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For educational purposes only; do not review, quote or abstract:--

A Public Service on the basics of Insect Identification



Key to Superfamilies & Families of Hymenoptera

Palearctic Area


(Email Contacts)


(Derived fr. Boucek, 1988; Clausen, 1923; Crawford, 1909;

Gauld & Bolton, 1988; Hill, 1923; Masner & Dessart, 1967;

Noyes & Valentine, 1989; Riek, 1970 & Yoshimoto, 1984 by E. F. Legner)


[Please refer to <Guide> for additional illustrations & <Hymenoptera> for order details]


     Note:  Not all illustrations are of species found in the Palearctic area:


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1a.  Body without a marked constriction between the 1st and 2nd abdominal segments, resulting in abdomen being broadly joined to thorax; fully winged (= macropterous) insects, fore wing with an enclosed anal cell and/or rounded projections on metanotum present; hind wing usually with at least 3 closed cells; (Hymenoptera wing venation ............. (SYMPHYTA)    <General Characteristics>



1b.    Body with constriction between 1st and 2nd abdominal segments  (which may be secondarily obscured in some groups, giving the appearance of abdomen almost always being narrowly joined

to thorax, but these have no enclosed cells in fore wing); fully winged insects, wings nonfunctional and greatly reduced (= brachypterous) or absent, if fully winged then fore wing without enclosed anal cell; rounded projections on metanotum not present; ovipositor without a sting. ........ .(APOCRITA  .......... Parasitica)     (Details)



1c.  Same as previous (1b) except that ovipositor not used for egg-laying but rather developed into a weapon for injecting venom and used for hunting, defense and aggression (sting); eggs emitted from apical gastral segments, at base of sting  ......... (APOCRITA -......- Aculeata)   (Details)


SYMPHYTA  (Chalastogastra)--sawflies & horntails (Sawflies, mostly phytophagous) <General Characteristics> 



2a.    Antennae inserted on ventral side of head adjacent to mouth; fore wing with indistinct anal cell ............(Orussoidea) ......... Orussidae   <Overview>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>   (Details)



2b.    Antennae inserted on anterior side of head well above mouth; fore wing with enclosed anal cell distinct



3a.    Fore wing with Rs branched; antennae highly modified with 3rd segment long and stout, followed by a filament of 9 or more slender segments  .............. (Xyeloidea)  Xyelidae   (Details)



3b.    Fore wing with Rs unbranched; antennae various, never with both the 3rd segment long and stout and the remaining flagellar segments forming a slender filament



4a.    Fore tibia with either a single apical spur, or with 2 very unequal spurs, the shorter of which is almost a vestige



4b.    Fore tibia with 2 well-developed, subequal apical spurs



5a.    Cenchri absent; abdomen terminally laterally compressed, anteriorly slightly constricted between 1st and 2nd segments  .............. (Cephoidea)  Cephidae   (Details)



5b.    Cenchri present; abdomen cylindrical or depressed, not constricted anteriorly ............(Siricoidea)   (Details)



6a.    Pronotum in dorsal view with hind margin somewhat straight; fore wing with vein 2r-rs present; labrum concealed; mid and hind tibiae with preapical spurs and antennae with 18 or more

segments .............  (Megalodontoidea)  Megalodontidae & Pamphiliidae   (Details)



6b.    Pronotum in dorsal view with hind margin strongly bowed, or if weakly bowed then fore wing with 2r-rs absent; vein 2r-rs otherwise present or absent; labrum exposed; mid and hind tibiae without preapical spurs, or if such spurs present, then antennae with fewer than 10 segments; antennae otherwise with 3-32 segments, often with 9 or less .............. (Tenthredinoidea)   <Overview>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>   (Details)



7a.    Segment 1 of abdomen forms a node or scale, or first 2 segments nodiform, so segment 2 is deeply separated (both dorsally and ventrally) from segments 1 & 3  ............ (Vespoidea)  (part)   <Overview>   (Details)



7b.    Segment 1 of abdomen not scale-like, if rarely slightly nodiform then with segment 2 closely adapted to segment 3



8a.    Segment 1 of abdomen inserted high up on propodeum so gab tween propodeal foramen and insertion of hind coxa is about equal to or greater than gap between foramen and hind margin of metanotum



8b.    Segment 1 of abdomen inserted low down on propodeum so gap between propodeal foramen and insertion of hind coxa is very much less than gap between foramen and hind margin of metanotum.


APOCRITA  PARASITICA - Non-Stinging Hymenoptera   (Details)



9a.    Antennae with 14 or fewer segments; fore wing with costal cell distinct  ........... (Evanioidea)   <Overview>   (Details)



9b.    Antennae with 18 or more segments; fore wing with costal cell obliterated, veins C, Sc, R, and Rs fused between wing base and pterostigma ............ (Ichneumonoidea)  (part)   <Overview>   (Details)



10a.    Fully winged insects



10b.    Brachypterous or wingless insects



11a.    Fore wing with one enclosed cell, or without any enclosed cells



11b.    Fore wing with 2 or more cells clearly delineated by veins



12a.    Fore wing with membrane reticulate (like a network); hind wing vestigial, with a forked apex; segments 1 & 2 of abdomen cylindrical, slender, forming a 2-segmented petiole; body length <1 mm ............... (Chalcidoidea)  (part)



12b.    Fore wing membrane not reticulate; hind wing fully developed though often very narrow, but never with a forked apex; abdomen with at most 1st segment cylindrical and slender so petiole, if present, has one segment



13a.    Hind wing with distinct stalk  .............. (Chalcidoidea)  (part)   <Overview>    (Details)



13b.    Hind wing not stalked



14a.    Alitrunk (= mesosoma) with pronotum not extending back to tegulae; wings without enclosed cells ............... (Chalcidoidea)  (part)   <Overview>    (Details)



14b.    Alitrunk with pronotum extending back to almost touch tegulae; wings with or without closed cells



15a.    Antennae inserted in center of face, their sockets separated from the clypeus by more than 2X their own diam.



15b.    Antennae inserted on face close to clypeus, their sockets separated from clypeus by about their own diam. or less



16a.    Antennae not inserted on a promonotory or "shelf," those of && without a very elongated scape; fore wing venation characteristic, with a fairly large radial cell, that is either open anteriorly, or the only enclosed cells in the wing; costal cell broad, anteriorly open, posteriorly bordered by a vein from which arises a long stub of Rs&M ................  (Cynipoidea)  (part)   <Overview>   (Details)   [See Subfamilies]



16b.    Antennae inserted on facial promontory or "shelf," those of && geniculate (elbow-shaped), scape more than 3X as long as wide; fore wing without venation, or with a single linear vein, without a discernible radial cell, or if one is indicated then it is not defined distally and costal cell is only enclosed cell; if present, vein delineating costal cell posteriorly is without a stub of Rs&M   ............... (Proctotrupoidea)  (part)   <Overview>   (Details)



17a.    Head distinctly prognathous (= long axis of head continuing the line of the long axis of the body); tergite 1 of abdomen as long as following tergites, separated from sternite, posteriorly overlapping tergite 2  .............. (Chrysidoidea)  (part)   <Overview>   (Details)



17b.    Head hypognathous (= long axis at right angles to long axis of body); tergite 1 of abdomen shorter than following apparent tergite (which may be a syntergite), or the two fused and tergite 1 visible as a ridge anterior rim of the first apparent tergite; tergite 1 usually fused with sternite to form a ring at anterior end of abdomen



18a.    Fore wing with vein along anterior martin, this vein distally with a curved stigmal branch, sometimes with a large pterostigma; fore tibia with 2 spurs  ............ (Ceraphronoidea)  (part)   <Overivew>   (Details)



18b.    Fore wing without any venation, or with a short vein that does not reach to level of middle of wing, or if with a long vein, then this is proximally separated from anterior margin of wing, and its stigmal branch is almost straight; pterostigma not present; fore tibia with a single spur .............. (Proctotrupoidea)  (part)   <Overview>    (Details)



19a.    Tarsi with well developed plantar lobes (= small membranous pads); antennae with 26-27 segments; fore wing with 10 enclosed cells  ................ (Trigonaloidea)-- Trigonalidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>   (Details)



19b.    Tarsi without plantar lobes, or if vestiges present then antennae with fewer than 14 segments; antennae otherwise with various numbers of segments, if more than 14 then fore wing with 7 or fewer enclosed cells; fore wing otherwise with 1-10 enclosed cells



20a.    Fore wing with costal cell obliterated, veins C, Sc, R and Rs fused or contiguous from wing base to pterostigma; hind wing without distinct anal lobe; antennae usually with 16 or more segments (rarely with as few as 12), and with a small anellus somewhat differentiated from proximal end of 1st flagellar segment ............ (Ichneumonoidea)  (part)   <Overview>   (Details)



20b.    Fore wing with costal cell usually visible, though sometimes not bordered anteriorly by a vein, rarely when costal cell is virtually obliterated then a distinct anal lobe present on hind wing; anal lobe otherwise present or absent; antennae with 10-15 segments, without a small anellus differentiated from proximal end of 1st flagellar segment (except in one taxon with a broad costal cell)



21a.    Fore wing with costal cell open, not delineated by a vein along anterior margin of wing; pterostigma absent; abdomen laterally compressed  .............. (Cynipoidea)  (part)   <Overview>   (Details)



21b.    Fore wing with costal cell enclosed, bordered anteriorly by a vein, or if this vein is rarely absent then pterostigma is present, or costal cell is obliterated; pterostigma otherwise present, or uncommonly, absent; abdomen cylindrical or depressed



22a.    First abdominal tergite short, fused with sternite to form a ring-like, highly sclerotized segment; 2nd tergite (or syntergite) longer than tergites 1 & 3+ combined; spiracles not present at least on 1st and apparent 2nd abdominal tergites; fore wing usually with 2 enclosed cells (costal & radial), rarely with up to 3 more enclosed cells (thus making a max. of 5) ............ (Proctotrupoidea)  (part)   <Overview>   (Details)



22b.    First tergite of abdomen quite long, not fused with sternite to form short ring-like segment; 2nd tergite not longer than tergites 1 & 3+ combined; 1st and 2nd segments of abdomen with distinct spiracles (though these may be positioned ventrally on laterotergite); fore wing usually with 6 or more enclosed cells, rarely with 2-5 and then always with basal and subbasal cells enclosed, costal cell usually enclosed, radial cell sometimes not enclosed



23a.    Fore wing with radial cell either not indicated or open distally, and without any complete submarginal (cubital) cells; hind wing without enclosed cells  .............. Chrysidoidea   (= Bethyloidea)   <Overview>   (Details)  (part)



23b.    Fore wing with enclosed radial cell, and with at least one enclosed cubital cell; hind wing usually with 2-3 enclosed cells



24a.    Pronotum with upper hind corner widely separated from tegulae, and lower down the side with a pronounced pronotal lobe covering mesothoracic spiracle ............... (Apoidea)   <Overview>   (Details)



24b.    Pronotum with upper hind corner reaching to or close to tegula, with or without a pronounced pronotal lobe .......... (Vespoidea)  (part)   <Overview>   (Details)



25a.    Antennae with 16 or more segments, somewhat filiform, unspecialized, sternites of abdomen weakly sclerotized, tending to dry with median longitudinal fold .............. (Ichneumonoidea)  (part).   <Overview>   (Details)



25b.    Antennae with 15 or fewer segments, sometimes filiform and unspecialized, often geniculate with elongated scape and clavate (club-like) distal segments; sternites of gaster strongly sclerotized



26a.    Fore, mid and hind tarsi with 3 segments ............. (Chalcidoidea)  (part)   <Overview>    (Details)



26b.    All tarsi with 4-5 segments



27a.    Upper hind corner of pronotum separated from tegula by a prepectus ............... (Chalcidoidea)  (part)   <Overview>    (Details)



27b.    Upper hind corner of pronotum somewhat touching tegula, or with tegula absent



28a.    First segment of abdomen somewhat less conical, not dorsally fused with tergite 2; tergites 1 & 2 with spiracles



28b.    First segment of abdomen cylindrical or annular, or minute, indistinct, fused dorsally with tergite 2; tergites 1 & 2 without spiracles



29a.    Antennae with 10 segments .............. (Chrysidoidea)  (part)   (= Bethyloidea)   <Overview>   (Details)



29b.    Antennae with 11-13 segments



30a.    Head prognathous and dorsoventrally flattened; clypeus with a median carina extending between antennae ............(Chrysidoidea)  (part)   (= Bethyloidea)   <Overview>   (Details)



30b.    Head hypognathous, not dorsoventrally flattened; clypeus lacks a median carina that extends between antennae ............. (Vespoidea)  (part)   <Overview>   (Details)



31a.    Antennae never geniculate, the scape only slightly longer than broad, and slightly shorter than 1st flagellar segment; abdomen laterally compressed .............. (Cynipoidea)  (part)   <Overview>   (Details)



31b.    Female (the most frequently encountered brachypterous or apterous sex) with antennae geniculate, the scape elongated, at least 2X the length of the 1st flagellar segment; abdomen of both sexes cylindrical or depressed



32a.    Anterior tibia with 2 apical spurs ................ (Ceraphronoidea)  (part)   <Overivew>   (Details)



32b.    Anterior tibia with 1 apical spur



33a.    Antennal socket separated from clypeus by its own diam. or less; 1st abdominal segment with tergite and sternite separate; tergite 8 without spiracle; antennae with 12 or fewer segments ........ (Proctotrupoidea)  (part)



33b.    Antennal socket separated from clypeus by more than 2X its own diam.; 1st abdominal segment with tergite and sternite fused; tergite 8 with spiracle; antennae almost always with 13 or more segments



34a.    Abdomen, especially in &&, laterally compressed; antennae of && with 14 segments, of %% with 13 segments; ovipositor concealed; head without shelf-like process; cerci absent; ovipositor opening ventral(Cynipoidea)  (part)



34b.    Abdomen usually cylindrical; antennae with various numbers of segments, if with 14 segments in && or 13 segments in %% then ovipositor exposed or antennae mounted on a shelf-like process of the face; cerci present; ovipositor opening terminal ............. (Proctotrupoidea)  (part)


(SYMPHYTA)    (Chalastogastra)--sawflies & horntails (Sawflies, mostly phytophagous) <General Characteristics> 


Tenthredinoidea:   <Overview>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>   (Details)


(Argidae, Blasticotomidae, Cimbicidae, Diprionidae, Tenthredinidae)



35a.    Antennae with 3-4 segments, segment 3 much longer than combined length of all other segments



35b.    Antennae with more than 4 segments, segment 3 subequal to or shorter than rest of antenna.



36a.    Antennae with 4 segments, segment 4 very short; fore wing with vein 2r-rs present  ........... (Tenthredinoidea)  Blasticotomidae   <Overview>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



36b.    Antennae with 4 segments, with segment 3 (which may be forked) forming all of flagellum; fore wing with vein 2r-rs absent ............... (Tenthredinoidea)  Argidae   (Details)



37a.    Antennae strongly clubbed, with 6-7 segments; lateral margins of abdomen carinate  .............. (Tenthredinoidea)  Cimbicidae   (Details)



37b.    Antennae at most slightly clavate, usually with 9 or more segments; lateral margins of abdomen not carinate.......



38a.    Antennae with 14-32 segments, plumose in %%, in && serrate or with basal segments apically produced; fore wing with vein 2r-rs absent; hind wing with rs-m and m-cu present; scutellum without a post tergite; inner fore tibial spur simple  .............. (Tenthredinoidea)  Diprionidae   (Details)



38b.    Antennae usually with 9 segments, and without long apical projections (except in %% Cladius which has 9 segments), if with more 9 segments then with vein 2r-rs present in fore wing; hind wing often without rs-m or m-cu; scutellum with a transverse furrow cutting off a post tergite behind; inner fore tibial spur often apically forked  .............. (Tenthredinoidea)  Tenthredinidae   <Overview>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>   (Details)


Siricoidea:  (Siricidae, Xiphydriidae)   (Details)



39a.    Head in dorsal view subquadrate, strongly swollen behind eyes; neck short  ............ (Siricoidea)  Siricidae   (Details)



39b.    Head in dorsal view subspherical, not strongly swollen behind eyes; neck exceptionally long ............... (Siricoidea)  Xiphydriidae   (Details)




Chalcidoidea:  (Aphelinidae, Chalcididae, Elasmidae, Encyrtidae, Eucharitidae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Mymaridae, Mymarommatidae, Ormyridae, Perilampidae, Pteromalidae, Signiphoridae, Tetracampidae, Torymidae, Trichogrammatidae)




40a.    Fore wing with membrane reticulate; hind wing with forked apex; segments 1 & 2 of abdomen cylindrical, slender, forming a petiole with two segments ............... (Chalcidoidea)  Mymarommatidae   Details-1   Details-2



40b.    Fore wing with membrane not reticulate, or wings reduced or absent; hind wing, if present, without a forked apex; abdomen with at most a 1-segmented petiole



41a.    Tarsi with 3 segments; minute to very small insects exceeding 1.2 mm in length, excluding ovipositor ............. (Chalcidoidea)  Trichogrammatidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniiles>



41b.    Tarsi with 4-5 segments; minute to moderate sized insects varying from 0.3-16 mm in length, excluding ovipositor, the majority >1.3 mm in length.



42a.    Antennal toruli situated much closer to orbits than to each other; frons with a straight, transverse suture a little above toruli which connects with vertical sutures adjacent to each orbit, thus forming an H; long-winged species almost always with fore wing venation extremely reduced and not reaching more than ca. 1/3rd of wing length; hind wing elongated & petiolate ............ (Chalcidoidea)  Mymaridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



42b.    Antennal toruli situated as close or closer to each other than to orbits, or very nearly so; frons at times with a transverse suture, which may be straight or V-shaped, but never with vertical sutures which run adjacent to inner orbits; if long-winged then with venation always reaching more than half way along fore wing; hind wings not elongately petiolate



43a.    Hind femur swollen and with ventral teeth; hind tibia distinctly curved .............. (Chalcidoidea)  Chalcididae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



43b.    Hind femur not swollen and without ventral teeth; hind tibia somewhat straight



44a.    Hind coxa elongated, at least ca. 2X as long as fore coxa; fore wing always fully developed and with stigmal vein short, with uncus hardly separated from postmarginal vein; postmarginal vein well developed and distinct; female ovipositor frequently projecting far beyond abdomen apex



44b.    Hind coxa not so enlarged, not or hardly longer than fore coxa; fore wing if fully developed usually with stigmal vein longer and with uncus well separated from postmarginal vein; postmarginal vein varying from absent to long and distinct; female ovipositor usually barely projecting beyond abdomen apex



45a.    Abdomen coarsely sculptured  and with cercal bristles reduced to short tubercles; prescutal sutures shallow; female ovipositor not exserted ............ (Chalcidoidea)  Ormyridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



45b.    Abdomen never with rough sculpture, more or less smooth, with elongated cercal bristles; prescutal sutures deeply impressed; female with exserted part of ovipositor at least ca. 1/4 as long as abdomen .............. (Chalcidoidea)  Torymidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



46a.    Tarsi with 4 segments on all legs



46b.    Hind tarsus at least with 5 segments



47a.    Marginal vein of fore wing indistinct, somewhat punctiform  ............ (Chalcidoidea)  Encyrtidae   <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2>; & <Juveniles>



47b.    Marginal vein of fore wing distinct, several times longer than broad



48a.    Antennae with 6 funicle segments  ............... (Chalcidoidea)  Tetracampidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



48b.    Antennae with not more than 5 funicle segments



49a.    Hind legs with coxae flattened and somewhat laminar, and with outer surface of tibia with coarse dark bristles arranged in diamond-shaped patterns; abdomen in cross section somewhat triangular .............. (Chalcidoidea)  Elasmidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



49b.    Hind legs with coxae subcylindrical, not compressed, and hind tibia without darker bristles arranged in a conspicuous pattern; abdomen not triangular in cross section



50a.    Abdomen distinctly constricted at its junction with propodeum; fore wing in long-winged forms often with postmarginal and stigmal veins long and distinct, but in some (e.g., Tetrastichinae) postmarginal vein almost absent; body almost always at least partly metallic; prescutal sutures, if complete, distinctly curved  ............ (Chalcidoidea)  Eulophidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



50b.    Base of abdomen about as broad as the propodeum and not distinctly constricted at this point; fore wing always fully developed and with postmarginal vein absent or almost so and stigmal vein very short; body not metallic, usually black, dark brown or yellowish; prescutal sutures complete and straight ............. (Chalcidoidea)  Aphelinidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



51a.    Antennae with very long unsegmented club and funicle composed of 3-4 indistinct and decidedly transverse (right-angled) funicle segments; body shining black; abdomen sessile; axillae not distinctly marked off from scutellum and the two together forming a decidedly transverse band ca. 3X as broad as long; propodeum with a large central triangular shiny area  ............. (Chalcidoidea)  Signiphoridae (= Thysanidae)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



51b.    Antennae not as previous (51a); sometimes clava long and unsegmented but then funicle composed of only 2 decidedly transverse segments and body is either completely yellow or metallic green; scutellum shieldlike, about as long as broad and with distinct triangular central area; propodeum various, usually without a defined central shiny triangular area



52a.    Mesopleuron either undivided, relatively large and shieldlike, or abdomen broadly sessile; if body pale (off white, yellow or orange) then length <1.5 mm; mid tibia with relatively strong apical spur



52b.    Mesopleuron divided into a mesepisternum and mesepimeron, the two parts often with distinctly different sculpture; abdomen usually distinctly petiolate and always clearly constricted at junction with propodeum, never broadly sessile; body usually dark (blue, black green), but if orange or orange-brown length much greater than 1.5 mm; mid tibia with spur of normal proportions



53a.    Thorax in profile with middle coxa inserted about level with middle of mesopleuron or even slightly anterior to this; fore wing, if fully developed, with marginal vein short, usually not more than 3-4 times as long as broad although it may rarely be more than 10X as long as broad ............ (Chalcidoidea)  Encyrtidae   <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2>; & <Juveniles>



53b.    Thorax in profile with middle coxa inserted about level with posterior margin of mesopleuron; fore wing, if fully developed, with marginal vein always at least 6-6X as long as broad



54a.    Antennal flagellum with not more than 6 segments; abdomen sessile; mesoscutum at least slightly convex with prescutal sutures always present and straight, although sometimes distinctly displaced laterally and not obvious; body never metallic, varying from yellow to dark brown or blackish; length not more than 1.4mm ....(Chalcidoidea)  Aphelinidae  (part)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



54b.    Antennal flagellum with 8-10 segments; abdomen always with a distinct petiole; mesoscutum either impressed or convex with prescutal sutures very inconspicuous; body usually at least partly metallic, usually dark green, brown or black; length almost always greater than 1.4 mm .............. (Chalcidoidea)  Eupelmidae   (part)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



55a.    Pronotal collar large and subrectangular, its length at least ca. 2/3rds length of mesoscutum and antenna with not more than 6 funicle segments; head and dorsum of thorax with numerous, conspicuous hairy punctures which normally give rise to very coarse sculpture; gena often with a distinct edge or flange ............ (Chalcidoidea)  Eurytomidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



55b.    Pronotal collar not large and subrectangular, much shorter than 1/2 length of mesoscutum or if longer then antenna with 7 funicle segments or the sculpture of head and thorax is shallow or the gena does not have a distinct edge



56a.    Fore wing with apex of stigmal vein enlarged, this part deeper than long, apex of uncus very close to postmarginal vein; pronotum elongated and subconical; female ovipositor always projecting far beyond abdomen apex ............. (Chalcidoidea)  Torymidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



56b.    Fore wing with apex of stigmal vein not or hardly enlarged, or if as in 56a, then pronotum transverse and not well developed; female ovipositor sometimes projecting far beyond abdomen apex



57a.    Wings always fully developed; either fore wing with marginal vein at least ca. 3.5X as long as stigmal, or with gastral petiole at least 1.5X as long as broad; pronotal collar subrectangular, at least 1/2 as long as mesoscutum and distinctly margined anteriorly or prepectus fused with and lying in the same plane as pronotum laterally; abdomen with only 1-2 tergites clearly visible dorsally



57b.    If wings fully developed then fore wing with marginal vein relatively shorter than previous (57a), but if as long then gastral petiole is not or hardly longer than broad or the pronotal collar is not distinctly margined anteriorly or it is less than 1/2 as long as mesoscutum; prepectus never fused with and not lying in same plane as pronotum; abdomen usually with at least 3 tergites visible dorsally



58a.    Pronotum not visible from above, being hidden by the clearly convex mesoscutum medially 

....(Chalcidoidea)  Eucharitidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



58b.    Pronotum clearly visible in dorsal view .............. (Chalcidoidea)  Perilampidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



59a.    Either propodeum extensively hairy, its median third with several hairs which converge towards a median line and at most leave a narrow median strip uncovered, or pronotum ca. as long as mesoscutum and in profile in the same horizontal plane as the mesoscutum  .............. (Chalcidoidea)  Tetracampidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



59b.    Propodeum less hairy, at least the middle third naked; pronotum not flat dorsally and usually much shorter than mesoscutum, in profile not forming a straight line with mesoscutum



60a.    Mesopleuron divided by a very weak inconspicuous depression; prescutal sutures complete; marginal vein more than 2X as long as stigmal vein; antenna always with 7 funicle segments and a single very small ring-like segment; scutellum densely hairy (males only) .............. (Chalcidoidea)  Eupelmidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



60b.    Mesopleuron always with a distinct division into episternum and epimeron; prescutal sutures sometimes incomplete; marginal vein usually less than 2X as long a stigmal; antenna usually with 6 or fewer funicle segments and often with as many as 3 ring-like segments; scutellum usually without conspicuous hairiness ............ (Chalcidoidea)  Pteromalidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>


Evanioidea:  (Aulacidae, Evaniidae, Gasteruptiidae)   <Overview>   (Details)




61a.    Fore wing with vein 2m-cu present; antennae inserted low on face, near lower eye margin; malar space large; propleura elongated, meet dorsally and form a neck ............. (Evanioidea)  Aulacidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>    (Details)



61b.    Fore wing with vein 2m-cu absent; antennae inserted higher on face, at about mid eye level.



62a.    First segment of abdomen slender and remaining segments form a short, ovate structure; ovipositor not exserted; malar space large (longer than basal width of mandible); propleura not elongated, does not meet dorsally to form a neck ............. (Evanioidea)  Evaniidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>   (Details)



62b.    Abdomen elongated and subclavate; ovipositor conspicuously exserted; malar space small (mandible close to eye margin); propleura elongated, meets dorsally to form a neck ............ (Evanioidea)  Gasteruptiidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>   (Details)


Cynipoidea:  (Charipidae, Cynipidae, Eucoilidae, Figitidae, Ibaliidae)  <Overview>   (Details)




63a.    Sixth segment largest of abdomen (in lateral view); radial cell of fore wing at least 9X as long as broad; && abdomen very strongly compressed laterally, blade-like; length usually >10 mm ............ (Cynipoidea)  Ibaliidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



63b.    Second or 3rd segments largest of abdomen (in lateral view); radial cell of fore wing much less than 9X as long as broad; && abdomen less strongly............ compressed; length <10 mm



64a.    Scutellum with a dorsal "cup"; pronotum often very pronounced, produced frontodorsally into an anterior plate with a strong posterior margin .............. (Cynipoidea)  Eucoilinae  (= Eucoilidae)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



64b.    Scutellum with a "cup"; pronotum if raised dorsally into an anterior plate then without a posterior margin, very often indistinct or absent



65a.    Winged; fore wing with Rs+M, when visible, arising from a point at or close to the junction of Rs&M with M+Cu-1; && abdomen frequently with 3rd tergite largest, although sometimes it is the 2nd tergite; alitrunk at least partially sculptured; scutellum sometimes with an apical spine ........... (Cynipoidea)  Figitidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



65b.    Winged or apterous; fore wing with Rs+M when visible, arising from a point nearer the middle of Rs&M than to the junction of Rs&M with M+Cu-1; && abdomen with largest tergite either the 2nd of the 2nd and 3rd fused (with or without an obsolete suture visible); entire alitrunk often smooth and shiny; scutellum never with an apical spine



66a.    Vertex, mesonotum, scutellum, mesepisternum and abdomen smooth and shiny; mid tibia often with only one spur, hind tibia with 1-2 unequal spurs; pronotum sharply angled anteriorly, forming a vertical carina; abdomen with a ring of pubescence at base of 2nd tergite; %% often with 4th, rarely 3rd or 3rd to 5th antennal segment emarginate. ............. (Cynipoidea) Charipinae (= Charipidae)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



66b.    At least vertex, mesonotum, scutellum or abdomen sculptured; mid and hind tibia each with 2 distinct spurs; pronotum generally not sharply angled anteriorly but if a carina is indicated then head and thorax strongly sculptured; abdomen only rarely with pubescence at base of 2nd tergite; emarginate segment of %% antenna, when present, always the 3rd ............. (Cynipoidea)  Cynipidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>


Proctotrupoidea:    <Overview>    (Details)


(Diapriidae, Heloridae, Platygastridae, Proctotrupidae, Scelionidae, Vanhorniidae)




67a.    Antennal sockets contiguous with dorsal margin of clypeus or separated from clypeus by less than diam. of socket



67b.    Antennal sockets separated from dorsal margin of clypeus by more than diam. of socket



68a.    Fore wing with well-developed venation, marginal cell closed and a distinct pterostigma present; antenna with 13 segments .............. (Proctotrupoidea)  Vanhorniidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



68b.    Fore wing with very reduced venation, without a closed marginal cell or a distinct pterostigma; antennae with 14-12 or less segments



69a.    Fore wing without stigmal or postmarginal veins, often veinless; antennae with 10 or fewer segments; %% with antennal segment 4 or 3 specialized  . ............ (Proctotrupoidea)  Platygastridae   (= Platygasteridae)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



69b.    Fore wing with stigmal and usually also postmarginal veins present; antennae usually with 11-12 segments, rarely with 10; %% with antennal segment 5 specialized ............. (Proctotrupoidea)  Scelionidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



70a.    Scape distinctly elongated, at least 2.5X as long as wide; pterostigma absent; antennal shelf usually present .............. (Proctotrupoidea)  Diapriidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



70b.    Scape at most 2.2X as long as wide, generally less; pterostigma present; antennal shelf absent



71a.    Antennae with 15 segments and an anellus; fore wing with a distinct triangular cell 1M; claws pectinate ............. (Proctotrupoidea)  Heloridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



71b.    Antennae with 13 segments; fore wing without a triangular cell 1M; claws not pectinate ............ (Proctotrupoidea)  Proctotrupidae   (= Serphidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>


Ceraphronoidea:  (Ceraphronidae, Megaspilidae)    <Overivew>   (Details)




72a.    Mid leg with one tibial spur; mesonotum without notauli, with or without median longitudinal furrow; longer tibial spur of fore leg not forked apically; antennae with 9-11 segments ............. (Ceraphronoidea)  Ceraphronidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



72b.    Mid leg with 2 tibial spurs; mesonotum, at least anteriorly, with notauli  and nearly always with median longitudinal furrow, or if notauli absent then pronotum strongly elongated and ocelli absent or fore wing has only costal vein and gastral collar has 3 carinae; longer tibial spur of fore leg forked apically; antennae with 11 segments ............. (Ceraphronoidea)  Megaspilidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>


Ichneumonoidea:  (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae)   <Overview>   (Details)




73a.    Fully winged insects



73b.    Apterous or brachypterous insects



74a.    Hind wing with obvious, pigmented venation



74b.    Hind with without apparent venation, except sometimes along proximal anterior.margin



75a.    Hind wing with cross vein rs-m meeting Rs after that vein diverges from Sc+R+Rs  and fore wing with a single discosubmarginal cell; cross vein 2m-cu usually present ............ (Ichneumonoidea)  Ichneumonidae   <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2> & Adults-3>; & <Juveniles>



75b.    Hind wing with cross vein rs-m meeting Sc+R+Rs before Rs diverges, or if at or slightly after junction then fore wing with first discoidal and submarginal cells separated by a vein (Rs+M); cross vein 2m-cu always absent ....... (Ichneumonoidea)  Braconidae   <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2> & <Adults-3>  &  <Juveniles>



76a.    Fore wing with a single discosubmarginal cell; fore wing usually with cross vein 2m-cu traceable at least as an impressed line; abdominal tergites 2 & 3 usually separated by an obvious suture across their entire width ........ (Ichneumonoidea)  Ichneumonidae   <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2> & Adults-3>; & <Juveniles>



76b.    Fore wing often with 1st discoidal and submarginal cells separated by a vein (Rx+M); fore wing never with cross vein 2m-cu present; abdominal tergites 2 & 3 fused immovably, the suture between them at most only traceable laterally ............. (Ichneumonoidea)  Braconidae   <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2> & <Adults-3>  &  <Juveniles>



77a.    Head with mouthparts cyclostome (= appear to have a round mouth), or with mandibles exodont (= spatulate & outcurved) .............. (Ichneumonoidea)  Braconidae



77b.    Head with mouthparts unspecialized .............. (Ichneumonoidea)  Ichneumonidae


APOCRITA--ACULEATA -- Stinging Hymenoptera




[Old Superfamilies Noted]


Apoidea:  (Apidae),  Chrysidoidea:  (Bethylidae, Chrysididae, Dryinidae, Embolemidae),

Formicoidea (now in Vespoidea):  (Formicidae),  Pompiloidea (now in Vespoidea):  (Pompilidae),  Scolioidea (now in Vespoidea):  (Scoliidae),    Sphecoidea (now in Apoidea):  (Sphecidae),  Tiphioidea (now in Vespoidea):  (Mutilidae, Sapygidae, Tiphiidae),  Vespoidea:  (Eumenidae & Vespidae)




78a.    Alates, with fully developed functional wings



78b.    Apterous or brachypterous forms



79a.    Pronotum posterodorsally usually separated from mesonotal anterior margin by a somewhat well developed sulcus; pronotum posterolaterally remote from the tegulae, and lower down the side with a pronounced posterior lobe which covers the mesothoracic spiracle; posteroventrally the pronotum closely coadapted to the anterior mesopleural margin and reflexed mesally below, behind the fore coxae



79b.    Pronotum posterodorsally contiguous with mesonotal anterior margin, lacking a sulcus; pronotum posterolaterally almost or quite reaching tegulae  with or without a distinct posterior lobe which covers mesothoracic spiracle; if pronotum posteroventrally closely coadapted to anterior mesopleural margin then it is not reflexed below



80a.    Fore wing with a fold traversing 1m-cu between 1st and 2nd discal (= discoidal) cells, usually via a fenestra (= clear area or bulla), this fold discrete from the radial fold in the submarginal (= cubital) cells; basitarsi enlarged, those of hind legs expanded and flattened in anterior view, usually only slightly narrower than hind tibiae; pilosity plumose, at least partly. ........... (Apoidea)  Apidae



80b.    Fore wing with a fold traversing the 2nd abscissa of M, between the 2nd discal (discoidal) and 2nd or 3rd submarginal (cubital) cells, usually via a fenestra, this fold linking with the radial fold in the submarginal (cubital) cells; basitarsi not enlarged, those of hind legs slender, not flattened in anterior view, usually much narrower than the hind tibiae; pilosity universally simple ............. (Sphecoidea)  Sphecidae   <Habits>; <Adults> &  <Juveniles>



81a.    Antennae distinctly geniculate, elbowed between scape and funiculus; body with 1-2 reduced separated node-like or scale-like segments between alitrunk and abdomen (see Fig. A) .............. Vespoidea (= Formicoidea)  Formicidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (part)  



81b.    Antennae not geniculate, not elbowed between scape and funiculus; body without separated node-like or scale-like segments between alitrunk and abdomen



82a.    Fore wing usually with a complete closed marginal (= radial) cell which is bounded by tubular veins, and with at least one complete submarginal (cubital) cell; hind wing with 2-3 complete cells



82b.    Fore wing with marginal (radial) cell open, often with only a stub of tubular vein arising from the stigma; without any complete submarginal (cubital) cells; hind wing with greatly reduced venation, at most with an open costal cell but without complete cells posterior to this although up to 3 tubular veins may be present



83a.    Distal 1/4th or more of wing membranes longitudinally striolate, with a densely corrugated appearance ............ (Vespoidea)  Scoliidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [formerly as Scolioidea <Overview>]



83b.    Distal 1/4th or more of wing membranes plain, without a densely corrugated appearance



84a.    Mesopleuron with a straight diagonal sulcus traversing the mesopleural scrobe (= concavity or excavation) ............. (Pompiloidea)  Pompilidae  (= Psammocharidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



84b.    Mesopleuron lacks a straight diagonal sulcus which traverses the mesopleural scrobe



85a.    Fore wing with an elongated and very conspicuous discal (discoidal) cell, the wing plicate from base to apex and folded longitudinally when resting; glossa and paraglossa terminate in small

sclerotized pads



85b.    Fore wing lacks an elongated discal (discoidal) cell, the wing not plicate from base to apex, not folded longitudinally at rest; glossa and paraglossa without apical sclerotized pads



86a.    Tibiae of middle legs with a single spur; pretarsal claws forked; mandibles elongated and cross over at full closure, not merely overlapping ............ (Vespoidea)  Eumenidae  <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



86b.    Tibiae of middle legs with 2 spurs; pretarsal claws simple; mandibles short, transverse at full closure, but they do not cross over .............. (Vespoidea)  Vespidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



87a.    Hind wing with a well developed claval indentation marking the limits of the claval lobe, and with a very large jugal lobe which is at least 1/2 the length of the claval; subgenital plate of %% terminates in an upcurved spine; && with widely separated middle coxae and forked pretarsal claws ........... (Tiphioidea)  Tiphiidae  (part)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



87b.    Hind wing without lobes or without a claval indentation marking the limits of the claval lobe; in the latter the jugal lobe is small and less than 1/2 the length of the claval area; subgenital plate of %% lacks an upcurved spine; && with contiguous middle coxae and simple or dentate pretarsal claws



88a.    Distal antennal segments thicker than proximal so that the antennae appear clubbed; abdomen with yellow maculae and body weakly hairy; pretarsal claws dentate ............. (Tiphioidea)    [Now in Vespoidea]  Sapygidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



88b.    Distal antennal segments narrower than proximal so that the antennae taper apically; abdomen without yellow maculae and body densely hairy; pretarsal claws edentate or forked ............. (Tiphioidea)  Mutillidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>]



89a.    Antennae with 10 segments



89b.    Antennae with 12-13 segments



90a.    Antennae arise from a high anteriorly projecting prominence on the head, the antennal insertions widely separated from the clypeus which is located ventral to them  ............ (Chrysidoidea)  Embolemidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



90b.    Antennae do not arise from a high anteriorly projecting prominence on the head, the antennal insertions situated close to the posterior clypeal margin  ............. (Chrysidoidea)  Dryinidae  (part)



91a.    Abdomen with 3-5 segments visible; body strongly sculptured and showing bright metallic luster  .............. (Chrysidoidea)  Chrysididae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



91b.    Abdomen with more than 5 segments visible; body not strongly sculptured nor showing bright metallic luster .............. (Chrysidoidea)  Bethylidae  (part)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



92a.    Antennae distinctly geniculate, elbowed between scape and funiculus; body with 1-2 conspicuously separated node-like or scale-like reduced segments between alitrunk and abdomen; alitrunk posterolaterally usually with metapleural gland bulla present ............. Vespoidea (= Formicoidea)  Formicidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>  (part)



92b.    Antennae not geniculate, not elbowed between scape and funiculus; body without separated node-like or scale-like segments between alitrunk and abdomen; alitrunk posterolaterally without metapleural gland bulla



93a.    Antennae with 10 segments



93b.    Antennae with 12-13 segments



94a.    Antennal insertions widely separated from clypeus and the antennae arising from a high anteriorly projecting prominence on head; fore tarsus terminates in a pair of small pretarsal claws, not chelate (&& only) ............ (Chrysidoidea)  Embolemidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



94b.    Antennal insertions close to posterior margin of clypeus and the antennae not arising from a high anteriorly projecting prominence on head; fore tarsus in brachypterous %% with a pair of small pretarsal claws; fore tarsus of && terminating in strong chelae composed of a large projecting 5th tarsal segment which is opposed by a much enlarged single apical claw ............. (Chrysidoidea)  Dryinidae  (part)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



95a.    Head prognathous and dorsoventrally flattened (see Fig. A); clypeus with median carina extending between antennae ............. (Chrysidoidea)  Bethylidae  (part)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



95b.    Head hypognathous and not dorsoventrally flattened; clypeus lacking a median carina extending between antennae



96a.    Dorsal alitrunk box-like and lacking sutures or at most the promesonotal forming the only transverse suture on dorsum; body strongly sculptured and densely hairy; pretarsal claws simple ............ (Tiphioidea)   [Now in Vespoidea]  Mutillidae    (= now in Sapygidae)  <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>]



96b.    Dorsal alitrunk elongated and not box-like, with 3 deeply impressed transverse sutures in broad depressions; body smooth and unsculptured, not densely hairy; pretarsal claws strongly forked ............. (Tiphioidea)  [Now in Vespoidea]  Tiphiidae  (part)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>





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