the zodiac, and maps of unidentified land areas. People are shown using telescopes, looking at the stars, and performing surgery." No date is given for the above paragraph, but early Spanish reports tell that some of these stones were sent back to Spain by Spanish explorers in 1562, proof that they are not of recent age.


       What are we to make of all this, especially as pertaining to the Sumerians? To speculate, some backward and "heathen" people were settled in Peru almost immediately after the Flood in approximately 2400 BCE. This would conform to the above dates if indeed the archaeologists’ dating method rather than the native tradition were accurate. The native date of 3,519 years before the onset of the Incan age [1200 CE according to archaeologists] would be about 2,319 BCE, a date which also squares with the supposed date of the Flood


       Since it was Shem through whom YHWH gave His laws and Covenants, we can suppose that Hamites and Japhethites were the original and very backward peoples that inhabited that area. The Vira Cocha person who brought the doctrine of love, and who did away with human sacrifice [a very heathen thing], would strongly appear to be a Shemite [Sumerian]. This supposition would agree with our understanding of the very advanced civilization the Sumerians brought with them to many parts of the earth.


       Dankenbring, quoting from the same source (Berlitz, ), mentions that a Danish storekeeper, Waldemar Jusrud, in 1925, found and amassed 33,000 ceramic figurine objects near Acambaro in the Mexican state of Guanajuato, with human figures and [dinosaur-like reptiles and] animals on them. "The human figures show details of dress somewhat resembling those of the ancient Middle East: laced sandals, chain mail, shields, and a variety of weapons.


       "Let us now push forward a thousand years. This will take us to the 15th century BCE, a time of major geological disturbances that submerged islands and clipped the edges of larger land masses all the way from the Peloponnesus to India. By the end of the 13th century BCE, Cretan power was irrevocably broken, leaving the way clear for the Phoenicians to reopen their trade with Western Europe…and beyond. One can well imagine the excitement of these merchant seamen, whose traditions extended not merely to Cadiz, but, as perhaps they alone knew, to the great and almost forgotten continent beyond the Sargasso Sea."


       Our contention is that Phoenicians were mostly Israelites who inherited the colonizing and civilizing proclivities of their forebears, the Sumerians. Hundreds of Phoenician inscriptions have been found cut in stone tablets along the banks of rivers in the jungles of Brazil and on the eastern coast of South America, and even more hundreds have been found in North America.


       The Phoenician influence seems especially evident among the Maya. The Maya alone of all native peoples of the New World were fully literate. Their script was so well-developed that they could write down anything in their language. The early art of the Olmecs, beautiful in its utter simplicity, is called Danzantes [literally "dancers"], although we make no claim of kinship of that word to the Tribe of Dan.


       This art might be associated with the oldest writing in Mesoamerica. At least one Danzantes Olmec bas-relief is bearded, bearded men being both a Sumerian and an Israelite proclivity. Much Sumerian knowledge was passed down through Abraham to the Israelite Tribes. Sumerians also used the concept of zero, as did the ancient Hindus and Mayas, and were able to make mathematical cosmic calculations of fifteen digits, while younger races had difficulty counting in the thousands.


       In some cases, the Sumerians themselves were the first to settle an area. Just as Nimrod developed warfare and conquered some early Sumerian cities in Mesopotamia, so too can we assume that he sent soldiers to conquer some [already established] Sumerian settlements in other areas of the world.


       The Sumerians’ influence on the world was seen in the chapter, "Sumerians: Who Were They?" but this brief glimpse of their influence on other civilizations [or lesser tribes] will give us greater understanding of who they really were, what particular knowledge they gave us, and where this knowledge is today.


       Some of these people undoubtedly were assimilated into the Akkadian, Chaldean, Babylonian, Assyrian, even Egyptian, peoples. Some might have assimilated on a smaller scale into the Medes and Persians. The greater majority of them, however, can be traced in the Abrahamic lineage given in the Hebrew Scriptures.


       Some of these ultimately became the children of Isaac–Esau and Jacob. Jacob became the father of the Israelites, and it was through one of his sons, Joseph, that this knowledge continued to be passed down, and to whom the Birthright promises were given.




       "When the Spaniards came to Mexico and were standing guard on cold nights, they began to wonder who these Indians really were. Some of those soldiers (Bernal Diaz among them) advanced the idea that these Indians might be Jews."Among the Spaniards, the Estemadorans in particular had been raised on Roman history and they knew about the reigns of the Roman emperors Vespasian and his son Titus. Both Vespasian and Titus had been governors of Judea and, after suppressing the Jewish rebellion around 70 CE, they sent whole tribes of Jews into exile.


       The Spaniards…wondered if perhaps these Indians were not descended from those ancient Jews who were exiled from Palestine more than fourteen hundred years before. But how, they asked themselves, would the Jews have got here? Well, the Jews knew how to build ships and it would have been possible to sail across the Mediterranean, through the Strait of Gibraltar, then cross the ocean, wouldn’t it? Furthermore, several of the Spaniards came up with an odd fact to support this theory: Indian priests in Zempoala had shown them how the obsidian knives–the sacrificial knives–were also used for circumcision, which was known to be a Jewish rite. Ergo, these Indians might be Jews. [Dr. Fell traced many of these fleeing Jews to present-day Tennessee.]


       "Antonio de Montezinos, a Marano (secret Jew), while journeying in South America in 1641, (had an) Indian guide (who) greeted him with, ‘Shema Israel (Hear, O Israel).’ Furthermore, the guide reported that many people ‘of the same origin’ were living in the highlands near Quito, Ecuador. He also claimed that he met savages who followed Jewish practices. This story Antonio repeated in Holland in 1644 to Manasseh ben Israel, who printed it in his work, Hope of Israel, in 1650.


       "Early in the 19th Century, a young member of Parliament, Edward King, Viscount Kingsborough, was struck by the beauty and mystery of a Mexican Indian codex, or manuscript, in the Bodleian Library (that arrived) at Oxford. He exhausted his fortune, and perhaps his life, in attempting to prove that the Lost Tribes of Israel were ancestors of the Indians of Mexico. Nearly half of Adair’s book was reprinted by the passionately convinced Kingsborough.


       He sank the bulk of his fortune into the publication of nine magnificent volumes of Mexican codices, with commentary, entitled Antiquities of Mexico. Twice he was thrown into debtors’ prison when he was unable to meet the bills of the printers and paper manufacturers; on his release he doggedly continued his publishing efforts. In 1837, imprisoned a third time, he died at the age of 42. His friends insisted that the cause of death was a broken spirit."


       "Teoamoxtli, ‘the devine book,’ as it was called. According to Ixtlilxochitl, it was composed by a Texcucan doctor, named Huematzin, towards the close of the seventh century. It gave an account of the migrations of his nation from Asia, of the various stations on their journey, and of their social and religious institutions, their science, arts, etc., a good deal too much for one book. Ignotum pro magnifico.


        It has never been seen by a European. A copy is said to have been in possession of the Texcucan chroniclers, on the taking of their capital. (Bustamante, Cronica Mexicana, [Mexico, 1822], Carta 3).


        Lord Kingsborough, who can scent out a Hebrew root, has discovered that the Teoamoxtli was the Penteteuch. Thus, --teo means ‘divine,’ amotl, ‘paper’ or ‘book,’ and moxtli ‘appears to be Moses,’ —‘Divine Book of Moses,’ Antiquities of Mexico, Vol. VI, p. 204, nota [quoting Prescott’s Mexico, Vol. I, p. 93].


       This appears to be associated more with Aztecs than with Maya. The Nahautl [Uto-Aztecan] language itself has been shown to have many Hebraic-Semitic roots and can be traced to NW Palestine, where parts of the Israelite Tribes of Dan, Naphtali, Zebulon, Asher, and Issachar settled.


Old World Artifacts in North America


       Dr. Hugh Moran, in The Alphabet and the Ancient Calendar Signs, was convinced that the lunar zodiac served as the basis for the Maya’s Hieroglyphic writing system. In the chapter on Sumerians, we saw that the calendar of the Israelites was lunar based.


       Ancient tribal traditions of Amerindians in the United States taught that their ancestors crossed the great ocean to the east of America to reach this continent. Their children were later bewildered and confused by the conflict between tribal traditions and what they were being taught in school, the much more recent belief of an alleged ancestry stretching back across the Bering Strait to Asia.


       In recent years, multiple thousands of Old World artifacts have been found, such as Roman pottery, ancient Welsh armor, Viking axes and swords, and Phoenician, Greek, and Roman coins. Celtic Ogam, Norse Runic, Libyan Berber Tifinag, and Greek, Hebrew, and ancient Basque petroglyph writings are continuing to be found all over North America.


       What archeologists in our West call "Great Basin Curvilinear" is in fact writing–ancient Punic, Greek, and Libyan Arabic of North Africa–using alphabets that are proper to those tongues. Interestingly, "…the ancient San Telmo Stone of Portugal, believed to have the oldest form of Basque writing on it, was unreadable until Dr. Barry Fell deciphered it, using the Cree Indian alphabet of North America."


       On the West Coast, Arab petroglyphs are numerous in California, Nevada, and Southern Idaho. Numismatists, serologists, historians, and epigraphers are redefining our past. The same giant dolmens, cairns, and menhirs found in Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa have now been discovered in America. Skull types across the continent show mostly the European types east of the Rocky Mountains, with the rounded Asiatic types found west of them. Blood types [serology] reveal an almost totally nonexistent Asiatic type north of Central and South America. Columbus, it appears, was the last person to discover America, and our Western histories, written from a very Romish point of view, might have to be totally revised.


       The big question is just who were these Celtic, Scandinavian, North African, and Phoenician settlers to America a thousand years before Jesus and two and a half millennia before Columbus? The English language itself can be traced through the Celtic and Scandinavian peoples of Europe, back through the Scythians, Cimmerians, Carthaginian-Phoenicians, all the way back to ancient Israel..


       Geoffrey Keating (1570-1646), who wrote The History of Ireland from the Earliest Period to the English Invasion, and translated by John O’Mahony, New York, 1866, says,


       "This language the Latin writers call the ‘Lingua Humana,’ i.e. the Human Language. But when Nimrud, with his kindred, was attempting to erect the Tower, their language was confounded, in order to prevent their finishing the structure which their pride had prompted them to begin; and the original language, received from Adam, was taken from all that were concerned in building it. It was, however, retained by Heber, the son of Selah, and by his tribe, and, from him, it has been called Hebrew."


 Source: Walter Baucom

Kennewick Man


       The remains of one of the oldest North Americans ever found have been recovered in Washington state. The 9,300-year old skeleton is 90% complete and belongs to a Caucasian male about five foot ten inches tall. Described as one of the most complete skeletons ever unearthed in the Americas it was discovered near Kennewick, Washington in July of 1996 and dubbed "Kennewick Man."


       Now it is the subject of a court battle between anthropologists who desire to learn all they can about it, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which wants to cover it up, both literally and figuratively. The Corps wishes to turn this remarkable find over to American Indian tribes who want it reburied without further study based on the claim that the skeleton is an "Indian" and therefore should not be studied. The Indians had no explanation as to how one of their "ancestors" could be Caucasian. At stake at the center of this controversy is the rewriting of American pre-Columbian history--sooner rather than later.

       As if the discovery of an 9000 year old Caucasian in the United States would not of itself be sensational enough, the excitement over Kennewick man has led to a breaking down of "an iron curtain of silence" which had previously existed in the news media and among some archeologist and anthropologist over the finding of at least SIX OTHER Caucasoids of greater antiquity than any Asiatic Indian remains known in North America!


       Including the nearly ten-thousand-year-old mummy of a Caucasoid male found in Spirit Cave Nevada, and the skeletal remains of a nine year old Caucasoid female child found in Nevada of equal antiquity.


        From their graves, men, women, and children are speaking to us and their tale is that of an ancient culture stretching at the least from Arizona to Washington State.


       Interestingly enough the Kennewick man had imbedded in his pelvic bone a two inch Clovis spear point of gray volcanic rock thrown by an enemy with every intent to kill. Kennewick Man survived the attack but the spear point remained imbedded in his hip. [1]


       What is odd is that there is little proof that there was not a single Indian in the entire Northwest when Kennewick man lived, hunted and fought there. The present non-Caucasian Indians in that region are believed to have been there less than a thousand years, which makes them the invaders and Kennewick man and his people the "native Americans" of the Northwest, for whatever that is worth.

       In fact, such terms as "first", "original" and "native" really have no scientific or historical context in this time period, as so little is known (and if the federal government has its way little will be known) of this era. But such terms are convenient and useful for present day social engineers to provide preferential treatment to one class at the expense of another. As one lawyer involved in the court case stated, "A lot of their [Indian] pride and claims might not be true and that might impact them in financially adverse ways."


       Most Americans, taught the Bering Strait theory as an explanation for the peopling of America, are unaware that it is no longer seen as the sole explanation for the migrations to this continent. Archeological finds in South America, on the Eastern Seaboard of the US and elsewhere show conclusively that there were several distinct and separate migrations of different racial groups to the Americas.


       Furthermore, recent studies point to the hypothesis of a "North Atlantic Crescent" which existed between Europe and the Americas, with both water and ice serving as a "bridge" between the two continents.


       Archaeologists such as Thor Heyerdahl and many others have uncovered the oldest ruins in the Southern Hemisphere of the American Continent. These ruins present politically correct archeologists with the problem of the most ancient civilizations being found at the Southern end of the American continent rather then at the Northern end, where one would expect to find them had the first settlers come across the Bering Strait. It is clear also from genetic DNA sequencing of haplotypes that there was more than one migratory event. Indeed, as one DNA study bluntly stated, "The notion of a homogeneous Amerind genetic pool does not conform with these and other results ".


Note: [1] He was probably attacked by a fellow Soulerian Caucasian, in a dispute of some sort

       In ancient cities of South America, some of which may have been populated by over 50,000 people, were found the mummies of Caucasoid nobles buried in the bowels of ancient temples. As ruins continue to yield their secrets it now appears that many of the ancient pre-Columbian civilizations were sea-faring peoples with a long tradition of open-sea sailing.


       Rather than walking 10,000 miles from Mongolia to Chile, it now seems that the "first Americans" may have sailed first class. And where they came from will soon be firmly resolved by DNA testing. Peru, Chile, and Ecuador are all revealing long forgotten cities of ancient peoples classified as racially part of the Indo-European family of people. From Red headed mummies in pre-Inca graves in Peru to blond headed Toltek warrior priests in central Mexico, this is not the history of your father's generation.

       Pre-Columbian tombs are shattering the adage that "dead men tell no tales." And the exciting tales they relate will force the rewriting of pre-Columbian history.


       The myth of "Indians" as the first Americans, from lithic discoveries in recent years is now apparent. The myth so long supported resounded throughout the hallowed halls of academia into a form of politically correct form of archaeology that has greatly hindered the interpretation and understanding of American pre-history.


 Source : Louis Beam


Ancient Egyptians in America


       About 3,000 years ago, the mummified body of Henut Taui was laid to rest in a desert tomb of ancient Egypt. 


       During her long sleep, Rome rose and fell, the dark ages came and went, Europeans from Napoleon to the Brits conquered her home land, and finally in the early 1800s, the immortality her embalmers had sought for her was attained when her tomb was plundered. Her body, preserved to the consistency of Beef Jerky, found its way to Germany, a museum in Munich, and during toxicological testing in the 1990s was found to contain large amounts of Cocaine and Tobacco , Cocaine and Tobacco are found only in New World plants, and logically should not have been attained by Ancient Egyptians without contact with America.  Of course, the possibility of contamination by modern tomb excavators exists. 


 Some  possibilities:


       There was significant trade between the Americas and Ancient Egypt to allow Cocaine and Tobacco to find its way into circulation. Cocaine and Tobacco once grew in the Old World as well, but later became extinct in these regions. The tissue samples are tainted by later contact with cocaine users, smokers, and potheads Henut Taui is a time traveling Crack head.


       Dr Svelta Balabanova a highly respected forensic toxologist and the inventor of several highly sensitive drug specific tests which are today's standards in establishing drug use, took samples from several mummies, including Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses the Great. Not only was the presence of Cocaine and Tobacco established, but Cannabis as well. Apparently pot and cocaine use was fairly common among the Egyptian elite of antiquity.


       Dr Michele Lescott from the Museum of Natural History in Paris, among others has duplicated the Balabanova test results .It has long been known that the Egyptians used a variety of drugs, this is not in question. However, the presence of the Cocaine and Tobacco in the bodies of these ancient Egyptians establishes a link between Old World and New, many Centuries before the accepted conservative dating that establishment scholars propose.



The Parahyba Inscription


       We are sons of Canaan from Sidon, the city of the king. Commerce has cast us on this distant shore, a land of mountains. We set [sacrificed] a youth for the exalted gods and goddesses in the nineteenth year of Hiram, our mighty king. We embarked from Ezion-Geber into the Red Sea and voyaged with ten ships. We were at sea together for two years around the land belonging to Ham [Africa] but were separated by a storm [lit. 'from the hand of Baal'], and we were no longer with our companions. So we have come here, twelve men and three women, on a shore, which I, the Admiral, control. But auspiciously may the gods or goddesses favor us!




       Dr. Wallace began studying the mtDNA of Native Americans in the mid-1980s in hopes of resolving a long-raging debate over when prehistoric peoples entered the Americas. The presumption long has been that the ancestors of Native Americans came from Siberia. But anthropologists have argued for year over how many, and when such migrations occurred.

       The mtDNA analyses are showing that the ancestors of the Amerinds, who comprise most Native Americans, entered the Americans in a single migratory wave 20,000 to 40,000 years ago, Dr. Wallace and his Emory colleagues ... reported last year. This puts humans in the Americas long before a fluted stone-spear point--the oldest American tool ever found--was dropped by a prehistoric dweller near Clovis, N.M., 11,000 years ago.

       The researchers also found that ancestors of the Navajo, Apache and other members of a Native American group, known collectively as the Na-Dene, are latecomers; they entered the continent in a second migration a mere 5,000 to 10,000 years ago, the research indicates.




       In December 1989, it was reported that an American explorer in Peru's highland jungles had found evidence that indicated king Solomon's legendary gold mines may have been in that region. The explorer, Gene Savoy, declared that he had found three stone tablets containing the first writing found from the ancient civilizations of the Andes. The inscriptions, he reported, are similar to Phoenician and Hebrew hieroglyphs!


       Reports the San Francisco Chronicle: "The hieroglyphs on the tablets are similar to those used in King Solomon's time and include one identical to the symbol that always appeared on the ships he sent to the legendary land of Ophir, which the Bible described as the source of his gold, Savoy said"


       Savoy is no newcomer to archaeological discoveries. He was the discoverer of the last Inca city of Vilcabamba in 1964. Savoy declared that the three tablets each weigh several tons and measure about 5 by 10 feet. They were found in a cave near Gran Vilaya, the immense ruins of the Chachapoyas Indian civilization that he discovered in 1985.


       Savoy said he found three tablets, each weighing several tons and measuring about 5 by 10 feet, in August in a cave near Gran Vilaya, the immense ruins of the Chachapoyas Indian civilization he discovered in 1985.


       The Gran Vilaya ruins are 400 miles north of Lima and 9,000 feet above sea level in a fog-shrouded region of the Andes that Peruvians call the "jungle's eyebrow." Savoy [1]  displayed photos of the tablets, which he said remain in the cave, and sketches of rubbings taken from the stones. He pointed out the similarities between the stylized inscriptions and samples of Phoenician hier-oglyphs.


       The hieroglyphs on the tablets are similar to those used in King Solomon's time and include one identical to the symbol that always appeared on the ships he sent to the legendary land of Ophir, which the Bible described as the source of his gold, Savoy said.


Note: [1] Deseret News,  Dec. 10, 1989


Hebrews in the Americas


       Dr. Joseph Mahan in Atlanta, Georgia, an expert in ancient Indian ethnology of the southeastern Indians of the United States.noted that Indian legends, of the Yuchis, state that they migrated to the area of Florida and Georgia from the region of the Bahamas. According to their legends, the island sank beneath the sea and they fled for their live Later the Yuchis ,  migrated to the Oklahoma territory, where they eventually settled .


       The Yuchis have a custom that is unique among the American Indians. They are racially and linguistically different from their neighbors. Every year on the fifteenth day of the sacred month of harvest, in the fall, they make a pilgrimage. For eight days they live in "booths" with roofs open to the sky, covered with branches and leaves and foliage. During this festival, they dance around the sacred fire, and called upon the name of God.


       The ancient Israelites had the virtually identical custom, in many respects. In the harvest season in the fall, on the 15th day of the sacred month of harvest (the seventh month), they celebrate the "festival of booths" for eight days. During this time they lived in temporary booths, covered with branches, leaves, fronds. This festival goes back to the time of Moses and the Exodus from ancient Egypt (Leviticus 23). It is intriguingly fascinating that two totally separated peoples could observe the same custom.


       Dr. Cyrus Gordon, of Brandeis University in Boston, indicated that he was privileged to sit in on one of the fall harvest festivals of the Yuchi Indians, and listened to their chants, songs, and sacred ceremonies. An expert in Hebrew, Minoan, and many Middle Eastern languages, he was incredulous. As he listened, he exclaimed to his companion, "They are speaking the Hebrew names for God!"


Some Mysteries


       More and more, scholars are coming to admit that peoples from the Middle East reached the New World long before Columbus or the Vikings. One stone, found at Fort Benning, Georgia, has unusual markings all over it. Professor Stanislav Segert, professor of Semitic languages at the University of Prague, has identified the markings on the stone as a script of the second millennium before the Messiah, from the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete!


Minoan inscriptions in New England


       Dr. Cyrus Gordon indicated that Jews were in America in ancient times. The inscription on the stone, he asserts, is in the writing style of Canaan, the promised land of the Hebrews. Concludes Gordon, whom I interviewed at his old, New England style home in the suburbs of Boston: "There is no doubt that these findings, and others, reflect Bronze Age transatlantic communication between the Mediterranean and the New World around the middle of the second millennium B.C."


       In 1968 Manfred Metcalf was looking for slabs to build a barbeque pit. Several strange-looking, flat rocks caught his eye; he picked up a large flat piece of sandstone about nine inches long, brushed it off, and noticed odd markings on it. Metcalf gave the stone to Dr. Joseph B. Mahan, Jr., Director of Education and Research at the nearby Columbus Museum of Arts and Crafts at Columbus, Georgia. Mahan sent a copy of the stone to Cyrus Gordon. Gordon reported: "After studying the inscription, it was apparent to me that the affinities of the script were with the Aegean syllabify, whose two best known forms are Minoan Linear A, and Mycenaean Linear B.


  Cretan Double-Axe


The double-axe in the lower left corner is of course reminiscent of Minoan civilization.


       The single vertical lines remind us of the vertical lines standing each for the numeral '1' in the Aegean syllabify; while the little circles stand for '100.'"




       Gordon concluded:" We therefore have American inscriptional contacts with the Aegean of the Bronze Age, near the south, west and north shores of the Gulf of Mexico. This can hardly be accidental; ancient Aegean writing near three different sectors of the Gulf reflects Bronze Age Trans-Atlantic communication between the Mediterranean and the New World around the middle of the second millennium B.C."


       Gordon offered the exciting thought, "The Aegean analogues to Mayan writing, to the Aztec glyphs, and to the Metcalf Stone, inspire the hope that the deciphered scripts of the Mediterranean may provide keys for unlocking the forgotten systems of writing in the New World. A generation capable of landing men on the moon, may also be able to place pre-Columbian Americas within the framework of world history" (Manuscripts, summer of 1969).


       Further proof that Trans-Atlantic travel and communication existed in the Bronze Age, in the middle of the second millennium B.C., during the time of David and Solomon, and before, comes to us from South America.


Phoenicians in Brazil – Paraiba Insciptions


       In 1872 a slave belonging of Joaquim Alves de Costa, found a broken stone tablet in the tropical rain forests of Brazil's Paraiba state. Baffled by the strange markings on the stone, Costa's son, who was a draftsman, made a copy of it and sent it to the Brazilian Emperor's Council of State. The stone came to the attention of Ladislau Netto, director of the national museum. He was convinced of the inscription's authenticity and made a crude translation of it. Contemporary scholars scoffed. The very thought of Phoenicians reaching Brazil thousands of years before Columbus was viewed with disdain. Few scholars took the stone at all seriously.


       In 1966 Dr. Jules Piccus, professor of romance languages at the University of Massachusetts, bought an old scrapbook at a rummage sale containing a letter written by Netto in 1874, which contained his translations of the markings on the stone and a tracing of the original copy he had received from Costa's son. Intrigued, Dr. Piccus brought the material to the attention of Cyrus H. Gordon. Dr. Gordon, the head of the Department of Mediterranean Studies at Brandeis and an expert in ancient Semitic languages, as well as author of some 13 books, was amazed. He compared the Paraiba inscription with the latest work on Phoenician writings. He discovered that it contained nuances and quirks of Phoenician style that could not have been known to a 19th century forger. The writings had to be genuine!


       Gordon translated the inscription as follows: "We are Sidonian Canaanites from the city of the Mercantile King. We were cast up on this distant shore, a land of mountains. We sacrificed a youth to the celestial gods and goddesses in the nineteenth year of our mighty King Hiram and embarked from Ezion-geber into the Red Sea. We voyaged with ten ships and were at sea together for two years around Africa. Then we were separated by the hand of Baal and were no longer with our companions. So we have come here, twelve men and three women, into New Shore. Am I, the Admiral, a man who would flee? Nay! May the celestial gods and goddesses favor us well!"


King Solomon/s Navy


       Cyrus Gordon believes the king mentioned in the script can be identified as Hiram III who reigned 553-533 B.C. The inscription seems to verify an unusual statement found in the Old Testament. An ancient Biblical chronicler wrote:


       "And King Solomon made a navy of ships in Ezion-geber, which is beside Eloth, on the shore of the Red sea, in the land of Edom. And Hiram sent in the navy his servants, shipmen that had knowledge of the sea, with the servants of Solomon. And they came to Ophir, and fetched from thence gold, four hundred and twenty talents, and brought it to king Solomon" (I Kings 9:26-28).


       In the days of Solomon there was an alliance between Hiram, the king of Tyre and the Israelites under Solomon. They were not only allies, but very friendly toward one another (II Chronicles 2:2-12). Israelites and Phoenicians even worked together to build the Temple of YEHOVAH God in Jerusalem (vs.13-18). This alliance included shipping together, although the Phoenicians were known to jealously guard the secrets of oceanic navigation from other nations. We read in II Chronicles 8, beginning verse 8:


       "Then went Solomon to Ezion-geber  and to Eloth, at the sea side in the land of Edom. And Huram sent him by the hands of his servants ships, and servants that had knowledge of the sea; and they went with the servants of Solomon to Ophir, and took thence four hundred and fifty talents of gold, and brought them to king Solomon" (v. 17-18).  In the heyday of Solomon silver was "not any thing accounted of" (11 Chron. 9:20).


       We read, "And the king made silver in Jerusalem as stones, and cedar trees made he as the sycomore trees that are in the low plains in abundance" (v. 27). Solomon had his own personal fleets and dominated world trade. "And king Solomon passed all the kings of the earth in riches and wisdom" (v. 22).


       There is archaeological evidence, in fact, that the fleets of Solomon and Hiram of Tyre circumnavigated the globe, sailing from Ezion-geber, a port at the terminus of the Red Sea, near modern Aqaba or Eliat! Hebrew customs, discovered by the early English settlers in the Americas, were found among some of the Indian tribes, including the wearing of phylacteries! Minoan and Phoenician coins have been found, and inscriptions of ancient Phoenician and Minoan scripts, in Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, and the Star of David was even found in an ancient ruin of the Pueblo Indians in New Mexico! In the middle of the second millennium, B.C., and down to the time of Solomon, circa 1000 B.C., oceanic travel by maritime powers in the Middle East seems to have been fairly common.




       Another significant Hebrew locale is in the Purgatoire River Valley, located due south of La Junta, Colorado, where the oldest written inscriptions in the US are found. (ca.1750 BCE. conservatively), from the earliest Ligature phase of word-formation by ‘tying letters together into a picture’.  These have YaH inscriptions identifiable with the Exodus people.


       The actual massive rock that appears like a small ship with cleared keel (maybe what attracted his attention to it), of the volcanic basalt from the top Tertiary shelf is a remnant of geological prehistory, which fell two-thirds of the way don the mountain to become what now has stood ground for 2,500 or more years as a massive "Mezuzah" (Bible script found at every Jewish doorway).  St at a right angle to the left of the main entry before a natural gateway to this ancient site with Altar having the same writing but exactly the opposite angle Leftward unto facing the River where it is flowing in a strait line perfectly perpendicular to it.


       Being the largest of only three ’10 Commandments Stones found anywhere in the world. The others being the “Ogio Decalogue” a much smaller example in a unique type of the post exile Jewish square script and another one of the ”Michigan Artifacts” found written in a Cuneform style of Hebrew graphics!), and therefore most worthy of copy, these are made utilizing the complete Alphabet, the best example of the print closest to that writing of the original tablets, as the Paleo is the only Hebrew having an equal size characters letter set which plotting on both sides of two tablets according to the accounts would have required.


       These re-makes of it, are correct down to the very angle it sets at, but without the ancient scribe’s mistake of overlooking a part afterward realized and inserted with (a diacritical mark ^ ) with the corrected spelling of a couple of the words and addition of yet a couple more he passed up for an accurate to Exodus 20 readable abridgement of the full Decalogue. (see Exodus 20 next page)


Exodus Chapter 20 שְׁמוֹת

א  וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים, אֵת כָּל-הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֵאמֹר.  {ס}

1 And God spoke all these words, saying: {S}

ב  אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ, אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים:  לֹא-יִהְיֶה לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים, עַל-פָּנָי.

2 I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me.

ג  לֹא-תַעֲשֶׂה לְךָ פֶסֶל, וְכָל-תְּמוּנָה, אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל, וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת--וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם, מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ.

3 Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;

ד  לֹא-תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לָהֶם, וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם:  כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ, אֵל קַנָּא--פֹּקֵד עֲו‍ֹן אָבֹת עַל-בָּנִים עַל-שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל-רִבֵּעִים, לְשֹׂנְאָי.

4 thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;

ה  וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד, לַאֲלָפִים--לְאֹהֲבַי, וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְו‍ֹתָי.  {ס}

5 and showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love Me and keep My commandments. {S}

ו  לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת-שֵׁם-יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ, לַשָּׁוְא:  כִּי לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהוָה, אֵת אֲשֶׁר-יִשָּׂא אֶת-שְׁמוֹ לַשָּׁוְא.  {פ}

6 Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain. {P}

ז  זָכוֹר אֶת-יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת, לְקַדְּשׁוֹ.

7 Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.

ח  שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד, וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל-מְלַאכְתֶּךָ.

8 Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;

ט  וְיוֹם, הַשְּׁבִיעִי--שַׁבָּת, לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ:  לֹא-תַעֲשֶׂה כָל-מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ וּבִתֶּךָ, עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ וּבְהֶמְתֶּךָ, וְגֵרְךָ, אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ.

9 but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates;

י  כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת-יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת-הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת-הָאָרֶץ, אֶת-הַיָּם וְאֶת-כָּל-אֲשֶׁר-בָּם, וַיָּנַח, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי; עַל-כֵּן, בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה אֶת-יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת--וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ.  {ס}

10 for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it. {S}

יא  כַּבֵּד אֶת-אָבִיךָ, וְאֶת-אִמֶּךָ--לְמַעַן, יַאֲרִכוּן יָמֶיךָ, עַל הָאֲדָמָה, אֲשֶׁר-יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ.  {ס}

11 Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee. {S}

יב  לֹא תִרְצָח,  {ס}  לֹא תִנְאָף;  {ס}  לֹא תִגְנֹב,  {ס}  לֹא-תַעֲנֶה בְרֵעֲךָ עֵד שָׁקֶר.  {ס}

12 Thou shalt not murder. {S} Thou shalt not commit adultery. {S} Thou shalt not steal. {S} Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. {S}

יג  לֹא תַחְמֹד, בֵּית רֵעֶךָ;  {ס}  לֹא-תַחְמֹד אֵשֶׁת רֵעֶךָ, וְעַבְדּוֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ וְשׁוֹרוֹ וַחֲמֹרוֹ, וְכֹל, אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ.  {פ}

13 Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house; {S} thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's. {P}

יד  וְכָל-הָעָם רֹאִים אֶת-הַקּוֹלֹת וְאֶת-הַלַּפִּידִם, וְאֵת קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר, וְאֶת-הָהָר, עָשֵׁן; וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּנֻעוּ, וַיַּעַמְדוּ מֵרָחֹק.

14 And all the people perceived the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the voice of the horn, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled, and stood afar off.

טו  וַיֹּאמְרוּ, אֶל-מֹשֶׁה, דַּבֵּר-אַתָּה עִמָּנוּ, וְנִשְׁמָעָה; וְאַל-יְדַבֵּר עִמָּנוּ אֱלֹהִים, פֶּן-נָמוּת.

15 And they said unto Moses: 'Speak thou with us, and we will hear; but let not God speak with us, lest we die.'

טז  וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל-הָעָם, אַל-תִּירָאוּ, כִּי לְבַעֲבוּר נַסּוֹת אֶתְכֶם, בָּא הָאֱלֹהִים; וּבַעֲבוּר, תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל-פְּנֵיכֶם--לְבִלְתִּי תֶחֱטָאוּ.

16 And Moses said unto the people: 'Fear not; for God is come to prove you, and that His fear may be before you, that ye sin not.'

יז  וַיַּעֲמֹד הָעָם, מֵרָחֹק; וּמֹשֶׁה נִגַּשׁ אֶל-הָעֲרָפֶל, אֲשֶׁר-שָׁם הָאֱלֹהִים.  {ס}

17 And the people stood afar off; but Moses drew near unto the thick darkness where God was. {S}

יח  וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל-מֹשֶׁה, כֹּה תֹאמַר אֶל-בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:  אַתֶּם רְאִיתֶם--כִּי מִן-הַשָּׁמַיִם, דִּבַּרְתִּי עִמָּכֶם.

18 And the LORD said unto Moses: Thus thou shalt say unto the children of Israel: Ye yourselves have seen that I have talked with you from heaven.

יט  לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן, אִתִּי:  אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב, לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם.

19 Ye shall not make with Me--gods of silver, or gods of gold, ye shall not make unto you.

כ  מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה, תַּעֲשֶׂה-לִּי, וְזָבַחְתָּ עָלָיו אֶת-עֹלֹתֶיךָ

ְאֶת-שְׁלָמֶיךָ, אֶת-צֹאנְךָ וְאֶת-בְּקָרֶךָ; בְּכָל-הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַזְכִּיר אֶת-שְׁמִי, אָבוֹא אֵלֶיךָ וּבֵרַכְתִּיךָ.

20 An altar of earth thou shalt make unto Me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt-offerings, and thy peace-offerings, thy sheep, and thine oxen; in every place where I cause My name to be mentioned I will come unto thee and bless thee.

כא  וְאִם-מִזְבַּח אֲבָנִים תַּעֲשֶׂה-לִּי, לֹא-תִבְנֶה אֶתְהֶן גָּזִית:  כִּי חַרְבְּךָ הֵנַפְתָּ עָלֶיהָ, וַתְּחַלְלֶהָ.

21 And if thou make Me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stones; for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast profaned it.

כב  וְלֹא-תַעֲלֶה בְמַעֲלֹת, עַל-מִזְבְּחִי:  אֲשֶׁר לֹא-תִגָּלֶה עֶרְוָתְךָ, עָלָיו.  {פ}

22 Neither shalt thou go up by steps unto Mine altar, that thy nakedness be not uncovered thereon. {P}





       There are a surprising number instances that appear to corroborate the fact that Israelites  had visited the American continents for thousands of years.


       Other inscriptions, also written in Paleo-Hebrew, have been discovered in the states of Iowa, Ohio, and Tennessee, as well as in Brazil.


       In Newark, Ohio, a carved stone of interesting workmanship was discovered, which also bears an engraved inscription of the Ten Commandments of the Covenant, written in Paleo-Hebrew.  At a site known as Bat Creek Cave, Tennessee, an ancient Hebrew inscription was found that mentiones the Israelite tribe of Judah!


       Another fascinating archeological discovery in America is an ancient artifact bearing an old Hebrew inscription of the Ten Commandments unearthed in Ohio in 1860.  The tablet also includes a scene of an individual - Moses- carved into the front of the tablet in considerable detail, holding the tablets of the Ten Commandments.  This artifact was discovered in an ancient burial mound.

Native Language & Customs

       There are many Native American Indian customs that confirm the fact of their Hebrew origin.  Many of those customs and linguistic evidence were observed and recorded by the first Europeans who had contact with various Indian tribes. The old customs of the American Indian people included many rituals that were the same or partially differed, from the equivalent Hebrew observances of the Mosaic Law. Each Indian tribe displayed some customs or traditions that are definitely Hebrew in character




       The Passover was observed at the time of the full moon.  Indian legends, including that of the Yuchis, stated that they had migrated to the area of Florida and Georgia from the region of the Bahamas. According to their legends, the islands sank beneath the sea and they fled for their lives.  The Yuchis who migrated to the area of Oklahoma eventually settled there.  A custom that they have is unique among Amerindians and they are racially and linguistically distinct from their neighbors.  Every year on the 15th day of the sacred month of harvest in autumn they make a pilgrimage.  For eight days they live in "boots" with the roof open to the sky, covered only with branches, leaves and foliage.  During this festival they dance around a sacred fire and they call upon the name of God.  Virtually an identical custom existed among the ancient Israelites.  In the harvest season of autumn on the 15th day of the sacred month of harvest (7th month) they celebrated the "festival of booths."  This festival dates to the time of Moses and the Exodus from Egypt (Leviticus 23).


Leviticus 23


ט  וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה, אֶל-מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר.

9 And the LORD spoke unto Moses saying:

י  דַּבֵּר אֶל-בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם, כִּי-תָבֹאוּ אֶל-הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן לָכֶם, וּקְצַרְתֶּם אֶת-קְצִירָהּ--וַהֲבֵאתֶם אֶת-עֹמֶר רֵאשִׁית קְצִירְכֶם, אֶל-הַכֹּהֵן.

10 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When ye are come into the land, which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring the sheaf of the first-fruits of your harvest unto the priest.

יא  וְהֵנִיף אֶת-הָעֹמֶר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה, לִרְצֹנְכֶם; מִמָּחֳרַת, הַשַּׁבָּת, יְנִיפֶנּוּ, הַכֹּהֵן.

11 And he shall wave the sheaf before the LORD, to be accepted for you; on the morrow after the Sabbath the priest shall wave it.

יב  וַעֲשִׂיתֶם, בְּיוֹם הֲנִיפְכֶם אֶת-הָעֹמֶר, כֶּבֶשׂ תָּמִים בֶּן-שְׁנָתוֹ לְעֹלָה, לַיהוָה.

12 And in the day when ye wave the sheaf, ye shall offer a he-lamb without blemish of the first year for a burnt offering unto the LORD.


      Dr. Cyrus Gordon of Brandeis University in Boston was able to view one of these fall harvest festivals of the Yuchi Indians.  He heard their chants, songs and other ceremonies.  An expert in Hebrew, Minoan and other Mid-Eastern languages, he was startled and exclaimed to his companion:  he was he listened and exclaimed to his companion, “My God! They are speaking the Hebrew names of God!”


       Some of the best-educated Europeans who first contacted American Indians in eastern North America noticed that, in the language of many tribes, there were numerous words that sounded the same, and had the same meaning as Hebrew words!


       Among those reaching this conclusion were notable early immagrants to North America, such as William Penn, Roger Williams and Jonathan Edwards.



A Key into the language of America,  by Roger Williams

(first published in 1643 in London, England)

Source: Wikipedia-public domain


        They have an exact forme of King, Priest, and Prophet, as was in Israel typicall of old in the holy land of Canaan, and as the Lord Jesus ordained in his spirituall Land of Canaan his Church throughout it the whole World: their Kings or Governours called Sachimauog Kings and Atauskowaug Rulers doe govern: Their Priests performe and manage their worship: Their wise men and old men (of which number their Priests are also,) whom they call Taupowaug they make solemn speeches and Orations, or Lectures to them, concerning Religion, Peace or Warre and all things. [1]


Awaun Nakommit.               Who makes a feast?

Peeyauntam.                        He is at Prayer

Peeyauntamwock                They are praying

Cowwewonck                      The Soule, derived from Cowwene (to sleep)  

                                             (because they say it works and operates when the body sleeps)


Awaunkeesitteouwincoh      Who made you?

Ichunckkitonckquean           When you die?

Anan sowanakitaiiwaw         It goes to the South West


Pausuck naunt manit, keesittin keesuck & c. =” One onely God made the Heavens & c.”.


Roger Williams observed:   “They believe that the soules of men and women goe to the



        “They  labour six dayes, and rest and worship the seventh” “They relate that Kanidntoxowit made one man and woman of a stone, which disliking, he broke  them in pieces, and made another man and woman of a Tree, which were like the Fountaines (sic) of all mankind. “ 


Note [1]

 Regarding Roger Williams explanation of local indigenous religious customs

 of a now extinct New England tribe he observed and recorded in his notes in 1643.


Source: “, , Saarbrucken 2011


HEBREW LANGUAGE – North and South American Similarities


       Words that have the same sounds and meanings in Hebrew as they do in Amerindian languages include those for wife, man, heavens, prayer, winter and many verbs and phrases. 


 Among the words that were nearly identical to the Hebrew were Yo-he-wah [corresponding to Yahweh], and ha-le-lu or ha-le-lu-yah.


       Similarly in the mid-1600’s, reports of Hebrew speaking Indians in South America first came to the attention of Europeans.


       As in North America, not only did the Europeans discover many strong similarities between the spoken languages of the Indians and the Hebrew language, they also reported seeing inscriptions written in Hebrew, and a very strong similarity between Indian customs and Israelite practices.


       Israelis made it to America thousands of years before Europeans because there were sailors from the tribe of Zebulon and they went all over the world and left their mark.


       They left from the City of Eilat   it is recorded in the Old Testament that Solomon sent his navy all over to bring copper and silver and gold and tin and minerals like turquoise for the temple he was about to build.  Also the name and continent is mentioned in the Talmud.


The Language Connection


       In western Connecticut there are five sites that were visited by two college professors, after discovery by a high school teacher that were ALL dated to MINIMUALLY 1200 BC, as the Celtic inscriptions carved in STONE were WITHOUT vowels, that existed only AFTER 1200 BC.


       Structures build of massive stone slabs, and used to establish vernal equinox and summer solstice, were almost exact replicas of those made by the Celts in Spain, France and Ireland, using ‘corbeled arches’. The finds here and in NH were summed up in the book the two professors put out about 1968 called ” Americ BC “.


Source:  Harold Walker



OGAM INSCRIPTIONS – Western Connecticut


       The  writing there was Ogam,[1] and the symbol for the summer solstice, a circle with a line bisecting it, indicating ‘half day; half night’ was also seen. Some of the stones dragged over the top of their structures were estimated to be over 3 1/2 tons. Sadly, seeds from trees grew in sever openings, and the trees that developed have actually lifted some of these stones over the centuries. As they had only man power and no domesticated animals, not even rope/pulleys, it is a mystery as to how it was accomplished.

H.E. Walker


       The partial Zodiac with YaH glyph composed of a Sun-Moon eclipse and aligning of the 5 Planets in Libra as found on the Northmost point of Hidden Mtn. NM, event has been exacted using 5 astronomical programs for affirmation, to date to the year 759 B.C.E. late in the day of Teruah.


Celtic Ogam History


       The Celts used Ogam as a form of secret communication, yet it was also used for divinatory purposes. Examples of Ogam can still be seen today, carved on stones scattered throughout the British Isles and the European mainland. Some of the stones are only name tags referring to great heroes in history or used to mark boundaries, but some are clearly of more mystical purpose.


       Ogam itself is a very complex language capable of many different subtle layers, some of which are lost to us, through its associations with trees different elements and colours one word could mean several things and in the hands of a true bard many political undercurrents could be construed that could crush the mightiest conquerer.


       The Celts themselves were a fiery creative people, quick tempered and renowned as fearless warriors. This stemmed from their religious beliefs which the afterlife was an integral part of. This belief also had a proficient effect on their culture and most notably their art. The Celtic mythology and art made a profound impact and influence through out Europe. Celts still survive to this day their descendants can now be found in Scotland, Ireland (which has always been the centre of their world), Wales [2] and parts of Brittany and Spain.




[1] Ogam is the American spelling of Ogham


[2] Ogam normally is more prevalent in Ireland.


First Atlantic Crossings


       That a party of Gaelic-speaking Japhethites (who were of lighter complexion), and Canaanite speaking Hamites (who were dark skinned) made a joint surveying expedition to the New World soon after this is evident from the petroglyphs found beside the Arkansas River, on Turkey Mountain near Tulsa, present day Oklahoma.


       There, exactly on the 36th parallel, is found the Canaanite word Pyaa and above it, the old Celtic word Guin. Both words signified the same in both languages: "White" or "whites". In other words, this site was to serve as the boundary marker between the "white" nations of Japheth to the north, and the darker nations of Ham to the South. The word Gwyn still means white or fair in Welsh today, who call themselves Cymru as direct descendants of Gomer. The Ogam inscriptions in America also share other features of so-called P-Celtic, such as the patronymic 'Mab' (in lieu of 'Mac'.)


       Colonists from present day Palestine and Syria had settled near the mouth of the Guadalquivir in southwestern Spain, in what is now Andalusia. The trade was in metals, which the natives mined. (They were probably the ancestors of the Basques). During this time the Celts were also pushing into the regions,

and had overrun them by 500 BC. They were relatives of the former colonists,but this fact was not necessarily realised by them.


       A city was built, called Tartessos, in Greek. The script of their inscriptions, known as Tartessian, was very close to Phoenician, and Phoenician was so close to ancient Hebrew as to be almost a dialect. A great many modern names in Europe are of Phoenician origin, according to Professor Sammes. The very word "Europe" comes from "Ur-appa", meaning "a country of white complexions".


       The Bible tells us that the ships of Tarshish were the largest in the then known world, and they became synonymous with the idea of sea power. Coastal vessels were unable to cope with the sometimes-fierce conditions of the open sea. In Bronze Age times sailors feared the east wind, in case it should blow them out into the Mediterranean, so they admired those whose ships were sturdy enough to venture even further afield to the famous "Tin Islands". Besides the Biblical references to this ancient trade, there are several classical authorities that mention it.


       The merchants of Tarshish were considered to be very rich, and to have acquired their wealth by trade with the products of Andalusia, for the Andalusians mined silver. Spanish archaeologists have studied the remains of the Tartessian culture. They consider that it was dominant in southern Spain and that it kept the Celtic culture of the Iron Age from the region for a considerable time. This means that there are few traces of the La Tene culture compared with the rest of Europe.


       Tartessian inscriptions have been found in America, in New England. The most important was found at Mount Hope Bay, Bristol, Rhode Island. It depicted a Tartessian ship without sails, but with a steering oar, and the translation is believed to mean "Mariners of Tarshish this rock proclaims". It cannot be accurately dated, but is believed to be from about 700 or 600 BC.


       Another inscription, this time in Ogham script has been found at Monhegan Island (off the coast of Maine). There is a flat topped islet which could have been used for loading and unloading ships. The inscription is in the ancient Goidelic language (Celtic or Gaelic). Thus it would appear that trade was extensively carried on in the late Bronze Age to an extent that only recently is becoming realised. An inscription in Phoenician has also been found in Brazil.


       Correspondence has been found which was from King Hiram of Tyre (who supplied materials for Solomon's Temple) to a king of Lavinia, which was Tuscany. The Etruscan script is decipherable by knowledge of Phoenician, so it would appear that Etruria was another colony of these Phoenician/Israelitish adventurers.The document deals with a shipment from Tyre to Italy.


Source: “Who were the Phoenicians and Carthaginians?” Valerie Martlew


Ships From Phoenicia:  Cargo Platform




       Ida S. Proper began her history,”Monhegan, The Cradle of New England”, with an interesting survey of prehistoric voyages to North America that may have visited Monhegan Island itself and carved the “runes” on Manana Island. She wrote of the legends of the Phoenicians, Irish, Welsh and Norse visits to the Island, as well as of Captain John Smith's visit in 1614.



Who Made The Inscriptions on Manana?


       On the small island of Manana is a rocky ledge with “rune-like” carvings, “discovered" in modern times in the 1850's. For many years, these inscriptions were cited as definitive evidence of early Viking contact; however theories and conclusions have changed over the years. Geologists from the Carnegie Museum declared the "runes" to be natural erosion and phenomenon. Some archaeologists felt the carvings to be a form of Celtic Ogham, an ancient Irish script or that it is a petroglyph carved by Native Americans.


Source: The Rope Shed Blog

       Epigrapher Barry Fell, was an emeritus professor at Harvard University and of the Early Sites Research Society, believed the inscription is in Goidelic Keltic—the Bronze Age predecessor to Irish—which has been deciphered as saying: “Ships from Phoenicia: Cargo Platform,” thus the Manana Island site being suitable for loading trade goods.



Peterborough, Ontario, Canada


A Royal Visitor


       On the basis of evidence gained from translations of Ogam script in North America, Fell (1982) proposed the following hypothesis:  "Some seventeen centuries before the time of Christ a Norsemen king named Woden-lithi sailed across the Atlantic and entered the St. Lawrence River.


       He reached the neighborhood of where Toronto now stands, and established a trading colony with a religious and commercial center at the place that is now known as Petroglyphs Park, at Peterborough.  His homeland was Norway, his capital at Ringerike, west of the head of Oslo Fjord.  He remained in Canada for five months, from April to September, trading his cargo of woven material for copper ingots obtained from the local Algonquians (whom he called Wal, a word cognate with Wales and Welsh and meaning "foreigners.")


       He left behind an inscription that records his visits, his religious beliefs, a standard of measures for cloth and cordage, and an astronomical observatory for determining the Norsemen calendar year, which began in march, and for determining the dates of the Yule and pagan Easter festivals.  having provided his colonists with these essentials, he sailed back to Scandinavia and thereafter disappears into the limbo of unwritten Bronze Age history.  The king's inscription gives his Scandinavian title only and makes no claim to the discovery of the Americas nor to conquest of territory.


PETROGLYPHS PARK Peterborough, Ontario, CANADA


       The area visible includes the central sighting point of the ain sun-god figure and part of the east-facing slope.  The more conspicuous markings have been delineated with a black wax crayon applied by personnel at the site.


       Stressed are the larger elements added later by Algonquin artists.  Most of the finer Tifinag letters are not marked by crayon.  A detailed plan may be found in Joan M. & Romas K. Vastokas, 1973, Mansard Press (Fell 1982).


       Clearly he was not the first visitor to the Americas from Europe, for he found that the Ojibwa Algonquians were already acquainted with the ancient Basque syllabary, and when Woden-lithi set sail for home, an Ojibwa scribe cut a short comment into the rock at the site, using the ancient Basque script and a form of Algonquian still comprehensible today, despite the lapse of time.


       Fell (1982) then continued with evidence supporting such sweeping claims.  He suggested, "The primary physical evidence comprises a series of inscriptions cut in the Tifinag and ogam consaine alphabets, using an early form of the Norse tongue, scattered around the outer margins of the petroglyph site at Peterborough [Ontario, Canada]


       Except for the central sun god and moon-goddess figures and certain astronomical axes cut across the site, the numerous inscriptions are the work of later Algonquian artists, who used King Woden-lithi's inscription as a model for their own, more conspicuous, carvings.  The site has been since 1972 under official government protection the Vastoskas team found and recorded the inscriptions and reported that they must date back to a period before the historical occupation of the region by the Hurons and later by Iroquois; in other words, the inscriptions could not be modern features, and must date back to the era of Algonquian occupation, which came to an en some five centuries ago.


        Joan and Romas Vastoskas recognized apparent Scandinavian and Bronze Age features in the art style.  They pointed out that the ships depicted in the inscription are shown in the European manner, with animal figureheads and stern tailpieces, features totally unknown to Algonquian, or indeed in any American Indian, art.  They, and other archaeologists, noticed the strange similarities of the central sun-god figure. and associated motifs to corresponding solar deities of Europe, especially the Bronze Age petroglyphs of Scandinavia.  Other characteristic Scandinavian features are drawings, which record such elements of Norsemen mythology as the maiming of the god of war by the Fenrir wolf.., the conspicuous short-handled hammer, Mjolnir, of Thunor (Thor of the Norsemen), and Gungnir, the spear of Woden. Both of which were imitated many times over by the Algonquian artists who later occupied the site


       Thus, the purely objective reports made by the Vastoskases who sought only to record what they discovered, without attaching any interpretation other than that appropriate for Algonquian art, have an added value and importance for us now, for they observed the material as it was uncovered from the soil and placed it on permanent record in their photographs, charts, and descriptions.  As a result of the initial discoveries, the whole site was set aside as a public park and protected by an enclosure. 


       The actual discovery occurred on May 12, 1954, by three geologists, Ernest Craig, Charles Phipps, and Everitt Davis, in the course of fieldwork on mining claims.  The following day, "Nick" Nickels, a photographer-journalist of the Peterborough Examiner, visited the site, and so began the first modern records of it.


       Paul Sweetman of the University of Toronto undertook the first research at the site in July 1954, recording nearly a hundred petroglyphs.  Sweetman's report indicated a possible age as great as 3,500 years or as young as 400 years.  His upper limit, 3,500 years, is in agreement with the epigraphic evidence as given in this book.  Thousands of visitors now come to the site each year, using the access road and other facilities that have been erected for their benefit, it has become a major center of archaeological interest..


       The Vastokases, like most archaeologists in North America, felt obliged to explain all American petroglyphs as being the work of native Amerindian artists.  Despite their, and others' perception of the similarities to Scandinavian petroglyphs of the Bronze Age, the idea that any connection might have existed between North America and Scandinavia in the Bronze Age, some 3,500 years ago, seemed preposterous.  So they were faced with remarkable parallels, yet they elected to explain them as no more than chance similarities brought about by a shamanistic view of the sky as a kind of sea on which the sun and the moon sailed their ships to cross the heavens each day.


       In treating the inscriptions in this way, they were following the example of other distinguished anthropologists and archaeologists who had investigated North American petroglyphs.  The leading researcher during the last several decades had been Professor Robert Heizer of the University of California.who was vehement in his rejection of all theories that America had been visited in pre-Columbian times by voyagers from Europe, Africa, or elsewhere, and he chose to view all American petroglyphs as the products of Amerindians.


       He did take account of age-determination techniques, such as those dependent on carbon-dating of materials found in caves where petroglyphs occur and the evidence provided by the oxidation of rocks, especially in dry climates such as eastern California, Nevada, and Arizona. 


       These methods enabled Heizer to set dates of up to five thousand years ago for some petroglyphs.  As for me, at the time when the Ontario petroglyphs were discovered, Fell had just completed a comprehensive Scandinavian journey and had visited many of the famous inscriptions of Sweden and Denmark, though he was still a long way from recognizing the Tifinag alphabet at any Bronze Age petroglyph site beyond the shores of North Africa. 


       Fell’s subsequent work on Tifinag led to the gradual decipherment of the ancient language of Libya and, after various Libyan scholars visited me at Harvard, Fell was invited to lecture on the Tifinag inscriptions at the universities of Tripoli and Benghazi.  Just before leaving for North Africa in 1977, Fell had received from Otto Devitt the first of what were to be a continuing series of photographs he made for me of the petroglyphs at Peterborough.  Although he could see that the site included Tifinag letters, the words they formed seemed to have no discernible connection with the language of ancient Libya, and he was forced to put the slides aside while undertaking other assignments.


       In the interim Fell read some of Heizer's reports on the petroglyphs of eastern California and Nevada, and recognized that they included Tifinag and Kufi (early Arabic).  A particularly striking case is the petroglyph in Owens Valley, California, that depicts the entire zodiac, in the form it had before the third century BC, together with a Kufi inscription explaining that the New Year is determined at the time of the vernal equinox, when the sun enters the constellation of the Ram.  One of Dr. Fell’s former Harvard students, Dr. Jon Polansky, was now doing research at Berkeley, and he made the acquaintance of Professor Heizer and showed him the decipherment Fell had done on his Owens Valley petroglyphs.


       As a consequence Professor Heizer invited me to visit him; this came about in May 1979.  We became friends and, putting aside his former opposition to the notion of pre-Columbian visitors, Bob Heizer now carefully checked each element of the decipherment and confirmed that Fell had rendered his original published diagrams correctly tin the version in which In inserted the sound values of the Kufi signs.  We planned a joint publication, but illness prevented him from accompanying me into the desert that year.  Instead, he arranged for one of his former Berkeley students, Dr. Christopher Corson, to take me to some of the inscription areas.


       Dr. Corson, an archaeologist in the Bureau of Land Management, has the best knowledge of petroglyph sites in northern California and northwest Nevada.  He led a party that included John Williams, Jon Polansky, and me, together with Wayne and Betty Struble and their son Peter. Bob Heizer planned to take part in Fell’s next field trip, but to his great regret he passed away, struck down by the illness that had already prevented his participation in the 1979 fieldwork.


       Dr. Heizer's contribution to American petroglyph studies had been immense, and Fell’s colleagues and he knew that a significant point had been reached when Heizer recognized the true nature of the Owens Valley zodiac and opened his mind to a new view of American prehistory in which pre-Columbian visitors and colonists would now play a role.


       Heizer, an archeologist and anthropologist, filled an intermediate position between those archeologists who devote their research to excavation of ancient sites and epigraphers, those linguists who give their energies to the decipherment of ancient inscriptions.By 1979, the same season in which Heizer and Fell had begun to influence each other, the epigraphers of Europe had already begun to analyze by work on ancient inscriptions in America, and soon authoritative publications began to appear, giving strong support and conformation.


       Professor Pennar Davies, a leading Welsh scholar, and in America, Professor Sanford Etheridge, editor of Gaeltacht (an Irish-language publication), had both written in support of Fell’s finding ogam inscriptions in America.


       In Spain, the leading Basque scholar, Dr. Imanol Agie, advised me that he too confirmed Fell’s reports on Basque inscriptions in Pennsylvania, dating from about the ninth century before Christ.  In 1980 the volume he contributed to the Gran Enciclopedia Vasca (Great Basque Encyclopedia) contained letter-by-letter analyses of Fell’s papers, and in a technical paper published in 1982 Agíre acknowledged that his decipherment of the ancient Basque syllabary was correct. These and other published papers, such as those of the Swiss linguist Professor Linus Brunner, provided competent scholarly approval of our American studies on the alphabets and syllabaries that are represented at the site in Peterborough.   


       From the information given herein it is obvious that the petroglyphs at Peterborough cannot be forgeries, and that they are ancient.  From the proof of these investigations we now believe we can eventually persuade Americans to realize that American history extends far into the past, and that America and Europe interacted through trade and cultural contact for over three thousand years before Columbus who never made landfall along the American coastlin] made his first voyage. 


          Giovanni Caboto (known in English as John Cabot; c. 1450 – c. 1499) was an Italian navigator and explorer whose 1497 discovery of parts of North America is commonly held to have been the first European voyager to travel to the continent of North America since the Norse Vikings in the eleventh century. The official position of the Canadian and United Kingdom governments is that he landed on the island of Newfoundland.


       In New England James P. Whittall and members of the Early Sites Research Society have discovered and excavated a site (a disk barrow) that was first occupied seven thousand years ago.  Some of the skeletons show the characteristics of Europeans, yet their age by carbon dating is at least 1,600 years.  One of the skulls matches closely the skulls of the ancient Irish.  These facts have been determined by an anthropologist, Professor Albert Casey, whose research has been devoted to skull and bone characteristics of Old World peoples.  His computer is programmed to recognize Old World characteristics in New World skulls not being discovered.


       The tumuli of northeastern America show great similarities to those of Europe.  The radiocarbon dates indicate similar ranges to time.  The artifacts excavated from American burial sites, sometimes in actual contact with the skeletons of their presumed former owners, have been discovered in some cases to have inscriptions carved upon them, in Ogam and Basque script; to Dr. William P. Grigsby we owe this observation, based on his own extensive collections of artifacts from the southeastern states.


       We are faced, therefore, with what amounts to conclusive evidence that the artifacts (including written inscriptions) of European peoples of the Bronze Age are found at American archaeological sites, and with these artifacts skeletons are occasionally found that conform to Europoid criteria.  The recognition and confirmation of the inscriptions are due to epigraphers who have published their findings and who, in most cases, teach courses in linguistics or epigraphy at reputable universities.


       Thus, whether or not we can comprehend the sailing techniques of Bronze Age peoples, the fact seems inescapable that Bronze Age Europeans reached North America.  Fell’s personal view was that the mild climate of the Bronze Age permitted navigation to take advantage of the westward-flowing currents and westward-blowing winds of the polar regions, and thus made the natural northern route to North America much easier to use than is the case today, when polar ice intrudes and savage weather occurs  Fell had sailed that route and appreciated its discomforts.


       They would have been much less severe in the Bronze Age, while the attraction of North America for Scandinavian skippers would have been much enhanced by the availability of copper in metallic form, at a time when Europe was demanding copper for bronze alloys on a larger scale than ever before or since.







       Salient aspects of the Bronze Age are now described by Fell.  "In northern Europe bronze weapons and implements first began to replace the stone artifacts of the Neolithic inhabitants when trade routes to the Mediterranean lands permitted imports from the south.  The change from stone and malleable copper to the more durable and more valuable bronze equipment is dated to about 2000 BC."


       At this time, which marks the opening of the Bronze Age, the most numerous and conspicuous man-made features of the landscape were the massive drystone monuments that had been erected during the last phases of the Neolithic, from about 2200 BC onward.  These great monuments, called megaliths (from Greek roots meaning huge stones) have remained an impressive feature of the European landscape ever since, and today tens of thousands of tourists visit the megalithic sites every year, to gaze with wonder at these mysterious works of our ancestors.


       When the English Pilgrims began to settle northeastern North America in the early 1600s they found that the forests and open hillsides carried similar ancient stone monuments.  Governor John Winthrop (the Younger) of Connecticut had become during his student years one of the first Fellows of the infant Royal Society, and after his arrival in America was regarded by the colonists as a fount of information on all matters to do with natural history and antiquities.  He wrote papers for the early volumes of the Philosophical Transactions (published by the Royal Society in London) and thus drew attention to the salient features of scientific interest in his new world across the Atlantic.


       Among his papers is found evidence of inquiries from settlers as to what could be the meaning of the strange stone "forts" they were encountering.  it was noted that the Algonquian Indians did not use stone in their constructions (save for some rare instances), and the Indians themselves shunned the stone chambers and could throw no light on their origins.


       Toward the close of the nineteenth century the opinions of a few influential archaeologists in North America were that no European had set foot in America until the time of Columbus.  Since such opinions precluded any possibility that the stone monuments of New England might be related to the megalithic monuments of Europe, the entire subject fell out of favor.  Americans were sent to Europe to study Stone Age and Bronze Age archaeology, and few, if any, thought to pay attention to the problems raised by the New England megaliths.


       So deeply ingrained is this view of the age long isolation of America that when in 1976 Fell published his reasoned thoughts on the parallels between American and European archaeological sites, his book America BC was dismissed by most archaeologists as ignorant rubbish.  In reality, much of Fell’s reasoning was based on a careful comparison of engraved inscriptions found on the associated stonework, both in European sites (especially Portugal and Spain) and in American contests.


       Fell recorded, for example, well-known Iberian scripts of the late Bronze Age, found on hundreds of rocks in Pennsylvania, and his decipherments, utilizing Professor David Diringer's tales in The Alphabet (Hutchinson, 1968).  Such works as Resurrección María de Azukue's Diccionario Vasco-Español-Frances (Bilbao, 1969) enabled me to recognize and report Basque gravestones and boundary marker stones, apparently dating from about the era of 900 BC.


       European epigraphers and linguists, such as the foremost Basque scholars, carried out detailed checks on Fell’s findings, confirmed most of them, and, as already noted, in the latest volume of the Gran Enciclopedia Vasca [a discussion is] now given over to matters raised by these American Basque inscriptions, and the analysis by Imanol Agiŕe in his Vinculos de la Lengua Vasca gives a virtual total confirmation of his findings:  the inscriptions, in Agíre's opinion, do date from about 900 BC, and they do carry Basque phrases in the appropriate Iberian alphabets of that period.  These findings have been the object of much discussion by archaeologists.   


       Since linguists and epigraphers concur that the American inscriptions do include genuine products of Bronze Age scribes, and that the scripts and languages used show that the scribes came from European and North African lands, there is no longer any basis for doubting that the monuments of North America that resemble megaliths are indeed just that--megaliths.  By this it should be understood monuments produced by colonists from Europe in Bronze Age times.


       Radiocarbon and amino acid dating has only recently been applied to the determination of dates of American megaliths [as of 1982 here], but analogous features suggesting early European penetration into North America include the low circular burial mounds that are called disk barrows.


       Already noted previously the investigation of one of these, presently under way in New England by James Whittall.  it has so far been learned that Whittall's site was under continuous occupation, at least for ceremonial purposes, from about 5000 BC (amino-acid date 7200 Before Present), until about 500 BC.  Over that span of time a number of burials occurred and, as noted.... these included a Europoid skeleton.


       Associated stone artifacts resemble tools of the era called Archaic in America (8000 to 500 BC), corresponding to the entire span of the Neolithic and Bronze Age in Europe.  Sometime before, AD 900,m stonework structure was added around the margins of the barrow.  These findings by Whittall point strongly to European arrivals in North America long before Bronze Age times.


       Other radiocarbon dates show that some of the megalithic chambers in New England are of later date, one in Vermont, for example, yielding charcoal from the foundation layer that gave a carbon date of about AD 200.


       As for those megalithic monuments that contain no artifacts or charcoal, dates can only be guessed at from indirect evidence.  The guesses made in that way suggest that most of them were probably built during Bronze Age and Iron Age times, as indeed many of the European megaliths can be shown to postdate the Neolithic period also.  So massive and enduring are megaliths that, whenever they were built, the affected the living space of later peoples, and certainly Bronze Age Europeans utilized the Neolithic megaliths.


       ”Further comments will be restricted to the actual megalithic monuments, merely noting here that the disk barrow, with its contained female skeletons lying in flexed positions, is regarded in Europe as a feature of the early Bronze Age and that therefore it is relevant to note here that similar features occur in New England in districts where megalithic monuments occur.  Fell’s own opinion, of course, remained unaltered; it is that the megalithic monuments of northeastern North America were used during the Bronze Age and therefore may have been constructed either shortly before or during the Bronze Age.


       The term dolmen is a Breton word meaning a stone table.  it aptly describes many of the smaller examples of the megalithic monuments that go under this name..They comprise an upper, horizontal slab of stone, the capstone, which is supported on several vertical slabs, like a table, with an internal cavity.  European archaeologists believe that the central cavity originally contained a burial and that the entire structure was originally buried in earth that has subsequently disappeared through erosion. it is known that some examples had partial earth cover still intact a century or so ago.


       Such bared burial chambers are often distinguished from other dolmens under the name cromlech.





Photo William J. Hall Cromlech dolmen, Gay Head,

Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts


Note: [1]

An example at Gay Head, on the island of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts; a faintly visible Ogam inscription occurs on one of the stones at the entrance to the small chamber within...


       Others, are all located at Westport, Massachusetts [2] Similar ones occur in the Boston area.  Nothing is known of any former burial relics in these small cromlechs. Very much large examples, with massive capstones and relatively shorter vertical supports, form conspicuous dolmens.  These seem unlikely to have been covered by earth at any stage.


       A collapsed dolmen was found in Vermont.  The finder, John Williams, also found a remarkable sculpted ax and halberd that are cut into one end of the squared capstone.


       An inscribed halberd and, crossed with it, what seems to be a palm leaf, engraved on the capstone of the dolmen found in central Vermont (see Fell 1982).  Similar inscribed details occur on an early Bronze Age dolmen at Nether Largie, North Scotland.  Ax heads are engraved on one end of the capstone and a halberd with streamers on another upright stone of the same burial cist.  it is difficult to conceive of any Amerindian carving such devices and, as stated, the Algonquians of the New England region have no knowledge of the authors of these stone monuments. 


       Still more striking evidence is seen in examples from France. Dated Roman coins have been found under dolmens in France, and other evidence proves that they served as sites for some kind of ceremony even as late as the Middle Ages, when the church authorities regarded such assemblies s the practice of witchcraft.  By analogy, then, there are no grounds for insisting that dolmens are restricted to the archaeology of the Neolithic period, as do some British authorities.


       The largest of the dolmens utilize natural boulders, sometimes weighing up to 90 tons, supported precariously, so it would seem, on the underlying peg stones, yet their duration through 4,000 years shows their builders to have had a fine sense of stable construction.


       At Lynn, Massachusetts a local Dolmen is described as ‘The Cannon Stone.”  Another was discovered by David Harvey, near Lake Lujenda, northern Minnesota, and the first to be reported from that state. Others have been discovered at   Bartlett, New Hampshire, and North Salem, New York.


       It difficult to distinguish the North American examples from the European ones and believe that ancient builders who shared a common culture produced both sets.  When the evidence of inscriptions is taken into account, the relationship of the American examples to those of northern Europe becomes undeniable.


       A second category of megaliths is supplied by the underground stone chambers, and on some of these, too, the American ones included, inscriptions are found that use European scripts appropriate to the Bronze Age, as well as later graffiti, which have no bearing on the date of construction.  They fall in several categories, according to the mode of construction.  Some are in the form of rectangular chambers, up to twenty feet in length by ten feet in width, often with the long axis pointed toward the sunrise direction for either the equinoxes or for one of the solstices. 


       One at Danbury, Connecticut, carries engraved on a fallen lintel stone the ancient symbol of the equinox, a circle divided into equal halves, one half deeply engraved to represent night, the other left clearly visible; this chamber, as John Williams and his colleagues proved, faces the sunrise on the equinox days: that is, it is oriented due east and points to a notch on the horizon within which the sun appears on the days of the vernal and autumnal equinox. 


       The entrances commonly have a massive lintel stone supported on either two vertical slabs (called orthostats), as [one found at Mystery Hill, North Salem, New Hampshire] or on a drystone vertical column of slabs on either side


       Mystery Hill at North Salem in Hampshire has a slab lintel supported by drystone columns. Alternatively, the construction may utilize natural features of the environment, as at Concord, Massachusetts), and at Gungywamp, near Groton, Connecticut.  The chamber may be wholly subterranean, as in one of the White River examples in Vermont, or may stand free, as at Mystery Hill..


       In the latter case the details of the wall construction are visible externally and internally as drystone. The internal chamber is usually rectangular Some chambers are covered by mounds, as in South Woodstock.  Where large capstones are not available locally, corbelling is utilized to produce a roofing, as in a chamber at Upton, Massachusetts Chambers of the latter type seem to be related to the similar constructions called fougou in Cornwall, England, believed to date from the Iron Age and to have been used in and after Roman times.


       The function of a fougou is unknown, but food storage or places of refuge are considered possibilities.  The New England tradition is that the colonists as "root cellars," for storing vegetables, built these chambers.  But inquiries disclose that they were already present on some sites at the time of the arrival of the colonists, who, in any case, found that root vegetables survive the winter frost well when buried in straw in the soil, but tend to decay from mold if placed in the so called root cellars.  The enormous labor of construction, as opposed to the simplicity of building a log cabin, denies another legend, that the colonists built the chambers to live in while they were constructing their first farmhouses.  Chambers are also found on mountainsides where no farm has ever existed but where a good astronomical viewpoint is obtained.


Revelations of the Excavations


       Fell, continued his professional work as an oceanographer on remote oceanic islands, he learned of the existence of unexplained inscriptions cut in caves or painted in rock shelters.  These raised questions as to who had made the inscriptions and when they had been made.


       Fell’s first paper on Polynesian rock art has appeared under the aegis of the Royal Anthropological Institute in 1941.  His colleagues began to look out for inscriptions, too, when they know of his interest, and he gradually assembled a considerable collection of photographs and casts as the years went by.  He soon became convinced that Stone Age humans were by no means ignorant, land-tied savages.  On the contrary, he appeared to him to have been a resourceful and accomplished mariner, who could cross ocean gaps between Pacific islands greater than the total span of the Atlantic Ocean.


       As oceanography advanced, methods were developed of sending various ingenious devices down to the ocean floor to take samples by boring into the mud soils on the bottom.  Since mud accumulates extremely slowly far away from the effluence of rivers, even just an inch deep in the ocean floor takes us back to a time of deposition of the mud that amounts to thousands of years.


       Bones and shells of marine animals fall to the bottom, they are preserved there in the mud and become fossils. This fact led to Fell’s becoming involved in paleontology, the study of fossils, and before long Fell was serving as consultant to various geological institutions.  One of the skills that Fell had to acquire was knowledge of anatomy, so that fragmented bones could be reassembled and identified.  Some of the restored bones that he produced in this way became the object of research by specialists, and various museums sought his aid in these matters.


       Consequently when Fell learned by chance of the existence of hundreds of fragmented human bones taken from archaeological digs that had yielded artifacts on which he could see delicate inscriptions written in the Iberian alphabets of about 1000 BC, he naturally became very interested and inquired whether the bones might be made available to me for study. 


       They would be the first human remains we had yet encountered that were directly linked with gravesites from which readable inscriptions in an ancient European language were also recovered.  Through the good offices of Dr. William P. Grigsby of the Tennessee Archaeological Society, he eventually found himself sorting, washing, and restoring the skulls of the former owners of the inscribed artifacts.


       The first Americans, by which is meant people born and bred in the New World, certainly descended from migrants who entered North America by the only land route that links the Americas to the Old World, the now nonexistent land bridge of the Bering Strait.  Whether the first humans, pithecanthropoids of the species Homo erectus, ever reached the New World is unknown [Dr. R. D. Simpson, Callico Dig, CA. expressed a belief to Dr. Fred Legner in 1998 that Homo erectus might certainly have reached Southern California] Their fossils span areas in Africa and Eurasia that are or were tropical and subtropical (as during interglacial phases in Europe). [Simpson died with no recognition from the academic community, even tho' Leaky had endorsed her.   Sadly, she was also embittered by the opening up of Wilderness lands to logging by the US Forest Service.].


       Since it is doubtful whether a suitably warm climate could have occurred in the latitude of the Bering Strait, especially at times when the sea level was low enough to enable a land bridge to develop, it is possible that the reason why no Pithecanthropoids have been found in the Americas is because none ever reached here


       By the time humans had evolved to the stage represented by the Neanderthals of Europe, and the Old World generally, periods of low sea level were still occurring, and it seems evident that the bridge to America was crossed by humans on one (or many) of those occasions.


       Fossil humans at the Neanderthal stage are now known from Brazil, and George Carter's latest (1980) estimate suggests that a conservative date for the entry of humans into America might be about 100,000 years ago.  How long people like Neanderthals may have survived in the New World is not known, but their cousins in the Old World were contemporaries of modern types of man, at least until about 40,000 BC.


       As to what kinds of humans came nest to America, opinions of the various anthropologists who have commented in recent years seem all to be much the same: that is likely that pygmies were early entrants, since they once formed an important part of the southern Mongolian population, still linger on in isolated parts of Malaysia and neighboring territories, and are known by carbon-dating to range back in time to at least 40,000 BC.


       Before these latter facts were known, writers such as Harold Gladwin, E. A. Hooton and Carelton Coon suggested that there are traces of former pygmy populations in America, mainly in the shape of isolated communities of undersized people on the offshore islands.


       "Others, such as the zoologist W. D. Funkhouser, and the physicist W. S. Webb, of the University of Kentucky, drew attention to the extraordinary diversity of skull form in the prehistoric burials of Kentucky, and proposed that several distinct races are represented.  Bennett H. Young (1910) had encountered a living tradition among Kentucky folk that pygmies had once lived in some of the valleys of tributaries of the Mississippi in that state.  But when he tried to track the stories to their source he concluded that they must have been based on a misinterpretation of the cist burials.  The latter, are small stone-slab burial containers, some three feet in length, into which the disarticulated bones of the dead were placed.  The examples he saw did not disclose pygmy skeletons.


       Fell’s interest in this problem was aroused in 1980.  Fell was engaged on reconstructing the thousands of fragments of crania from sites in east Tennessee, sent to me by Dr. William P. Grigsby and his colleagues.  Among the best of the materials they sent me from 600 burials were several fragmented but almost complete crania, with jaws, in which the brain capacity was that of a seven-year-old child (950 cubic cm), yet the teeth showed from their complete development and severe wear that the skulls were from middle-aged individuals.  Later Fell received from Dr. Grigsby some complete skulls among which was one unbroken pygmy skull, with the jaws still attached to the facial bones.


       Two primary sources of evidence are available as to the racial affinities of the peoples who inhabited eastern North America at the epoch when the megalithic sites were in occupation.  The first and major source of evidence comprises skeletons and skulls excavated from burials where the bones are found in association with artifacts that bear readable inscriptions. 


       The east Tennessee skull was of a type that occupied the region in early Woodland times and that is associated, at the neighboring site of Snapp's Bridge, with inscribed artifacts bearing Ancient Irish and Basque words and phrases appropriate to the first millennium BC.  Similar remains from a mound near Boston have been amino-acid dated to ca. 5000 BC, these apparently representing the earliest European Atlantic crossings (Fell 1982)


       The Holliston Mills, Tennessee, Europoid skull was excavated by the Tennessee Archaeological Society (Fell 1982).   Fell obtained permission to sacrifice some of the long bones of the limbs for radiocarbon dating.  The result of a carbon-14 determination, with C-13 correction, made by Geochron Laboratories, Cambridge, on carbon dioxide recovered from the bone collagen yielded an age of 2,160 years plus or minus 135 years:  that is, they dated from about the third century BC.


       The majority of the other skeletons conformed to the most common type of Amerindian anatomy, in which the head is of the rounded (brachycephalic) type, and the jaws project slightly (mesognathous), the lips therefore being full, as in many Western tribes today.   This is a typical Mongolian condition, and there could be little doubt that the population was derived from ancient forebears who had entered the Americas from Asia.  Some of the skulls, however, were of a Europoid type, and reference by Dr. Grigsby to his very large collections (some 32,000) of stone and bone and pottery artifacts from the sites had already disclosed to him that inscriptions in old European scripts were engraved on some of the objects.


       It looked, therefore, as if a mixed population of several races had lived in the east Tennessee area, and in all probability they would have interbred.  No pygmies are known to have survived to modern times in North America, at least not in the United States or Canada, but it does seem likely that pygmies may have been among the native peoples encountered by the first European explorers to come to eastern North America."


        [The devastating effects of diseases such as measles and smallpox on Amerindians after 1492 AD and repeated European invasions, are known to have reduced population numbers by over 85% in many parts of America]. [The results are a switch in the population genotypes and phenotypes]


       Before Fell received the skeletal material he had already become interested in the problem of whether or not pygmies might have inhabited North America.  The ancient European word for pygmy or dwarf is a root based on the form nan.  Thus in ancient Greek it is nanos, in Basque it is nanu or nano (according to dialect), in Irish Gaelic it is nan, and modern French has nain, Spanish enano.  This strange unanimity among the various languages of Europe, not all of them closely related, seemed to suggest that there might once have been a race of pygmies known to ancient Europeans.


       The lack of pygmy bones in European archaeological sites seemed to imply that the inferred pygmies, if they existed at all, may not have been European pygmies.  Yet it seemed inconceivable that ancient Europeans could have known about the pygmies of central Africa, of those of the remote highlands of Malaysia and the Philippines.


       In two papers Fell wrote on the language of the Takhelne tribe of British Columbia, was that these American Indians also had a tradition of pygmies (or dwarves), whom they called the Et-nane.  Later Fell learned from a colleague that the Shoshone vocabulary also includes a similar word, whose root is nana- and is defined by the compiler of the Shoshone Dictionary as "elf-like people.” 


       When Fell began to analyze the anatomical characteristics of the pygmy skulls from Tennessee, he soon discovered that they matched those of the pygmies of the Philippines, who are also brachycephalic.  Further, he learned from the accounts of explorers in Malaysia who had penetrated to areas where no racial intermixture had occurred that the pure or true-bred pygmy there has very prognathous jaws, as is the case with the American skulls.


       These Malaysian and Philippine pygmies are regarded by archaeologists as remnants of a formerly extensive Mongoloid pygmy race that once occupied much of southern East Asia.


       Significantly, perhaps, the best-known native name of the Oriental pygmies is the Aëta.  Perhaps this root is the origin of the prefix Et- used by the Takhelne.  Whether that be so or not, it is clear that the pygmies of Tennessee were of Oriental--that is to say, East Asian--origin; and since pygmies are not maritime people, they can have reached the Americas only by the land route.  They must once have been more widely dispersed than our present finds imply.  However, they extended as far east as eastern Tennessee, and their bones have been found in association with Europoids and inscribed artifacts of Europoid type, such as loom weights and pottery stamps, lettered in ancient Irish (noted as Celtic) and Basque



Discovered in America and in Canada

Iberian and Ogam Script in TENNESSEE


       At the early Woodland site investigated by the Archaeological Society of Tennessee at Snapp's Bridge, Tennessee, artifacts engraved in Iberian and Ogam script were discovered, including a pottery stamp of the kind used to produce the incised patterns (Fell 1982).[XI]



Woodland site Snapp's Bridge, Tennessee




Fig. XII   - A


Traveler’s warning written in Old Irish Ogam, from Inyo County, CA,

Site INY-430 of Heltzer & Bassenhoff (1942).  The warning states:


“The men [here] are savages, small and ill nourished, but hostile.”


       Fell concluded that there were in fact meetings of the two races, and that therefore the European visitors could well have taken back to Europe some account of these mysterious undersized people.  An inscription that Professors Heizer and Martin Baumhoff had recorded from California (see [XII] above)   when deciphered as Ancient Irish Ogam, seemed also to suggest that early explorers had encountered some pygmy race that they considered dangerous.




       In addition to skeletal remains, a number of sculptures, evidently of ancient origin, have been discovered at varying depths in the soil, some of them depicting people of obvious Europoid origin, yet all the evidence indicates that these sculptures were created in America, at an era long before the colonists arrived in modern times. 




Photo Malcolm Pearson) (Fell 1982).Head discovered at Searsmont,

Maine in an archaic environment [XIII}


       Sculptures have been found by chance in the region where megalithic chambers and dolmens occur in America.  This head [XIII} was discovered at Searsmont, Maine, executed in bedrock.  It is on display at the Sturbridge Museum, Massachusetts.  It seems to depict someone of Scandinavian or Irish descent, as the artistic style (curving nostrils, staring eyes, chaplet of bog oak with acorn) all attest. 


       Some representative illustrations may serve to show their nature and their similarity to ancient European sculpture that has been attributed to the Gauls.  Most striking is the head of a man, carved in Ancient Irish style, with the curving nostrils and staring eyes that one encounters in Irish art and wearing as a chaplet a twig of bog oak leaves and acorns.  it seems difficult to regard this as representing anything other than an Irish priest, or druid.  It was found in Searsmont, Maine, a part of a larger work of which the torso still remains on the site, the head being now in the museum at Sturbridge, Massachusetts.


       Fell believed that these heads and others like them are truly ancient American artifacts, and that the hands that carved them are also responsible for the engraved inscriptions in Ogam and other ancient European alphabets, found on artifacts at burial sites and also cut in rock.


Source:  Personal Communication to Emeritus Professor Erich Fred Legner, University of California


The Tifinag Alphabet - Peterborough, Ontario, Canada


       The alphabet used by scribes at Peterborough, Ontario was detailed by Fell (1982) as follows:



Table I. The Tifnang Alphabet at Peterborough, Ontario


       "Using Table I, the comparisons of the Tifinag alphabet with the short inscriptions found in Sweden and Denmark, and supplementing these by the much more extensive material now recognized in America, it is not difficult to reconstitute King Woden-lithi's own alphabet [at Peterborough].  It is given in Table 2."


The Tifnang Alphabet in Sweden & Denmark



WODEN lithi


       It is now possible for anyone who cares to do so to visit the site at Peterborough, Ontario, with [the present information]... in hand, and perhaps a copy of Geir T. Zoega's Dictionary of Old Icelandic (Oxford University Press, 1910) as an independent check, and to see and read the inscriptions the king had cut, and thus for the first time ever hear the words of a Bronze Age language that stands in the direct line of descent of English and the other Norse tongues.


       Although nearly 4,000 years stand between King Woden-lithi, and modern civilizations we can still recognize much of his language as a kind of ancient English.  It is an eerie feeling to realize that we are reading, and hence hearing, the voice of the ancient explorers of Canada whose thoughts now come to us across the space of forty centuries, yet still with familiar words and expressions that remain a part of the Teutonic heritage.


       This is not the place to instruct readers in the grammar of Old Norse, let alone the still more obscure grammar of Bronze Age Norse, but it is quite within the realm of practical life for visitors, including teachers and their students, to examine for themselves at least the more conspicuous and best preserved of Woden-lithi's recorded comments.


       The diagrams will make this task relatively easy.  And for those who wish to make independent checks, or to translate parts of the text that are not included [here] , there can be no better guides than Zoega's Dictionary, a grammar of Old Norse such as E.V. Gordon's (Oxford University Press, 1927), and a camera to record the inscriptions for more detailed study at home.  For many of the words and Anglo-Saxon dictionary will also aid recognition.


WODEN-lithi’s text - continued


       The easiest parts of Woden-lithi's text are, of course, those where the letters are engraved on the largest scale, and that therefore have suffered least from the erosion of time and the elements.  One of the clearest sections is located about 30 feet to the west of the central sun figure.  The individual letters are from 20 to 40 cm high, and they form a horizontal band about 5 feet (1.5 m) long. 




The God of War Tziw (Anglo-Saxon lore)[1a]


       Tsiw (Tiw of Anglo-Saxon lore), depicted as the major god of the Aesir, protector of ships, god of war, protector of the sky gods, for whose sake he sacrificed his left hand to the giant wolf, Wenri (left).  His title here is given as Tsiw lymth = "Tsiw Maimed."  The inscribed dedication by Woden-lithi occurs beneath this figure, and is given separately in the next image (Fell 1982)


       The inscription lies directly beneath the Fig. of the god of war, Tziw, and it is in fact a dedication to this god.  The god can be recognized from [Ia] and [1b]




King Woden-lithi's dedication inscribed just below

the image of the war god Tsiw. [Ib}


       The text reads from left to right and, by supplying the vowels, may be pronounced as Wlk halgen Tsiwa Woden-litya, "The image hallowed to Tsiw by Woden-lithi."  The last two letters of the king's name are given as ogam in a ship rebus.  This is also a common feature of inscriptions at Bronze Age sites in Sweden, where prayers for the safety of ships are rendered in ogam letters that are fitted together to make diagrammatic pictures of ships.  There are also connections here with words of modern English (Fell 1982) and [1a] by the fact that he stands beside the Fenrir wolf, which has just bitten off his left hand..


       For the present we will restrict ourselves to the line of dedication, shown in..[1b] With the exception of the ornamental capital TZ  [or TS] that begins the name of the god, all the letters are easily recognizable from the table of Woden-lithi's alphabet..  Table 2 Remember that vowels are nearly always omitted in all Bronze Age inscriptions except when they occur at the beginning of a word, or where possible confusion of meaning might result.  The line of text of the dedication reads:


w-k   h-l-gn   tz-w   w-d-n-l-t-ya


       The last two letters are written in Ogam and form a rebus of a ship, on the right, all the others are in Bronze Age Tifinag.  The meaning of the text is "Image dedicated sacred to Tziw by Woden-lithi."  The individual words are as follows.


       W-K, matching Old English (Anglo-Saxon) wig, a heathen idol, in this case a bas-relief ground into limestone, depicting the god.  Probably we have to supply the same vowel, i, to make the letters w and k pronounceable, g and k are related consonants, both formed in the throat; the only difference is that g requires the vocal cords to reverberate (as can be felt by placing the fingers on the throat when uttering the sound of g), while in pronouncing k the vocal cords remain inactive, so no vibration is felt on the throat.


       Jakob Grimm, the great German philologist, first showed how pairs of consonants, such as g and k d and t, b and p, change (mutate) from voiced to unvoiced if they occur in certain positions in words.  Woden-lithi apparently spoke with an incipient "German" accent, and preferred to use a k at the end of words where we in English are usually content to retain the ancient g sound.


       The next word, rendered by Woden-lithi's scribe as H-L-GN means hallowed or, as we would prefer to say in Modern English, dedicated.  It is a root that is common to all the Teutonic languages.  Germans, for example, retain it to this very day as heilig, meaning holy, which in turn is another Modern English word derived from H-L-GN.  In the Scandinavian languages the word survives unchanged, as helgen, meaning holy or to make holy, and the Anglo-Saxon form of the word is represented by such old terms as halig (holy), halgan (a saint), halgung (a consecration or dedication), with hallow, hallowing, Halloween (All-Saints' Eve) as surviving English derivatives.


       Halloween is the night before the first day of the ancient Norseman winter (November 1), when ghosts are reputed to roam at large.  These spirits could be bought off, by bribes, from any evil intention during the following year, hence our modern surviving custom of given token gifts to children dressed as demons and ghosts.  The children of Woden-lithi's Ontario settlers no doubt carried on the same custom.The  next word is the name of the god himself, here rendered as TZ-W.  This implies a pronunciation similar to the ancient German name of the god of war, Tziwaz.  Our Anglo-Saxon forebears called him Tiw, and in the Middle Ages the surviving form of the name, in the word Tuesday, became what we still say today, for the god of war is still commemorated by having the second day after the sun god's day named for him.


       The last word is the name of King Woden-lithi himself, and it is written beside a pictograph of a man wearing a robe and crown, to show the reader that the word is the personal name of a king.  Elsewhere in the various texts on the site we find the word king spelled out in Tifinag, and it then has the form konungn, matching Anglo-Saxon cyning, Old Norse konungr and other similar forms in all the Teutonic languages.  Lithi, here rendered as litya, means "servant," thus the king's name is "Servant of Woden." Woden was the king of the Aesir or sky gods.


       "The dedication to Tziw illustrates the way in which we can use dictionaries of Anglo-Saxon or Old Norse, as well as modern English dictionaries that give the old roots

(such as the OED or the American Heritage), not only as a guide to understanding what Woden-lithi is saying, but also as a means of guessing approximately what his language-- our ancestors' language-- actually must have sounded like.


       It is not needful here to continue treating in detail the rest of the numerous texts that lie about the site at Peterborough and at other places such as the sites along the Milk River, Alberta, or in Coral Gardens, Wyoming.  Readers can devise their own philological checks, if these interest them, or ignore the subject if they are more interested in other aspects.  ......" [This discussion is merely to show how to approach the ancient inscriptions].


[Please refer now to Figs. 1b, 1c  66= 1d,  Id,  Ie, If, Ig, Ih ].



Tifnang Letters Giving Sounds of Woden-lithi's Words


       Now that we have seen that the alphabet really does give us the means of reading the various texts that King Woden-lithi had engraved at the Peterborough site, when he selected it for the sacred center of his colony, following are some comments on the origin of this alphabet.


       It is essentially the same alphabet as that used by the Tuareg Berbers.  A possible reason for this surprising circumstance is suggested [later]."  However, none of the scholars who have worked on Tifinag inscriptions in North Africa could ever understand the relationship between the Tifinag alphabet and the Berber language.  It has now become clear that there is no relationship.  Tifinag is not a Berber invention-- instead it is Norse-- and that changes the whole problem.



The Name of Woden-lithi's Ship


       The king gives us the name of his ship after identifying himself.  The symbols for "spear" and "ship" are determinatives, telling us the category of objects to which each of the alphabetic names applies.  Thus GN-GN-N-R (Old Norse gungnir) is a spear, in this case the famous magic spear of the sky god Woden. The name is subsequently applied to a ship, shown hieroglyphically by a pictograph of a ship.  The inscription is read from bottom to top, each line reading from left to right, as follows:


1.  Skip niman (A ship he took)

2.  A-Gungnir war nefn (In-honor-of-Gungnir was its name).


          Thus, the Norwegian vessel Gungnir is the earliest ship known by name to have reached the Americas.  This ship sailed the St. Lawrence River, and was commanded

by Woden-lithi, High King of Ringerike, the ancient capital of Norway.


          The section of Woden-lithi's text shown above is located about 18 feet southwest of the main sun-god figure at Peterborough, Ontario (Fell 1982).




Woden-lithi's Purpose in Canada


       The king now reveals the purpose of his visit to Canada.  Two hieroglyphic symbols appear in this section.  The copper ingot symbol is universal in Bronze Age inscriptions, and originated in Mesopotamia, where ingots were cast in the shape indicated by the sign.  Numerous examples of the sign are also known from American inscriptions and Amerindian token money.


       The other hieroglyph, a comb, is peculiarly Norse.  A comb in Norse was "kam," and kam also is the past tense of the verb to come, komu.  Therefore, an ideogram of a comb yields the sound of the verb "came."  The text reads:


       For ingot-copper of excellent quality (Old Norse maetr)came (Old Norse kam) the king (Old Norse drottinnin) by way of trial (Old Norse reyna).


       This section of the text lies to the left of the preceding section, which is about 18 ft southwest of the main sun-god figure.  In contemporary language the king might have said that his voyage was a test run for market research (Fell 1982).



The Months Woden-lithi Spent in America


       The king, Woden-lithi, now tells us how long he stayed in America.  The next part of the text specifies the actual months. Two hieroglyphs occur in this section, one the five fingers, is merely the numeral 5.  The other, an arm and hand, represents the word mund (Old Norse, a hand), which in turn is an isophone (punning word sounding the same as another word) for manad (Old Norse, month).  In this section the word for "king" (Old Norse konungr) that was given hieroglyphically at the very start of the inscription, is here spelled out in Tifnag letters.  The text here reads in a clockwise direction from 1 to 5:


        (R-N Old Norse eyna) As a trial the king (N-N-GN-O-R) lay at anchor (L-GN, Old Norse lagna) for five (Old Norse fim) months (M-N-D). This section of the inscription occurs just underneath   (Fell 1982).


       The decipherment of any ancient and unknown inscription requires first that the alphabet in which it is written must be solved.  Various methods can be used to achieve this first essential.  In the case of Woden-lithi's inscription Fell found the solution relatively easy, for he had previously traveled widely in the Scandinavian countries, where shorter but similar inscriptions occur on Bronze Age monuments, and he had also carried out research on the ancient scripts of North Africa, including the Tifinag of the Tuaregs.  The Tuaregs had preserved their unique system of writing since time immemorial, and its origin was unknown, though all epigraphers, including me, supposed it to have been their own invention.


       Four thousand years ago the ancestors of the present-day peoples who speak Teutonic languages were all grouped together in Scandinavia, in parts of Germany, and along the Baltic coasts.  They had not yet differentiated into Germans, English, Scandinavians, so we can refer to them only as Norsemen.  Their descendants today not only live in northern Europe but have spread across the world, and most people in North America now speak a tongue directly descended from the Ancient Norse of the Bronze Age.



The Months Woden-lithi Spent in Canada


        The text until now was descending vertically down the rock face.  After taking the clockwise move in the previous section, it now ascends the rock face immediately to the left of the preceding sections.


       Here the king specifies the actual months he was present in Canada, by naming the signs of the zodiac occupied by the sun.  he came when the sun was in Gemini (in 1700 BC, this would be April-May, for the vernal equinox lay between Taurus and Aries).  He departed for his home in Norway when the sun was in Scorpio, meaning August-September, for the intervening sign of Libra was not inserted into the zodiac until about 300 BC The sign for Scorpio is partly eroded here, but reference to the complete zodiac, as given in Woden-lithi's astronomical text, shows what form he gave it.


       The significance of this section is to specify the months mentioned in the previous section.  It reads: “From April-May until August-September.”


       The text now ascends the rock face, and the king relates how he spent those five months "dealing profitably with the foreigners, exchanging his trade goods for copper ingots. “The "foreigners" were the resident Algonquians, whose friendly welcome Woden-lithi recorded earlier.


       Two hieroglyphs appear in this section, and both are still used by the Algonquians:  a square sign denotes trade goods, and a meandering sign means "expedition."  However, Woden-lithi contrived to spell out the word, while still forming a rebus-winding trail from its components.  Fell (1982) decided that the text reads:


       Hagna (Profitably) del (he dealt) [trade goods] wal (with the foreigners) kopar (for copper) erandi (the object of the expedition.  The modern English word "errand" is a cognate with erandi.


       Although short inscriptions in the Ancient Norse alphabet have recently been recognized in Scandinavia, that discovery stemmed from the more significant one of Ancient Norse engraved on North American rock.  Thus North America has now become custodian of the oldest and most precious of the ancient records of the Norsemen, and to Canada is assigned the responsibility of preserving them intact, and the thanks of millions of people must go to the geologists, surveyors, and archaeologists who uncovered the main site and placed it under the protection of the local government.


       Our ancestors of the Norsemen Bronze Age inherited some of the signs of their alphabet from their Neolithic predecessors, who also spoke a Norse tongue and used a number of signs.  Thus the following signs were already known in northern Europe before the Bronze Age.


       As is quite obvious, these are hieroglyphs in which the signs depict recognizable objects, and the sound they stand for is that of the first letter in the name of the object.  Thus, the crescent that is m is obviously the first letter of mán, the older form of our modern English moon.  Similarly the circular sign r, or hr, is the first letter of the word hringr, meaning our modern word ring.  So also the circle with a dot in the center, s, is the first letter of sol and of sunu, the two Ancient Norse names of the sun.  The b symbol is clearly the Old Norse buklr, the circular shield with a leather arm-strap, which is still called a buckler in modern English.


       These four signs, with the indicated sound values, were needed by the Neolithic wizards to indicate certain words that mean magic (bur- in Proto-Norse), sailing ship (also bur-, though a different root), and the combinations of these two words with signs for the sun and moon, both of which were viewed as celestial gods that sailed their sun ship and moon ship by magic across the heavens.  Simple statements of this kind can now be read, by sound as well as by pictograph, in the Neolithic engravings on rock in Scandinavia and also in North America, as far west as California.


       The German philologist Jakob Grimm traveled among the village communities of Germany and the Baltic lands 150 years ago, and discovered old words such as those have been mentioned.  He used his findings to develop a forecast of modern theories on how language evolves through time.  He also recorded the old names of the constellations.  This is fortunate for us, for when we look at the deciphered Norse alphabet of the Bronze Age we can now recognize more of the origins of the alphabet.  For just as the letter s and m reflect the form of the sun and the crescent moon, so also we now perceive that the dots that make up other letters, in a kind of Braille system, are really the constellations.


       Thus, just as the ancient Irish (noted as Celts) gazed at their fingers and invented a writing system called ogam based on the varying combinations of five strokes above, below, and across a central writing axis, so also the ancient Norsemen gazed instead at the sky and saw their letters writ large upon the face of heaven.  No doubt they said their script was divine, sent from the sky by the sky god Woden (Odin), lord of magic and of runes, the secret writing of the magicians.


       As this word runes has already been applied to later types of writing developed by the Norsemen after the Iron Age, we cannot use it without some qualification for our Bronze Age alphabet, to which it undoubtedly was originally applied.  So we have to compromise and call the oldest writing of the Norsemen peoples, Bronze Age Runes.


       There remain a number of other letters that seem to be formed from more commonplace objects of everyday life in ancient times.  In Fell’s popular books on North American inscriptions he was faced with the difficulty of trying to explain to an English-speaking public the meaning and language of texts engraved in tongues so remotely different from English that it made the tasks both of writing the books and of reading them (as many correspondents have told me) decidedly difficult.


       Now, thanks to King Woden-lithi, these problems all vanish.  He spoke and wrote a language that resounds down the centuries with the age-old familiar tones of all the Norse tongues.  We speakers of English, as well as our cousins in Europe who speak related languages, can all recognize many of the words that Woden-lithi and his Ontario colonists spoke and wrote here seventeen centuries before Julius Caesar first encountered the Norsemen tribes of the Rhineland.



Little Crow Island, Deer Isle, Maine


       Although Woden-lithi's site at Peterborough is the first recognizable Norsemen Bronze Age site to be discovered in America, it now appears that there were other visitors from the Norsemen world of that era.  For some years a puzzling inscription has been known from little Crow Island, near Deer Isle, Maine, but it could not be deciphered, nor was the script recognized.



Inscription at Crow Island, Maine


        It is shown in an inscription at Crow Island, Penobscot Bay, near Deer Isle, Maine, bears a Nordic Tifnag script whose meaning Fell (1982) proposed might be: 


Ey vik hvi nokkvi leya a vika.  Hako lod kugga her

"A sheltered island, where ships may lie in a harbor.

Haakon brought his cog here."


       A provisional reading is given, which suggests that some voyager from Scandinavia, seemingly named Hako or Haakon, visited Maine at a time when the Bronze Age runes were still in use.  [= Ey vik hvi nokkvi leya a vika = "A sheltered island, where ships may lie in a harbor.  Haakon brought his cog here."] This inscription greatly resembles the script called bead ogam, but the resultant text, if it were read as bead ogam, is gibberish, whereas if we treat it as Tifinag script, a Norse text, although rather obscure, emerges.  The lack of associated pictographs or hieroglyphs increases the difficulty of reading the signs.



Servant of Woden's Observatory


       To the discerning eye the solar observatory that King Woden-lithi established at his trading center near Peterborough is one of the wonders of American archaeology.  So surprising do his knowledge of the constellations and his understanding of the motions of the sun through the signs of the zodiac appear that at first it seems impossible that the site could be ancient.  it is more like what one might expect to have been constructed during the early Middle Ages.  However, consideration of what has been discovered about the growth of astronomy shows that it is not at all impossible for Woden-lithi to have known what he did know and yet have lived in an epoch 3,5000 years before our own.


       Until about a century ago, all that we knew about ancient astronomy was what the Greeks and Romans had written.  It was supposed that the Greeks had named the constellations, and that therefore man's knowledge of the stars as mapped in the constellations could not be older than about 2,700 or 2,800 years; for some of the constellations, and their roles in setting the time of year for plowing, sowing and reaping, are mentioned by name in the works of Hesiod, the first Greek writer to refer to them, who lived about 800 BC.


       Then an unexpected discovery was made.  Archaeologists in the Middle East began to uncover tablets of stone in which clear reference was made to constellations, some of them recognizably the same as those we know today, yet the age of the records extended many centuries earlier, into a time antecedent to the Greek civilization.


       An English astronomer, Richard Proctor, devised an ingenious method of finding out when the constellations first received their names.  He plotted on a chart all the constellations known to the ancients.  He then examined the area in the sky, over the Southern Hemisphere, in which no constellations had been recorded until modern astronomers named them, because the ancient astronomers had not explored the Southern Hemisphere.  He found that this southern blank area has its center, not at the southern celestial pole, as one might expect, but in quire a different place:  a point in the southern sky some 25 degrees to one side of the South Pole. 


       When he realized that this center must once have been the pole, at the time when the constellations were named, he then attacked the related question, the known motions of the poles as the earth's axis has slowly wobbled like that of a spinning top.  He found that the ancient position of the poles he had discovered, for the time when constellations were named, corresponded to a direction of the earth's axis that was correct 4,000 years ago.


       Thus, the constellations must have been named some 2,000 years before the time of Christ.  it was then discovered that the description of some features of the sun's motion in the sky, given by a Greek astronomer named Eudoxus, could not possibly have been true at the time when Eudoxus wrote, but would have been correct had he been quoting from sources dating back to 2000 BC.  The position of the sun at the time of the vernal equinox (in March) was recorded by these early writers as lying in the zodiacal constellation of the Bull.  But in classical times, when Eudoxus wrote, the vernal equinox occurred when the sun is in the constellation of the Ram, some 30 degrees away.


       What this means for us is that when the Norsemen farmers first learned the arts of sowing seed by the calendar, and could thereby be sure of seeing the seed sprout instead of rotting in the ground, as would happen if it were not sown at the correct time, this phase of social history in the northern lands matched the rise of astronomy, about 2000 BC.  Evidently the astronomical skills passed along the same trade routs as did the trade goods themselves:  from the Danube and the Rhine there spread outward and northward into Germany, and then Scandinavia, a knowledge of the constellations and the motion of the sun through them.  Observatories would be established to watch for the equinoctial rising of the sun and for other significant astronomical events that could be used to keep the calendar correct and functional. 


       Hence it was one of the concerns of Woden-lithi in America to ensure that his colonists were provided with a practical means of observing the sky and the heavenly bodies, so that they could have always a reliable farmers' calendar.  Certain religious festivals were also regulated by the calendar, such as the spring (New Year) festival in March, and the midwinter or Yule festival held in December.


       To establish his observatory, Woden-lithi had first to determine the position of the north-south meridian of his site.  He probably used the following method.  First, he selected a central observing point, and engraved two concentric circles into the rock (thus forming the head and central "eye" of what later became the main sun-god image).  An assistant then held a vertical rod, centered in the marker circles, on a clear day as the sun approached its noon altitude.  The shadow cast by the vertical rod would grow shorter as the sun rose higher, and then would begin to lengthen again as the sun passed the highest elevation at noon, and commenced to decline.  The direction of the shadow at its shortest length was marked on the rock.  Checks on subsequent days would establish this shadow line more precisely.  The marked lines except for minor errors due to variations in the velocity of the earth's motion (for which no correction could be made in those early days), would be the meridian, running north and south.


       Woden-lithi could now lay out the cardinal directions, north, south, east, and west, by making a right-angle intersection with the meridian line, to give the east-west axis (see illustration  below) Instead of cutting lines for these cardinal axes, however, he made sighting points at their extremities by cutting a sunburst figure, as shown.



King Woden--lithi’s calendar observatory at Peterborough, Ontario


CONSTELLATIONS - Known to Woden-lithi


       The sighting sunburst for due east he then identified by an inscription lettered in ogam consaine, shown on the right side of the illustration above) In his Old Norse language it reads M-D  O-S-D-N (Old Norse mot osten, facing east).  The illustration gives a plan view to the scale shown, so the visitor can readily identify these features at the site.


       At this stage in his work Woden-lithi had now provided his colonists with the fundamental tool for regulating their calendar, for, every year at the vernal equinox in March, when the ancient year began for all civilized peoples, an observer standing on the site would see the sun rise at a point on the horizon lying on the line of sight from the "eye" of the central sun-god figure. to the eastern sunburst figure.  On that occasion each year the Norsemen peoples held a festival, named for the goddess of the dawn, Eostre.  The name survives in our modern language as Easter, now of course linked with a Christian festival to which the old pagan name has been attached.


       Ancient peoples also celebrated another festival on the shortest day of the year, called by the Norsemen nations Yule; this pagan festival is nowadays lined with the Christian festival of Christmas, still called Yule (spelled Jul) in Scandinavian countries.  Woden-lithi therefore wished to provide his colonists with a means of determining the day on which the Yule feast should be held, for to the ancient peoples it was a great day of celebration, marking the end of the sun's winter decline and the promise of a new and warmer season ahead.


       Woden-lithi's inscriptions tell us that he remained in Canada only for five months and that he returned to his home in Scandinavia in October, hence he could not observe the direction in which the sunrise would be observed on the actual day of midwinter, for he was no longer in Canada.  So apparently he estimated the direction, drawing on his experience in Scandinavia. 


       In southern Norway the precise direction of sunrise on Midwinter Day varies quite considerably, for at the latitudes spanned by the interval between the southern end of the Skagerrak (at about 56 deg. N) and the head of Oslo Fjord (at 60 deg. N), the astronomical equation that determines the sunrise direction gives solutions that range over a span of some seven degrees between the extreme values. 


       Consequently, since Woden-lithi probably did not have any clear conception of latitude, and would have to judge the situation in terms of his notions of the variations seen in Norway itself and neighboring Sweden, he would probably conclude that the Peterborough site seemed to be comparable with southernmost Scandinavia.


       For example, he would have noticed that the midday sun stood higher in the sky at midsummer at Peterborough (when he was present to observe) than it did in his homeland, and he would also know that the noonday sun stands higher in the southern Sweden than it does near Oslo on any given day.  From such knowledge he perhaps estimated the likely sunrise direction for Midwinter Day, and cut his estimated axis into the rock at the site.


       This he marked by another sun-god figure (which is labeled Solstice on the constellation illustration) Woden-lithi himself had a label carved into the rock beside this figure.  As can be seen from the illustration, it spells W-L  H-K.  Hoki was the Ancient Norse name of the midwinter festival: the word still survives today in the Scotch word Hogmanay, the traditional name of the Scottish midwinter holiday, now applied to the New Year holiday.  The letters W-L evidently represent the hvil of Old Norse, meaning a time of rest, a holiday from work.  The importance of this Hoki holiday can be judged from the large scale in which the letters have been engraved at the site.  It was, no doubt, the time of the major national festival for all Norsemen peoples, and Woden-lithi undoubtedly intended that the old traditions be kept alive in his trading colony in the New World.


       As we examine the site today, where these ancient instructions for regulating the calendar year and its festivals still survive, it is clear that whereas the critical date for starting the year and determining the correct time of planting seed, the equinox, is accurately set out, the same is not true of the Hoki axis.  it overestimates the southern declination of the sun by several degrees. 


       Woden-lithi's colonists would find that the midwinter sunrise did not, in fact, ever range quite so far south as the king had predicted, and that the sunrise point would begin to return toward the eastern horizon before ever reaching the southeastern azimuth to which Woden-lithi's Hoki axis now points.  Nonetheless the general tenor of the matter would be clear enough, and since most years the midwinter sunrise tends to occur in banks of low-lying cloud, the error was probably known to only a few of the more meticulous observers.


       Those of us who have made the somewhat hazardous journey to observe the midwinter sunrise at sites in the Green Mountains [Vermont] that are oriented for this purpose, have discovered the whole area under the deepest snowdrifts.  The same circumstance, no doubt, is true of Woden-lithi's site: the whole inscription area, with all the astronomical axes, would usually lie buried under deep snow, hence invisible and useless for making astronomical determinations of the festival dates.


       An explanation for these conflicts of data is to be sought in our developing knowledge of climatic change.  In Woden-lithi's time the whole earth had a much milder climate than it did one thousand years later. The site at Peterborough may well have been prairie rather than dense needle-forest, as it is a present.  Open views of the distant horizon could be had, the actual sunrise could be observed, and because of the milder climate, the snow, if present at all, could be cleared away from the site.


       Also, as the climate deteriorated with the progress of time, the people here at the end of the Bronze Age, around 800 BC, began to find the snow an increasing impediment to their calendar regulation.  They were forced to construct a new type of observatory, one that could retain its major astronomical axes in a visible and usable state despite the snow accumulations.


       These new observatories are probably where the observers could be housed comfortably below ground, with a large living space that could be heated by fire, and with the axis of the entire chamber directed toward the midwinter-sunrise azimuth on the distant horizon, so that the calendar observation could be made simply by sighting from the inner end of the chamber, through the entrance doorway, which was built so as to face the midwinter sunrise point.


       Once this practice had been adopted to overcome the ferocity of the winters, reaching its extremes of discomfort as the Iron Age began, the advantages of astronomically oriented chambers would be realized, and soon all observatories, whether based on summer, equinoctial, or winter sunrise directions, would eventually be constructed as comfortable chambers.  The old open-air sites, like that of Woden-lithi, would be abandoned forever, became buried under drifting soil and leaves and then turf (as happened at Peterborough), or would be eroded away by the elements till nothing readable remained, and thus disappear altogether.


       To return to Woden-lithi's site, it is of interest to note that he adopted the ancient Semitic method of naming the south direction.  The Semitic peoples regarded east as the main map direction.  Facing east they would name the cardinal points on either side, so that north became "left-hand" and south became "right-hand."  On Woden-lithi's site we find that he has engraved in very large Tifinag letters the word H-GH-R at the southern extremity of the platform, where he as cut yet another sunburst figure.


       The word intended is Old Norse hogr, meaning "right-hand."  The word is still sued today in Sweden where, if you are given street directions in Stockholm or Lund, you are sure to be told to take such and such a turn till högra, "to the right."  The Danes say hFjre, but we who speak English seem to have lost the word, and replaced it by another root.  The Old Norse words for south (sudhra) and north (nord) are nowhere to be found on Woden-lithi's site, so perhaps they had not yet come into use.


       Now, since we find Woden-lithi using the Semitic (Mesopotamian) methods of naming directions by reference to the right and left when facing east, and since east is the only direction that he actually calls by its special name, east (osten in his dialect), it is not surprising that we should find Woden-lithi in possession of so much information on the Babylonian maps of the heavens, as designated in the form of the named constellations. 



Constellations in Woden-lithi’s Day


       The first hint we encounter on the observatory site that the stars were already grouped into constellations in Woden-lithi's day is given by the northern end of his meridian (see constellation chart on previous page) Here we find an inscription in Tifinag that reads


W-K-N  H-L  A-GH, and it is evidently to read as Old Norse

Vagn hjul aka, "The wagon-wheel drives."


       Our Norsemen ancestors knew the constellation near the present north celestial pole that we in America call the Big Dipper today, and which Europeans often call the Plow or Wain, as the Wagon.  it was supposed to be an ox wagon (that is, the ancient chariot, before horses had been tamed) and was said to be driven by the god Odin, the Woden of our colonists.


       In Woden-lithi's day the north the star Thuban, in the constellation Draco, marked celestial pole; nowadays it lies some 25 degrees away from the pole.  The Wagon was conceived as wheeling around and around the Pole Star.  The wheeling motion, of course, is caused by the rotation of the earth, but in Woden-lithi's day it was conceived as a rotation of the sky itself.  We have other hints.... about star groups known by name to the peoples of the north in Woden-lithi's time:  the four stars that form the square of Pegasus (Called Hestemerki, "horse-sign," by the Ancient Norse) seem to be the basis of the four dots that make the Tifinag letter h; and the w-shaped group of stars that form Cassiopeia, called Yorsla by the ancient Scandinavians, seem to be the origin of the w-shaped letter that gives the sound of Y.


       To the southwest of Woden-lithi's observatory lies an area of limestone where the constellations of the Norsemen zodiac have been engraved.  We note that some of the Babylonian constellations bear replacement names in the Woden-lithi version.  The ram (Aries) is obviously a bear, and some broken letters beside the image of the animal seem to spell in Tifinag the word B-R-N, a root that appears in all Norse tongues in one form or another, as bjorn in Scandinavian, and bruin in English.


       The next sign, the Bull (Taurus) of classical astronomy, is drawn as a moose; it is labeled in Tifinag L-GN, Old Norse elgen, the elk.  The Lion (Leo), though labeled L-N (Old Norse leon), seems to have been carved by an artist who had in mind a lynx.  The Crab (Cancer) looks like a lobster, and it is drawn as if it lies at the feet of the Twins (Gemini), here identified as M-T  TH-W-L-N-GN (Old Norse matig-tvillingr, "the mighty twins").


       The significance to Woden-lithi's people of the zodiac was that it provided a means of describing the annual path of the sun through the heavens.  The sun spends about one month in each of twelve constellations, which together form the so-called zodiac (a word meaning, "girdle of animals").


       The vernal equinox, the start of the ancient Norsemen year, occurs at the time when the sun is located in the zodiacal sign for that equinox.  Two thousand years before Christ, when, as we have seen, the constellations received their names, the sun occupied the Bull (the elk in Woden-lithi's zodiac).  Around 1700 BC the slow wobble of the earth's axis (called the procession of the equinoxes) caused the vernal equinox position to move out of the Bull into the neighboring sign, Aries (in Woden-lithi's terminology, the bear).


       In Woden-lithi's zodiac map he shows the situation in just that way.  The word W-GN (Old Norse vaegn, a balance) signifies the "balance of night and day," and is set opposite the space between Taurus and Aries.


       The sun is shown entering the W-R-M zone of the zodiac at that point.  The word intended is simply our word warm, Old Norse, varm, meaning summer.  On the part of the zodiac corresponding to the sun's positions during the cold months the engraver has written the letters W-N-T, our word winter, Old Norse vintr.  All the indications are, then, that Woden-lithi used a chart of the sky that was appropriate in 1700 BC.  Since his writing system and the style of his inscriptions match so well the inscriptions that Scandinavian archaeologists declare to belong to the early Bronze Age, we may assume that Woden-lithi did in fact live around that time.  Hence, until evidence is found to the contrary, Fell believed that we have to date his visit to America as having occurred around 1700 BC.


       There are other indications that this is a reasonable estimate.  Some archaeologists who have investigated the site have suggested a possible age of 3,500 years, based on the similarity of the art style to that of Europe 3,500 years ago.  At a neighboring site in Ontario where a thousand or so copper artifacts were excavated, radiocarbon dating indicated occupation a thousand years before the time proposed for Woden-lithi;, that is, around 3000 BC.  And some of the radiocarbon dates from the Lake Superior copper mines indicate that the mines were worked between about 3000 and 2000 BC.  All these data suggest that the copper-mining industry was already an old established activity in Canada long before Woden-lithi came to trade for copper.



The Gods Go West- Woden and Lug


       Based on a translation of inscriptions in America, Fell (1982) proposes a hypothetical scenario of further migrations by Bronze Age peoples on the American continent: 


       Although both the ancient peoples of Ireland and the Norsemen Teutons venerated the sun god above all others during the Bronze Age, the former calling him by the name Bel or Grian, the latter Sol or Sunu, each of these peoples recognized a host of lesser gods.  These deities seem to have originated as spirits of nature, each in charge of particular natural manifestations, and later some of them were elevated to become major gods.


       Thus Lug to the ancient Irish was a god of light, who repelled the forces of darkness with his mighty spear.  The Norsemen people apparently assigned much the same characteristics to Woden or Odin, who also owned a mighty spear and dealt destruction to the enemies of gods and men.  Both ancient Irish and Norse-speaking people recognized a sky god who was named for thunder:  Taranis in ancient Irish, Thunor or Thor in Norse.  Both had divinities in charge of war, of music, of writing skills and magic, and, especially, fertility, both male and female.


       In America something happened that did not and could not happen in Europe.  Relatively isolated and defenseless settlements of Irish and Norsemen Teutons came into accidental and basically friendly contact.  Inevitably there were intermarriages, and each side imparted its ideas to the other.  Thus arose a peculiarly American blending of European concepts, which later permeated Amerindian thinking, as intermarriages became more extensive.


       When the people from Ireland and Scandinavia crossed the Atlantic to settle in America they brought their gods with them.  In the northeastern settlements, where native rock abounded, they built religious centers in the megalithic style.  Some of the chambers still carry ogam inscriptions indicating the name of the god or goddess of the dedication 

In most cases the original inscriptions are now unreadable or totally effaced by time and weather.


       As centuries went by, and the Ancient Irish people or their Creole descendants dispersed across the continent, their concepts changed with the changing environment.  In the Northeast the mother goddess was conceived as a female figure resembling the Punic Tanith, also as a nude image.  On the prairies the mother goddess is represented as an Amerindian woman who’s fringed clothes spell out in Ogam her name and titles.  Where there were no rocks, no stone chambers could be built, and they and the other megalithic structures all but vanish as we pass beyond the Great Lakes.


       Chief of the Ancient Irish gods was Lug, god of the sky and of light, and creator of the universe.  His emblems are his spear and his slingshot.  With the latter he once destroyed a one-eyed monster named Balar, who, with his sorcerer attendants the Fir-bolg, had gained the mastery of Ireland.  Balar is depicted in an unlettered inscription on the Milk River, near Writing-on-Stone, Alberta.  He is shown as having one leg and one arm, held aloft over his gigantic eye, which could kill hundreds merely by its glance.  In a pictograph, Lug has just loosed the thong of his slingshot and the monster is about to bite the dust.  A later depiction of Lug is that illustrated below:



Lug, the Ancient Irish god of light

Text is shown in Norse runes of the period AD 750-1050. 

The name is in the possessive case:  Lug's (site or his image).


       This Petroglyph occurs at Castle Gardens near Moneta, Wyoming.  The drawing is reproduced from a photograph taken by Ted C. Sowers of the Wyoming Archeological Survey (1941).  Although this is the work of a paleo-artist of relatively modern times, the theme relates back to the Bronze Age, as does the formalistic style, like that of the earliest Bronze Age (Fell 1982).


       On the preceding page his name is given in Norse runes, one of many examples we now have of Norsemen influence on the western Irish in North America.  Presumably the Norsemen came down from Hudson Bay to enter the prairie lands.  In this petroglyph Lug is shown holding his magic spear, by means of which he defeats the forces of darkness each year, to usher in the returning spring.


       The last-mentioned petroglyph occurs on cliffs at Castle Gardens in Wyoming, and at the same site another Ancient Irish god is identified by his name written in Norse runes. This is Mabona (or Mabo), the Irish Apollo, god of music and of sports and the presiding divinity in charge of male fertility.  In this context his symbol is the phallus, shown in the petroglyph on the rock above him.


       The Punic traders of Iberia brought to America the coinage of Carthage and other Semitic cities, and these coins often depict a horse (the emblem of Carthage), or just its head and neck, or a Pegasus with wings but without the rest of the animal's body.  Since there were no horses in the Americas at that epoch, the Ancient Irish had vague and strange ideas as to what kind of animal it might be, apparently able to fly like a bird, yet resembling a deer in other respects.  They sometimes carved representation of their gods or heroes riding on this magic animal of the skies," and often birds' feet replace the hoofs.  "The body may resemble a boat, while the mane and tail provide the fringe ogam required to give a title to the composition.


       In this respect the American Irish copied exactly the conventions of the minters of Spain, forming the word C-B-L or G-B-L (for capull, horse), and in the case of a Pegasus, adding the suffix -n (ean, meaning "flying").   Some of these flying heroes mounted on Pegasus-back may be intended for Norsemen Valkyries, other have the name Mabona or Mabo-Mabona incorporated in the ogam of the tail.


       The god of knowledge, especially astronomy, astrology, and occult sciences, and of writing skills, was Ogmios.  He is always represented as having a face like the sun, and sometimes he carries rods that spell G-M, the consonants of the word ogam.


       In later centuries, long after the time of Woden-lithi and his colonists, the descendants of the Norsemen settlers began to migrate westward, to reach the Great Plains and, ultimately the West Coast from British Columbia southward to an undetermined distance.  They also encountered other Amerindian tribes, especially the many Dakota tribes, usually now referred to as Sioux.  With the passage of time these communities all blended, and so a part of the Norsemen heritage was introduced into the Amerindian tradition.


       While these events were occurring, a similar westward migration took place among the Irishiberian (noted as Celtiberian) colonists who had originally occupied much of New England and also part of the southeastern states.  These ancient people from Ireland likewise reached the Plains, and they too blended with the Sioux tribes and the Shoshone.  They also had a predominant influence in forming the Takhelne people of British Columbia.  These people from Ireland spread southward along the Pacific coast, through Oregon and much of California, where their ogam inscriptions are often to be found in excellent states of preservation.


       Inevitably the two religious traditions, Norse on the one hand, Ancient Irish on the other, both of them expressions of the original Indo-European pantheon, blended to produce a composite mythology.  Thus we find Norsemen heroes depicted in what appear to be Ancient Irish roles and vice versa.  These blended traditions persisted into modern times, and there were still artists painting ogam texts beneath Norsemen mythological subjects as late as the first decades of the nineteenth century.


       The inscriptions attest to all the foregoing inferences.  In localities such as the Milk River in Alberta, where inscriptions in ogam abound, the bedrock is so soft that the inscriptions cannot be many centuries old.  Some declare their [recent origin] by incorporating depictions of Royal Canadian Mounted Police, or colonists with rifles-- scattered incongruously among petroglyphs that depict the old Norsemen gods and heroes.


       It is clear that a tradition of sculpting replicas of still older petroglyphs must have persisted for thousands of years, and it is very probable that many of the artists whose work we now admire and whose ogam texts we can still recognize may not themselves have really understood what it was that they had been trained to sculpt.  Perhaps, like the Egyptian carvers of Roman times, they merely knew that they were repeating old and hallowed texts from their remote ancestors, the meaning no longer known to them.


       Whether this was so or not, the Amerindians have disclosed little of what lies behind their traditional art, or have cloaked it behind a disguise of later-invented myths.  And as for the inscriptions, many of those that are still readable as ancient ogam cannot possibly have been cut in ancient times.  They represent a fossil art, preserved intact from another age.  We can be grateful to those artists who thus preserved the remote past for us in this way.


       King Woden-lithi gives a concise summary of his pantheon of gods, which (like Snorri's Edda) he separates into the Aesir or sky gods and the Wanir or earth gods.


        "Chief of Norsemen sky gods is Woden of the great spear Gungnir and, as stated above, he has much the same characteristics as Lug of the Gaelic Irish (noted as Celts) and Lew of the Brythonic Irish.  He presides over magic and owns a magic ring that Loki, his son, had made for him.


       His magic spear is carved many times at Peterborough, some of the larger versions being perhaps the work of Algonquians copying from smaller originals.  In one example), located about 18 feet west of the main sun figure, the letters GN-GN  N-R are written:



Woden-lithi's magic spear


       Woden's magic spear (Old Norse Gungnir), a petroglyph located about 18 feet west of the main sun-god figure at Peterborough, Ontario.  It served as a model for numerous very large copies made by Algonquian carvers in later eras.  The spelling suggests that the ancient pronunciation of this word may have been ungungnir.



An Image of Woden


       To the right of the Gunnir Petroglyph is this image of Woden.  It is lettered W-N-R  W-D-N (Old Norse Vanir Odin).  The word Vanir, here given as Wanir, means earth gods and refers to some images cut nearby but not included in this diagram.  The word Woden relates to the tall figure of the sky god shown here.


       Woden himself is depicted as a male figure just to the right of Gungnir   His name is written W-D-N, Woden, in the English and Germanic form of his name.




       The Ontario version of Gungnir, by which name Odin's spear was known to the Vikings of a later age.  These and other inscriptions show that the mythology of Odin in Viking times is fundamentally just a more elaborate development of the mythology of the Norsemen peoples generally in the much earlier era of King Woden-lithi.



The Tree of Dread, Yggdrasil.


       At the command of Woden, Loki created a magic tree to support the world.  It is here shown as having only two branches, and is named W-GH D-R-S-I-L N-M (Old Norse ugha drasil nama, probably meaning "fearsome horse," rendered also Yggdrasil.  The significance of the name is obscure.  In Ancient Irish versions the tree is shown with branches at successive levels, supporting the various regions of the heavens, the earth, and the underworld.  This Petroglyph lies 12 ft. south of the main sun-god figure at Peterborough, Ontario (Fell 1982). 


       About 14 feet south of the main sun figure another of Woden's possessions is depicted This is a peculiar forked tree, identified as W-GH  D-R-S-I-L, Ughdrasil, matching the world-tree of the Vikings, called Yggdrasil.  The name is supposed to mean "Ugly Horse" and its link with the tree is obscure.


       Woden was also regarded as the god who presided over the dead, with feasting and other pleasures of the flesh for warriors who died in battle.  His assistants in bringing in the bodies of the slain for restoration to life, were the Valkyries.  There has not yet been observed any reference to this mythology on the Peterborough site, but inscriptions  suggest that the myth of the Valkyries was imparted to the American migrants from Ireland.


       After the presence of Norse inscriptions was made clear by the Peterborough [Ontario, Canada] texts, the solution of the mysterious rake ogam of the Milk River petroglyphs became evident.  The letters are indeed ogam, but the language is Norse, allied to Old Norse. As can be seen from the petroglyph below:


       The "rake" represents the hammer Mjolnir and the god depicted is Thunor, here rendered as ogam T-N-R.



Thunor with his hammer, Mjolnir.


The script is ogam raic ("rake ogam") but the language is Old Norse, as the hammer and its name prove.

The Petroglyph is one of a large series along the Milk River, Alberta, Canada (Fell 1982).


       The interesting interconnection between Ancient Irish and Norsemen gods, already noted, Lug, is again evident in a petroglyph at Coral Gardens, near Moneta, Wyoming, photographed by Ted Sowers of the Wyoming Archaeological Survey.  The Ancient Irish god Mabona is shown below his symbol, a giant phallus and beneath is written his name, in younger runes.  Again we have evidence of a later contact between the ancient American migrants from Ireland and Norsemen of the period of Leif Eriksson.


       Much more obvious attention is given to the worship of the power of the phallus as a fertilizer not only of women but of Mother Earth herself, in the shape of the great stone phallic monuments that the Ancient Irish and Norsemen peoples erected in Europe and that their American cousins placed at corresponding suitable sites in the New World.  That these are, in some cases at least, Bronze Age monuments is evidenced by the presence of ogam and consain script, making reference to ancient pagan divinities and rituals. 


       That Mabo was preferred by the youth of America to his Norseman equivalent Freyar is made clear by the much larger number of inscriptions dedicated to the former, and usually written in Ancient Irish ogam of the type called fringe ogam.  A telling piece of evidence is seen at Woden-lithi's site, where the male fertility god is named in ogam as Mabo.  And the reason for the preference of young for the Ancient Irish god of youth is his three spheres of activity-- sex, sports, and music-- all of primary interest to the youth of every country.


       In British Columbia and in the Nevada and Californian deserts, there occur inscriptions in ogam, in a Ancient Irish language, relating to mating and the marriage bond   In addition to the worship of Mabo as a fertility god, interest in the various games and athletic sports under the protection of Mabo, and brought by ancient colonists from Europe is manifest in various petroglyphs


       What may be the Ancient Irish ball game of camanachd seems to be depicted in some cases.  Running and hurling the caber are other athletic subjects, and we know from historic contacts in the nineteenth century that the Takhelne tribe of British Columbia practiced a sport much resembling the Scottish caber tossing.






First American Baseball Team?

as shown at Cane Springs, Nevada site # CL-4.  T-L


(Gaelic tilg = "Pitch").  B-L (Gaelic buail = "bat").  G-B (Gaelic gab = "catch").  R

(Gaelic ruaidh ="runs," none registered on the scoreboard).

Two teams (Gaelic D C-S-N, Da cuisean) are mentioned but not named (Fell 1982).


       The inscription at Cane Springs, in Clark County, Nevada, recorded by Professors Robert Heizer and Martin Baumhof, carries fringe ogam that implies that the game depicted can scarcely be separated from baseball, the latter an invention attributed to New York State in modern times." 


       The lyre-faced god appears in various inscriptions in Nevada with remarkable fringe ogam inscriptions incorporated into the petroglyphs as rebus forms.  The captions to the figures give details.  Designs evidently influenced by these compositions enter into the art of the Navajo and Apache tribes, who entered the western territories as late in wanderers from eastern Siberia (their language still retains many recognizable Turkmenian roots).


       It seems likely that these late invaders dispossessed the Pueblo peoples and acquired many of their art forms, so that the Navajo and Apache today are regarded as the foremost exponents of Amerindian culture in North America.  In the process they seem to have acquired the Mabo rebus and converted it into a new but similar style, expressing a wholly different tribal mythology from that of the Ancient Irish from whom these figures originated.



Two Faces of Mabo


       The two faces of Mabo the Melodious, Apollo of the ancient American Norse-Irish and god of music.  In this aspect, from Heizer & Baumhoff's site #Cl-4, Cane Springs, Clark County, Nevada, he is lyre-faced.


       The Ogam lettering reads in consonantal Gaelic R-N-C-L-R-C-M  (Irish rann claruicim) = "I sing stanzas to music." (Fell 1982). 


       Exponents of Amerindian culture in North America.  In the process they seem to have acquired the Mabo rebus and converted it into a new but similar style, expressing a wholly different tribal mythology from that of the Ancient Irish from whom these figures originated.



Petroglyphs in black basalt at the Heizer & Baumhoff site

 #Ch-71, Stillwater Range, Nevada.


       The two "Morris dancers" are on separate boulders (Fell 1982). 


       Dancing to music, the dancers holding stag's antlers, is an ancient Irish cultural feature, also reflected in the North American petroglyphs


       Amerindian musicians possessed many different though simple types of musical instruments.  But the petroglyphs depict a wider range than was found in recent times and, in addition to the lyre, we see various representations of the Ancient Irish harp, both the large and the smaller kinds.



Lesser Ancient Irish Harp


       Pictograph of the lesser Ancient Irish harp, found at Site Wa-5, Spanish Springs, Nevada.  The inscription and pictograph are both engraved on the same rock, side by side.  The letters C-R-T C-H-L read in Gaelic,cruit chiuil = "the lyre or lesser harp."  This term for the harp is more Scot than Irish Gaelic.  The unusually complete ogam consain text is 18 in. long & the harp ca. one-foot across.  The pictograph of a tortoise shell (different scale) found at Site Cl-145, might have provided the sound box, as in the case of Greek lyres (see Fell 1982).


       The associated ogam lettering, in a Gaelic language, is illustrated as below:



Pictograph depicting a song accompanied by the harp


       Found at Site Ly-1, East Walker River, Nevada.  The harpist is shown on stone "g", the inscription on the adjacent stone "e", G-D 'M G-L-R-M-S = Gaelic gota 'm clarsac = "Song accompanied by harp."  (Fell 1982).



An unnamed goddess (Sulis?), patron of the domestic arts


       The goddess is shown mounted upon a deer.  She holds the hieroglyphic symbol of spinning and weaving (spells "cas":  a bolt of cloth in the shape of a foot).  Cas (a foot) is also the Gaelic verb "to spin thread."  This Petroglyph is located at site Cl-5, Lost City, Nevada, where many other references to the spinning and weaving art are found (Fell 1982). 



This Petroglyph is found at site Cl-123, in Keyhole Canyon, Nevada.

The letters S-L-UI = Gaulish Sulis, or Sulevia (Fell 1982)


       The ogam rebus identifies the goddess Sulis, patron of spinning and weaving giving the letters of her name, and arranged so as to form the outline of a bighorn mountain sheep, her American cult animal. 


       When the Ancient Irish & Norsemen traveled west and discovered the Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep, they established a sheep-farming industry based on stock running wild, but rounded up (on foot) once a year for shearing.


       The product of this farming industry was, of course, raw wool.  This, in turn, became the basis of a spinning and weaving industry, and the inscriptions in Nevada indicate that the mother goddess-- or a mother goddess-- was considered the tutelary deity of such activities.  In the guise of a female that looks like the Irish Sulis, we find inscriptions in Nevada dedicated to some female divinity (as illustrated above).


       The rocks of the Nevada plateau are rich in their petrographic commentary on the activities of these early farmers and wool-workers.  At one site w find depictions of needles and thread, each labeled in fringe ogam with the names of the tools in old Gaelic.  We find pictures of embroidery stitches.  One ingenious petroglyph at Lost City, Clark County, Nevada, is in effect an advertisement for the wool industry, showing the production of cloth from the sheep's back by means of a looped wool thread, with pendant threads that spell ogam letters (see. below):



Petroglyph at Lost City, Clark County, Nevada


       Symbols of the wool industry in Nevada, at site #Cl-5, Lost City, southern Nevada, discovered by Professor Julian Steward in 1929, on the east bank of the Muddy River.  Here a spun woolen thread loops about a bighorn sheep and then coils to form the ogam letters that spell "wool."


       The letters UI-L-Ñ = Gaelic olann, Old Irish oland, Old Welsh gulan, = "wool."


       The site has numerous petroglyphs depicting sheep and shepherds and other aspects of the wood trade.  On the right is the hieroglyph cas, a foot, that is always found associated with inscriptions relating to spinning wool, because cas is also the verb "to spin" in Gaelic.



Cane Springs, Nevada site #Cl-4


Top:  Weaving equipment.  The text reads:  F-UI = Gaelic fuidne = "rods for weaving."

Bottom:  Ogam rebus depicting a ball of wool.  The text reads: R-UI-G = Gaelic ruigean = "ball" or "roll of wool."


 The various stages in converting the raw wool into yarn, then into a ball of yarn, including the carding, are l depicted



University of California site #Cl-146, Valley of Fire, Nevada.


The letters translate:  F-UI = Gaelic fuidne = "weaving sticks, loom post".


The Early Irish form omits the ”f" (Fell 1982)


       Setting up the warp on a frame, and a vertical loom of the type afterward used by the Navajo appears in petroglyphs at Valley of Fire, Nevada The various tools of the weaver, the battens, rods for weaving to cause the shed to alternate between throws of the shuttle, pegs, and loom combs (which replace the modern reed) all appear And the final product, in this case a dress length, embroidered at the warp-ends is shown.


       Other and equally important information comes from the burial goods deposited with the bodies of the dead at ancient burial places, such as those of the early Woodland Period investigated by members of the Archaeological Society of Tennessee at Snapps Bridge, Near Kingsport.  Here we find actual pieces of equipment, such as loom weights, inscribed with appropriate words in ogam or Iberic, in the Iberian (noted as Celtimberian) or Basque languages, indicating the functions of the objects, which were evidently buried with their owners. These latter finds came to notice through the observations of Dr. William P. Grigsby, who first noticed what he correctly inferred to be writing on some of the artifacts in his large collection.


       Similar artifacts are found in Britain, as for example at the Windmill Hill site, occupied by the late Neolithic builders of Stonehenge.  These have been recorded and well illustrated, and it is plain to see that inscriptions similar to those in North America occur, even the identical words.  And similar inscriptions to those found on amulets in graves are also found inscribed on the stone chambers of New England.  Thus, an invocation to the goddess Byanu, the mother-goddess., occurs on a Windmill Hill amulet, and a similar text was reported in 1976 in America B.C. from a stone chamber dedicated to Byanu at South Woodstock, Vermont 



Photo Peter Garfall.

Tanith-like figure of Byanu on the ceiling of the chamber at South Woodstock, Vermont,

on which the name Byanu is inscribed in ogam consaine, matching the lettering

of an amulet at Windmill Hill, England (Fell 1982).


       On the ceiling of the same chamber at South Woodstock occurs a depiction of Byanu in her guise as Tanith, the mother goddess of the southern Iberians and of their Carthaginian neighbors (see same depicted above)


       Near the same site John Williams and Barry Fell found in 1975 the torso of a fallen image of a female divinity, evidently Byanu, whose name appears in various local contexts these examples illustrate the continuing and widespread influence of the concept of a mother goddess in North America just as in Europe.


Giants and Monsters-- Twilight of the Gods


       In Scandinavian mythology the underworld, the evil progeny of Loki and by other giants and monsters inhabits Jotunheim.  One of Loki's children was the giant worl Fenrir, who became a menace to the gods, and had to be placed under restraint in a magic halter.  None dared to capture the beast, however, until Tyr, the god of war, allowed the wolf to take his arm in his jaws as a guarantee that the halter would not restrain him.  When Fenrir discovered that he had been tricked, he bit off Tyr's arm, so the god is depicted as maimed.



Tsiw:  Tiw of Anglo-Saxon lore), depicted as the major god of the Aesir


       Tsiw (Tiw of Anglo-Saxon lore), depicted as the major god of the Aesir, protector of ships, god of war, protector of the sky gods, for whose sake he sacrificed his left hand to the giant wolf, Wenri (left).  His title here is given as Tsiw lymth = "Tsiw Maimed."  The inscribed dedication by Woden-lithi occurs beneath this figure, and is given separately in the next image (Fell 1982)


       This ancient myth, as noted previously, is depicted on Woden-lithi's inscription [at Peterborough, Ontario, Canada]. About 21 feet from the main sun figure, slightly east of the north-south axis, occurs a wolf figure that is labeled L-Z  F-N-R.  The beast appears to be caught in some kind of trap.  The inscription seems to mean, "Fenri locked," assuming that L-Z is the root laesa in Old Norse, "to lock."



Wenri Crunch-Hand, the giant wolf


Wenri Crunch-Hand, the giant wolf that bites off the hand of the god Tsiw, is depicted in this Petroglyph and inscription. 

It was placed just to the left of the image of the god, above Woden-lithi's dedicatory inscription at the Peterborough,

 Ontario site.   It is located ca. 30 ft. southwest-by-west of the main sun god figure.


 The inscription reads:


       W-N-R = Wenri = Old Norse Fenrir, the personal name of the giant wolf;

       M-L = mel = "to grind or crunch” and M-N-D = Old Norse mond = "a hand."  (Fell 1982


       Another depiction is seen some 30 feet southwest-by-west of the main sun figure (shown above)  it shows the wolf running free.  It is lettered W-N-R  M-L  M-N-D [= Wenri mel mond].  This evidently means "Wenri Crunch-Hand," the form Wenri being alternative to Fenri (Fenrir in Norse), mel being the verb to "crush" or "grind," and mond meaning "hand."  The figure of the wolf is placed just to the left of the main image of the god Tsiw, whose left hand he has just bitten off.  The god, with blood still dripping from the wound, stands defiantly, over the conspicuous dedication made by Woden-lithi.




Ymir (Norse Himir) was one of the sea giants, defeated by Thunor with his hammer,

Molnir.   In this inscription Ymir is seen with his ship, N-GH-W (Norse nokvi),

drawn by another monster, a sea horse (Enlargment).


       The inscription is 15 ft. south of the main sun-god figure at Peterborough, Ontario (Fell 1982).


       Two giants with similar names occur in Norsemen mythology.  One of them, Ymir, is present at the creation of the earth, and his body is carved up to constitute the world.  The other, Himir, is a sea monster that is defeated in battle with Thunor.  The version presented by Woden-lithi's artists shows the sea giant, but he is named Y-M-R, hence Ymir.  He is shown beside his ship (see above), which is carried along the waves by a huge sea horse.  The inscription reads Y-M-R  N-GH-W (Ymira nokwi), readily translated as "The ship of Ymir."  Woden-lithi's mariners may have feared the giant, so his defeat by Thunor would be cause for veneration of the Thunderer.


       According to Snorri's Edda, the world will end with Ragnarök, the Twilight of the Gods, when the monsters of Jotunheim finally overcome the Aesir and Vanir.  During the last battle Thor (Thunor of our Ontario text) manages to hold at bay the giant serpent that encircles the world and is called Midgardsormen (Worm of Middle Earth); at length his hammer Mjolnir avails no more, and Thunor and the other gods succumb.  Parts of this scenario are depicted in various places on Woden-lithi's site.



Serpent Dragons of Middle Earth


       This inscription, also some 40 ft. SW of the main sun-god figure at Peterborough, Ontario, shows serpent-dragons of Middle Earth. 


       The left text reads:  R-M M-D N-M = Orm Mid nama = "Serpent of Mid[gard] by name."  The middle text reads:  S(?)-W = swi [?] = "venomous.”  The right text reads: A-K-W = akwe = "deadly" or "lethal." (Fell 1982).  The message then is probably "The Serpent is venomous and deadly."



Serpents of Midgard (Middle Earth)


       This inscription, some 40 ft. SW of the main sun-god figure at Peterborough, Ontario, relates to a series of labeled petroglyphs depicting serpents of Midgard (Middle Earth), who in conjunction with the monsters of Jotunheim (Under Earth) are about to overthrow the gods.  


       The letters read: Regindom = Old Norse Regindomr = "Doom of the Gods."  Note the use of the second of the two letters that stand for "r."  Like Old Norse, which had two signs for "r," Woden-lithi's tongue distinguishes two kinds of r-sound (Fell 1982).


       A little west of a point 30 feet south of the main sun figure there can be found a number of serpents, with inscriptions scattered among them. 


       The inscriptions include M-O-L-N (Mjolnir or Old Norse), the hammer of Thunor; R-M (orm, "serpent" in Old Norse); M-D-N-M, apparently to be understood as Midn[gardsorm] nama ("Worm of Mid-Earth is its name"), nama being a south Germanic form, replacing nefni of Old Norse.  Another serpent is labeled S-W, presumably svika, "twisting."  The collection is identified as R-G-N  D-M (Regin Domr, Doom of the Gods).  Another picture of the Worm of Mid-Earth appears in the engraving of Thunor given in an earlier [section].  The word A-K-W, Old Norse akava is written beside yet another serpent: it means "fierce."



Main features of the Grave Creek tumulus, near Moundsville, West Virginia.


       The occurrence of burials with associated inscribed relics was first reported for North America in 1838, when a tumulus at Grave Creek, Moundsville, West Virginia, was excavated and yielded an inscribed stone tablet, obviously written in some alphabet related to the Phoenician or Carthaginian



One of several tablets discovered at Grave Creek, West Virginia.


       Fell (1982) believed that it reflected an Iberian presence in Ancient America as Iberian scholars recognize the writing as Iberian.  In 1983 Barry Fell, providing a detailed account of some ancient explorers to the area translated another tablet.


       When a Danish authority on scripts, Dr. Rafn at Copenhagen University, was sent a copy of the writing on the stone, he promptly identified it as being in one of the Iberian scripts.  As Grave Creek is 300 miles from the sea, the implication seemed to be that an Iberian settlement had once occurred in North America-- a notion that later archaeologists rejected.  hence the Grave Creek grave goods and the included tablet were either forgotten or attributed to the treacherous invention of forgers."


       Edo Nyland has translated the Horse Creek Petroglyph of West Virginia, finding the text written in the Basque Language [A language similar to Basque called "Saharan"]


The Horse Creek Petroglyph of West Virginia


       An ancient language form that originated in the African area among the most ancient civilizations has been studied by Nyland (2001).  He found that Ogam inscriptions found in North America seem to be closely related to the ancient language, which he called Saharan, but more appropriately might be Igbo West African.  It appears that these languages have very ancient origins.  Following is a discussion of the translation of the Horse Creek Petroglyph:


Translated by Edo Nyland:


       The migration passed by like a powerful mirage, quietly undulating and moving unsuspectingly a short distance, peacefully.  To bring about a disturbance we advanced rattling branches and shouting.  I remember that a whole wave happened to pass by and we fell back in fear (to avoid) the bad-tempered stampede of the frightened herd of bison (moving into) the entrance of the narrow wooden-fenced passage and into the abyss in flight.  Come and help!  The clan mother was pleased with our co-operative effort.




       Club blows in abundant measure (were needed) because many, which had fallen into the ravine, resisted with obviously broken legs. Brothers, come and help the slaughterer to finish them off.




       Having prevented escape by running away, we made the usual preparations by the edge  of the stream and happily rejoiced in dividing the welcome riches into three parts by plentiful butchering. At first unaccustomed (to the task) we undeniably  had to pay attention. We were as busy as possible and so happily exhausted that (we didn't notice) the noise of the thunder coming in our direction.




       In spite of (being) some distance away, the clan mother, just in time, reached the cattle shelter during a period of silence to sensibly wait out the approaching thunder. Your dear Friend


       The Horse Creek Ogam inscription was first published in the March 1983 issue of Wonderful West Virginia. Dr. Barry Fell, professor emeritus from Harvard University, a difficult job well done, did the transliteration from the Ogam script to our characters. He also made an attempt at translation, assuming that the writing was in the Gaelic language, which it was not. The result of this effort was published in the same article but was severely criticized by a number of authorities.


       This Petroglyph may well be the longest known Ogam inscription in the world. Ogam writing is always done in a severely abbreviated manner, in which each consonant of the inscription represents a full word. If possible, the author of the inscription used words that began with vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV, occasionally VCCV). The drafting of an Ogam inscription is an exacting task; first the words are selected and abbreviated to their first three letters and arranged as: VCV1-V1CV2-V2CV3-V3CV4-V4 etc.


       The words are so chosen that the vowels on either side of the hyphens are identical. I called this the "VCV interlocking formula" and is used in almost all Ogam inscriptions. It is this vowel-interlocking feature of the formula that allows the restoration of the missing vowels. When the design was completed, all but a few of the vowels and h's were eliminated, creating an apparently unintelligible jumble of consonants with a few vowels sprinkled here and there.


       The main body of the Horse Creek Petroglyph has only two breaks in the interlocking, which were used by the author to create three lines, top, middle and bottom.  Carefully designed Ogam inscriptions contain a "translation key", a place to begin deciphering, often in the form of a complete VCV which expresses a key word in the inscription.


       This is the case here in the VCV: idi, located in the top line, which means "ox or bison". It was not until a full year after having translated the inscription that I noticed the entire Petroglyph was also arranged in the shape of a bison, complete with the characteristic hump formed by the top line, with the eyes and mouth outlined by smaller characters, all artistically arranged. See the issue of Wonderful West Virginia.


       In the following translation, the letters provided in the inscription have been inserted in the VCV vowel interlocking formula. In most cases the consonants stand alone, but flanked by dots which represent the missing vowels. As the key word idi suggested, the language of the inscription is Basque. Working systematically with a good quality Basque dictionary such as Aulestia's, the words can be restored and translated with considerable confidence. . All Basque words are shown in italics. Basque has no "c" and our "sh" is written as "x".





 All the Ogam letters analyzed up to and including IDI to provide an example of the process used:






      .r.   eri      errialdaketa    migration

      .g.   iga     igaro              to pass by

      .h.   aha    ahaldun         powerful

      .m.   ame   ameslilura    mirage

      .ku   eku   ekuru            quietly

      u.i   uhi     uhindu          undulating

      ih.   iha     iharrosi         to move

      .m.   amu   amultsuki    unsuspectingly

      .n.   une    unetxo          short distance

      .m.   eme   emeki            peacefully

      .k.   eka   ekarraraki      to bring about

      .s.   asa   asaldu             disturbance

      .b.   aba   abantailatu    to advance

      .d.   ada   adarrots         rattling branches

      .l.   ala     alarao             shouting

      .k.   ako   akorduaneuki    to remember

      .s.   oso   oso                  whole

      .tu   otu    otu                  to happen

      u.i   uhi    uhin                wave

      ig.   iga    igaro               to pass by

      .n.   anu   anu-egin        fall back in fear

      .mo   umo   umoretxar  bad tempered

      o.i   ohi     ohildu           stampede

      idi   idi      iditalde         herd of bison

      i.a   iha     ihabali          frightened

      aho   aho   ahoketa      entrance to narrow passage

      oho   oho   oholesi       wooden fence

      osi   osi     osintsu         abyss

      i.e   ihe      ihesean        in flight

      e.a   eha     ea               come and help!

      am.   ama   ama           clan-mother

      .f.    afa      afa              pleased

      .l.    ale      alegin         effort

      .l.    el       elkarrune   co-operative


       The migration passed by like a powerful mirage, quietly undulating and moving unsuspectingly a short distance, peacefully. To bring about a disturbance we advanced rattling branches and shouting. I remember that a whole wave happened to pass by and we fell back in fear (to avoid) the bad-tempered stampede of the frightened herd of bison (moving into) the entrance of the narrow wooden-fenced passage and into the abyss in flight. Come and help! The clan-mother was pleased with our co-operative effort.




      .m.   ma     makila             club

      .g.    aga    agakada         blows

      .n.    ane    anega              measure

      .t.     eta    -eta                   abundant

      .l.     ala     alako                because

      .g.    aga    -aga                  many

      .mi   ami    amildu              to fall into ravine

      i.a    iha     ihardukitze     to resist

      at.    ata    atalkatu           broken legs

      .ge   age    ageriz              obviously

      e.a   eha    ea                     come and help

      an.   ana    anaiak            brothers

      .b.    abe   aberehiltzaile  slaughterer

      .t.    ete    etentze               finished off


       Club blows in abundant measure (were needed) because many which had fallen into the ravine resisted with obviously broken legs. Brothers, come and help the slaughterer to finish them off.




      .b.   ibi    ibilgetu        to hold still, to prevent

      .h.   ihe   ihespide       escape

      .g.   ega  egan egin     to run away

      .to   ato   atonketa      preparations

      o.i   ohi   ohituzko      usual

      ir.    iru   irunakatu     to divide in three parts

      .g.   uga  ugalde         edge of the stream

      .l.    ale   alegeratu      to rejoice

      .g.   ego  egoki            convenient, welcome

      .g.   oga  ogasun         riches

      .b.   abe  aberehiltze    to butcher

      .mo   emo   emonkor   plentiful

      o.i    ohi   ohigabe       unaccustomed

      it.    itu     iturri            origin, at first

      .k.   uka   ukagaitz      undeniably

      .di   adi    adi-egon      to pay attention

      i.a   iha    iharduki       to be busy with 

      ah.   aha   ahalik         as ..... as possible

      .f.    afa    afa                happy

      .ki   aki    akipen         exhausted

      i.o   iho    ihortziri      thunder

      on.   ona   ona             in this direction

      .d.   ada   -ada             noise of the action


       Having prevented escape by running away, we made the usual preparations by the edge of the stream and happily rejoiced in dividing the welcome riches into three parts by plentiful butchering. At first unaccustomed (to the task) we undeniably had to pay attention. We were as busy as possible and so happily exhausted that (we didn't notice) the noise of the thunder coming in our direction.


       The next line of the inscription (TLMDSDIADIONL), in smaller Ogam characters, is located just left of the top line and forms the eye and forehead of the bison. The translation indicates that it belongs after the three lines of the main inscription. Another small Petroglyph, identified by Dr. Fell as written in Libyan Ogam, forms the nostrils and mouth, but these have not yet been transliterated, to my knowledge.




      .t.    eta     etapa           some distance away

      .l.    ala     alabe           in spite of

      .m.   ama   ama            clan mother

      .d.   adi     adionez       just in time

      .s.   isi      isilaldi         period of silence

      .di   idi      idikorta       cattle shelter

      i.a   iha     ihardun       to wait out

      adi   adi    adindun      sensibly

      i.o   iho     ihortziri       thunder

      on.   on    ondo            approaching

      .l.   l?       laguntxo?    Your dear friend


       In spite of (being) some distance away, the clan mother, just in time, reached the cattle shelter during a period of silence, to sensibly wait out the approaching thunder.  Your dear Friend.


       This long inscription was signed with "L" which could be an abbreviation for laguntxo (your dear friend), lagun (comrade), lagunarte (group of friends) etc. and was used to end a letter. The word "ama" is mentioned twice in the text, which may mean: mother, priestess or clan mother. It is suggested that the author of this inscription was a Gnostic Christian monk, who was trained in Ogam writing in Irish tradition, and that the ama mentioned referred to the head of the matrilineally organized clan. The symbol that Dr. Fell interprets as the Greek letter “omega” is probably a sketch of the ground plan of the wooden fence, while his "alpha" character may illustrate the A-frame type of construction used to build the bison fence.


       Concrete evidence of these people has been found in ancient graves which contained crucifixes and pendants with crosses, discussed by archaeologist R.L.Pyle in his book: All That Remains (p53-57). Based on archaeological information and the type of Ogam used, I estimate the date of the inscription to be between 600 and 700 A.D.


       It appears from the description of St. Brendan's travels in the Navigatio that the early Irish evangelists, who were Gnostic Christians (centered in Alexandria), were experienced ocean sailors and had no problems maintaining contact with their brethern across the Atlantic.


       This changed when Roman Catholic Christians (based in Rome), being the landlubber variety, took control in Ireland and left the colonies in America to fend for themselves. Judging by the many megalithic stone structures left by these people in New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Vermont, NewYork, Massachusetts and Virginia etc. (Boland and Fell) it is well possible that this colonization effort started centuries earlier.


       Robert Pyle mentions that in the Saga of Eric the Red the Norsemen saw men dressed in white robes in what appeared to be an Irish ecclesiastical procession. Several centuries later, early American settlers were astonished to see many native Indians with fair skin and blue eyes (Pyle p66). These people were quickly absorbed by the new wave of immigrants and are even today proudly remembered as ancestors of some of the "earliest" American families.


       The name "Brendan" is of interest. It derives from "brenda-an": barrenda (to spy, to explore) and anai (religious brother, monk) i.e. exploring monk. It is now desirable that the other East Coast Ogam inscriptions are deciphered. I have no doubt that they are all written in the same language. Some will be difficult because too many vowels were removed from them, which makes accurate translation a challenge but none are impossible. The Basque language is very logically, almost mathematically, arranged.  These problematical Ogam inscriptions may lend themselves to computer decoding. A completely new chapter in the history of North America waits to be written.


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