FILE: <austra-3.key> Bibliography Bibliography #2 Terminology [Navigate to MAIN MENU]



For educational purposes only; do not review, quote or abstract:--

A Public Service on the basics of Insect Identification



Keys to the Hymenoptera of Australia


(Derived & modified from Boucek 1988; Brown & Taylor, 1970;

Michener, 1965, 1970; Naumann, 1991 & Riek, 1970 by E. F. Legner)


(Email Contacts)



[This key is in a form commonly used in North America. If the statement is true, proceed to the designated couplet, whereas if it is false, go to "b" portion of the couplet. Numbers in parentheses refer to previous couplet read;].


To view key, CLICK: <KEY>


The following Australian superfamilies and families of Hymenoptera were recognized by Riek (1970) (Superfamily arrangement updated to conventional 2013)







Bethylidae (78)

Trigonalidae (12)


Chrysididae (4)


Siricidae (1)

Cleptidae (17)


Syntexidae (0)

Dryinidae (64

Argiotypidae (0)

Xiphydriidae (6)

Embolemidae (3)

Braconidae (200)


Sclerogibbidae (3)

Ichneumonidae (190)


Sierolomorphidae (0)


Megalodontidae (0)



Pamphilidae (0)


Aulacidae (31)


Ceraphronidae (84)

Evaniidae (26)



Gasteruptiidae (159)

Orussidae (9)




Pompilidae (121)



Rhopalosomatidae (1)

Austroserphidae (3)

Argidae (11)


Diapriidae (107)

Blasticotomidae (0)


Heloridae (11)

Cimbicidae (0)

Scoliidae (25)

Loboscelidiidae (4)

Diprionidae (0)


Pelecinidae (1)

Pergidae (136)


Platygastridae (50)

Tenthredinidae (3)

Sphecidae (421)

Proctotrupidae (22)


(Ampulicinae) (21)

Scelionidae (333)




Xyelidae (0)




Eumenidae (242)

Cynipidae (59)


Formicidae (1,100)

Figitidae (2)

Cephidae (0)

Masaridae (25)

Ibaliidae (3)


Mutillidae (197)

Liopteridae (3)


Plumariidae (0)


APOCRITA--ACULEATA (stinging Hymenoptera)

Sapygidae (0)

Tiphiidae (511)


Agaonidae (21)


Vespidae (14)

Chalcididae (231)


Andrenidae (0)

Encyrtidae (971)

Eulophidae (508)

Anthophoridae (193)

Apidae (14)

APOCRITA--PARASITICA (nonstinging Hymenoptera)

Eurytomidae (194)

Mymaridae (150)

Colletidae (851)


Pteromalidae (435)

Fideliidae (0)


Torymidae (181)

Halictidae (422)

Megalyridae (29)

Trichogrammatidae (100)

Megachilidae (175)

Stephanidae (7)


Melittidae (1)



[Please refer to <Guide> and <Taxnames> for illustrations]




1a. Abdomen broadly sessile at base and without marked constriction, though hinged, between segments 1 & 2; thorax with 2 pairs of spiracles, neither visible dorsally; cenchri present except in Cephidae; larvae with segmented legs except in a few tunnelling and leaf-mining species; antennae and maxillary and labial palps with several distinct segments, or, if with only 1 segment, then abdominal apex with a median sclerotized process or legs represented by sclerotized discs ................. SYMPHYTA



1b. Abdomen with tergum 1 incorporated in thorax, and with marked constriction and hinge between segments 1 & 2 or with a large thoracic phragma extending into gaster; mesosoma with 3 pairs of spiracles, the pair on the propodeum conspicuous and usually distinctly visible dorsally; cenchri absent; larvae always without legs; antennae and maxillary and labial palps with 1 segment or absent; apex of abdomen not sclerotized ........... APOCRITA


Families of Symphyta:



2a (1a). Mesoscutellum completely separated from scutum by a suture and the axillae defined; subantennal grooves present for reception of basal segments of antennae ............ (Siricoidea)....3



2b. Mesoscutellum not separated from scutum laterally and axillae not defined anteriorly; no subantennal grooves ............ (Tenthredinoidea)....5



3a (2a). Antennae inserted on ventral side of head, below lower margins of eyes and below apparent clypeus; hind wing without closed discoidal or cubital cell; eyes normally finely hairy..(Orussoidea) Orussidae



3b. Antennae inserted well above clypeus and on anterior aspect of head; hind wing usually with at least one closed cubital or discoidal cell; eyes bare



4a (3b). Neck long (cervical sclerites viewed from side appear longer than broad); last abdominal segment without horn-like projection; maxillary palp 4-segmented ............ (Siricoidea) Xiphydriidae



4b. Neck short (cervical sclerites viewed from side appear broader than long); last abdominal segment with a horn-like projection; maxillary palp 1-segmented ........... (Siricoidea) Siricidae



5a (2b). Radial cell of fore wing crossed by a vein; fore tibia with 2 spurs, one developed into a calcar (= larger protuberance) ......(Tenthredinoidea) Tenthredinidae



5b. Radial cell of fore wing not crossed by a vein; fore tibia without spur developed into a calcar.



6a (5b). Third antennal segment very long, antennae with only 3 segments (3rd segment may be forked); fore tibia with 2 spurs in Australian species ............ (Tenthredinoidea) Argidae



6b. Third antennal segment not abnormally long, antenna with more than 3 segments; fore tibia usually with 2 well developed spurs, 1 only in Phylacteophaga and Pergula ............ (Tenthredinoidea) Pergidae


Subfamilies of (Tenthredinoidea) ..... Pergidae:



7a (6b) Fore tibia with 1 apical spur



7b. Fore tibia with 2 apical spurs



8a (7a). Hind tibia with a preapical spine, sometimes reduced but its insertion obvious ....... (Tenthredinoidea) Pergidae (Phylacteophaginae)



8b. Hind tibia without a preapical spine ........... (Tenthredinoidea) Pergidae (Pergulinae)



9a (7b) Hind tibia with a preapical spine



9b. Hind tibia without a preapical spine



10a (9a). Scutellum without lobes or paired projections behind



10b. Scutellum either bilobed, or with a backward projection from each hind angle



11a (10a). 'Propodeum' strongly sclerotized all over .......... (Tenthredinoidea) Pergidae (Pteryperginae)



11b. 'Propodeum' strongly emarginate behind, only the front margin and sides sclerotized ............ (Tenthredinoidea) Pergidae (Styracotechyinae)



12a (10b) Costa strongly swollen so that it touches R at least apically; anal vein of fore wing straight and close to the anal fold throughout; antennae generally with less than 13 segments ........... (Tenthredinoidea) Pergidae (Perginae)



12b. Costa not swollen and much narrower than the intercostal area; anal vein of fore wing bent away from the anal fold apically; antenna with 13 or more segments (and serrate) ............ (Tenthredinoidea) Pergidae (Philomastiginae)



13a (9b). Cenchri small, the distance between them nearly 2X as great as the transverse width of one; anal cell absent in fore wing. [Metanotum large, about the same width as scutellum] ........... (Tenthredinoidea) Pergidae (Pterygophorinae)



13b. Cenchri large, the distance between them at most about as great as the breadth of one; anal cell of fore wing petiolate though it may be open apically ......... (Tenthredinoidea) Pergidae (Euryinae)


Superfamilies of Apocrita:



14a (1b) Hind tibia with 1-2 spurs (without spur in a few Ichneumonidae), but none modified for preening (slight enlargement of one spur in some Scolioidea); sometimes a dense brush of enlarged hairs developed on basitarsus and apex of tibia; parasitic



14b. When hind tibial spur or spurs present, one (the medial when there are 2) is modified into a calcar through development of a comb of hairs or teeth on its inner (tarsal) margin; a corresponding strigil or brush is developed on the slightly emarginate basitarsus; if both spurs are of non-simple form or lacking (in some Apoidea and Vespoidea), then at least some body hairs are plumed and the hind basitarsus widened, or first 1-2 segments of metasoma form a node; mostly not parasitic



15a (14a). Subantennal groove present for reception of basal segments of antennae . [A dense preening brush on inner surface at apex of hind tibia and on ventromedial surface of basitarsus, similar to that in Sphecoidea; spiracle cover lobe of pronotum with a marginal fringe of hairs, or, when spiracle is enclosed, then margined with fine hairs] ......... (Megalyroidea)



15b. No subantennal groove



16a (15b). Pronotum with at least a lateral spiracle cover lobe reaching back to tegula, or, if wingless, lobe margined with close fine hairs



16b. Pronotum not reaching back to tegula (almost so in some Leucospidinae, in which tegula is lengthened, and in some Mymaridae)



17a (16a). Spiracle cover lobe of pronotum not margined with close fine hairs



17b. Spiracle cover lobe of pronotum margined with close fine hairs (poorly developed and more openly spaced in Aulacidae, but then fore wing venation well developed and hind wing without closed cells)



18a (17a). Lateral pronotum not vertically grooved for reception of fore femur, though with a groove close to and parallel with anterior margin. [A grooved recess for the fore femur usually occurs on lower anterior portion of mesopleuron-- not always defined, especially in Ibaliidae, and absent in Oberthuerellinae; antennae not elbowed] .......... (Cynipoidea)



18b. Lateral pronotum vertically grooved for reception of fore femur



19a (18b). Costal cell absent, but distinct marginal vein from base and a pterostigma; hind wing with at least one closed cell (except in Aphidiinae) ........... (Ichneumonoidea)



19b. Costal cell present, or venation greatly reduced; hind wing without closed cells (see also Chrysidoidea).....(Proctotrupoidea)



20a (17b). Pronotum with well-developed dorsal surface in median area, reaching back above tegula as well as below (pronotum reduced in nocturnal %% Mutillidae). [Hind wing venation well developed] ....... (Scolioidea & Vespoidea)



20b. Pronotum without a dorsal surface in median area, and not reaching back above tegulae



21a (20b). Hind wing without closed cells (see also Megalyroidea) .......... (Evanioidea)



21b. Hind wing with closed basal cells ..................(Trigonaloidea) Trigonalidae



22a (16b) Fore wing with closed basal cells; pronotum separated from tegula by lateral lobe of scutum (see also Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea) .......... (Chrysidoidea) Chrysididae



22b. Fore wing with much reduced venation, without fully formed cells; pronotum separated from tegula by prepectus (though sometimes in part by lateral lobe of scutum) .............. (Chalcidoidea)



23a (14b). Lateral pronotum and mesopleuron (or prepectus) overlapping and with considerable free movement, lower portion of pronotal lobe rounded. [Secondary fusion between pronotum and prepectus in some Dryinidae, but then antennae with 10 segments]



23b. Lateral pronotum and mesopleuron meet with carinate margins and with very little free movement between them, lower portion of pronotal lobe tapers, usually to a point



24a (23a). Spiracle cover lobe of pronotum margined with close fine hairs; hind wing with at least one closed basal cell (see also Scolioidea) ......... (Pompiloidea)



24b. Spiracle cover lobe of pronotum not margined with close fine hairs; hind wing without closed basal cells (except in Sierolomorphidae). [Prepectus defined] (Chrysidoidea)



25a (13b). A well-developed wingless worker caste present; posteroventral corners of thorax each with a metapleural gland; first 1-2 segments of metasoma nodiform, sharply marked off from remainder ....... (Vespoidea) Formicidae.....



25b. Workers, when present, with wings; metapleural glands lacking; 1st segment of metasoma not often constricted to a node, though sometimes petiolate



26a (25b). Posterior lateral lobes of pronotum reach back to and end above tegula, and always angulate ......... (Vespoidea)



26b. Posterior lateral lobes of pronotum do not reach back to and end below tegula, lobe rounded and limited to spiracle cover



27a (26b). At least a few branched hairs on body; frequently social species. [Hind basitarsus wider than following segments] ......... (Apoidea)



27b. Hairs on body not branched; non-social species ......... (Sphecoidea)


Families of Megalyroidea:



28a (15a). Abdomen subsessile; antennae with 14 segments ........... (Megalyroidea) Megalyridae



28b. Abdomen with a long petiole; antennae with >14 segments ............ (Megalyroidea) Stephanidae


Families of Ichneumonoidea:



29a (19a). Fore wing with 1 or without recurrent vein; hind wing with median cell not extending to base of marginal vein. [Abdominal tergites 2 & 3 immovably united except in Aphidiinae] ........... .(Ichneumonoidea) Braconidae.....



29b. Fore wing with 2 recurrent veins, very rarely only 1; hind wing with median cell elongated beyond base of marginal vein ...........(Ichneumonoidea) Ichneumonidae


Subfamilies of (Ichneumonoidea) ... Ichneumonidae:



30a (29b). First tergite of abdomen petiolate (narrowest before base) and bent downwards towards apex; spiracle of 1st segment usually beyond mid point (very rarely in the middle)



30b. First segment of abdomen sessile, or, if subpetiolate, either straight or regularly curved and flattened in section; spiracle of 1st segment at or before mid point



31a (30a). First segment of abdomen narrowing at apex, round in section over basal 1/2 (and smooth); areolet of fore wing petiolate, rhombus-shaped, or absent .......... (Ichneumonoidea) Ichneumonidae (Ophioninae)



31b. First segment of abdomen depressed, widening or parallel-sided at apex; areolet of of fore wing usually 5-sided or absent, never petiolate, rarely quadrilateral or rhombus-shaped



32a (31b). Areolet rhombus-shaped; %% cerci elongated, thin; spiracle of petiolar segment about mid point. [First tergite with large glymma (= pit or depression); tarsal claws pectinate] ........... (Ichneumonoidea) Ichneumonidae (Mesochorinae)



32b. Areolet not rhombus-shaped; %% cerci short and stout; spiracle of petiolar segment beyond mid point



33a (32b). Mesosternum not separated from mesopleuron by a line or furrow (= sternaulus) absent; spiracles of petiolar segment often further from each other than from caudal margin of the segment; ovipositor usually not obviously exserted ....... (Ichneumonoidea) Ichneumonidae (Ichneumoninae)



33b. Mesosternum separated from mesopleuron by a sigmoidally curved line or furrow, usually extending more than 1/2 length of mesopleuron; spiracles of petiolar segment often closer to each other than to caudal margin of the segment; ovipositor usually distinctly exserted . [Areolet usually pentagonal] ......... (Ichneumonoidea) Ichneumonidae (Cryptinae)



34a (30b) Abdomen subpetiolate, compressed. [Tarsal claws pectinate at least on fore leg] ............. (Ichneumonoidea) Ichneumonidae (Tryphoninae)



34b. Abdomen sessile or subsessile, depressed



35a (34b). Fore trochantellus (= proximal end of femur appearing as apparent 2nd segment of trochanter) not defined; clypeus not separated from face by a groove. [Medial margin of eye emarginate; areolet usually rhombus-shaped, sometimes absent; abdomen with subparallel sides] .......... (Ichneumonoidea) Ichneumonidae (Metophiinae)



35b. Fore trochantellus defined; clypeus separated from face by a somewhat distinct groove



36a (35b). Tergites of abdomen each with a pair of oblique furrows, sometimes indistinct; ovipositor usually strongly exserted; areolet usually triangular or absen ... (Ichneumonoidea) ........ Ichneumonidae (Pimplinae)



36b. Tergites without such furrows; ovipositor not obviously exserted; areolet usually absent ............. (Ichneumonoidea) Ichneumonidae (Diplazoninae)


Subfamilies of (Ichneumonoidea) Braconidae:



37a (29a). Mandibles widely separated, teeth curving outwards (exodont braconids; ..... (Ichneumonoidea) Braconidae (Alysiinae, Dacnusinae)



37b. Mandibles normal, their apices opposed and meeting when closed



38a (37b). Venation greatly reduced, hind wing without a closed basal cell; abdomen subpetiolate and with all segments freely movable .......... (Ichneumonoidea) Braconidae (Aphidiinae)



38b. Venation not as reduced, or abdomen subsessile; hind wing with at least one closed basal cell; at least basal 2 segments of abdomen not freely movable



39a (38b). Clypeus semicircularly emarginate (= indented) below, and forming with the mandibles a somewhat circular opening or cavity (cyclostome braconids



39b. Clypeus not emarginate below, or at most with a broad shallow emargination (= indentation)



40a (39a). Abdomen distinctly petiolate........(Ichneumonoidea) Braconidae (Spathiinae)



40b. Abdomen subsessile



41a (40b). Occiput not carinate .......... (Ichneumonoidea) Braconidae (Braconinae, Exothecinae)



41b. Occiput carinate ......... (Ichneumonoidea) Braconidae (Doryctinae, Rhogadinae)



42a (39b). Abdomen with tergites fused to form a rigid dorsal shield, sutures absent or indicated only by fine grooves



42b. Abdomen with tergites separated by distinct sutures, all beyond the 2nd freely movable



43a (42a). Fore wing with 3 cubital cells ......... (Ichneumonoidea) Braconidae (Cheloninae)



43b. Fore wing with 2 cubital cells ......... (Ichneumonoidea) Braconidae (Triaspidinae)



44a (42b). Abdomen distinctly petiolate .......... (Ichneumonoidea) Braconidae (Meteorinae, Euphorinae)



44b. Abdomen subsessile



45a (44b). Venation greatly reduced .......... (Ichneumonoidea) Braconidae (Microgastrinae)



45b. Venation not greatly reduced



46a (45b). Radial cell very narrow, proctotrupid-like ........ (Ichneumonoidea) Braconidae (Agathidiinae)



46b. Radial cell longer ...............................(Ichneumonoidea) Braconidae (Macrocentrinae, Opiinae)


Families of Evanioidea:



47a (21a). Fore wing with complete venation; hind wing with a very small anal notch; trochantellus clearly defined ventrally; first 2 tergites of abdomen fused .......... (Evanioidea) Aulacidae



47b. Fore wing with apical venation reduced; hind wing without obvious anal notch, but with a deep 'jugal' notch; trochantellus defined ventrally on mid and hind legs; first 2 tergites of abdomen not fused ........... (Evanioidea) Evaniidae



47c. Fore wing venation modified; hind wing without anal or 'jugal' notch; trochantellus not distinctly defined on any leg; first 2 tergites of abdomen not fused, partly hinged .......... (Evanioidea) Gasteruptiidae


Families of Proctotrupoidea & Ceraphronoidea:



48a (19b). Antennae not geniculate; scape small and usually much shorter than 1st funicle segment



48b. Antennae geniculate and scape long and prominent, or scape produced to a point at apex



49a (48a). Fore wing with only 1 basal cell (the costal). [With large pterostigma and short transverse radial cell; trochantellus not free on any leg] ........ (Proctotrupoidea) Proctotrupidae



49b. Fore wing with 2-3 closed basal cells



50a (49b) Radial cell of fore wing triangular, not extending to apex; trochantellus free, usually on all legs, but at least on hind leg .......... (Proctotrupoidea) Heloridae



50b. Radial cell parallel-sided, extending to apex; trochantellus not free on any leg ......... (Proctotrupoidea) Pelecinidae



51a (48b). Scape not long, produced on one side to a point; fore wing with 3 basal cells, large

pterostigma, and large radial cell ......... (Proctotrupoidea) Austroserphidae



51b. Scape long, not strongly produced at apex, antennae distinctly geniculate; fore wing venation not as previous, though sometimes with basal cells or large pterostigma



52a (51b). Mid (and hind) tibia with 2 spurs



52b. Mid (and hind) tibia with 1 spur



53a (52a). Fore tibia with 2 apical spurs, one simple, the other developed into a calcar . [Fore wing with distinct marginal vein, sometimes with a large pterostigma, and with a well-developed stigmal vein] .......... Ceraphronoidea) Ceraphronidae



53b. Fore tibia with only one apical spur (calcar)



54a (53b). Fore wing without a marginal vein, but with distinct venation and at least one closed cell ...(Proctotrupoidea) Loboscelidiidae



54b. For wing with both marginal and submarginal veins, or venation quite reduced ..... (Proctotrupoidea) Diapriidae



55a (52b). Fore wing with distinct, though sometimes short, marginal and stigmal veins .....(Proctotrupoidea) Scelionidae



55b. Venation absent, or reduced to submarginal vein which is generally slightly knobbed at apex ........ (Proctotrupoidea) Platygastridae


Subfamilies of (Proctotrupoidea) ..... Scelionidae:



56a (55a). Abdomen with lateral margins rounded .......(Proctotrupoidea) Scelionidae (Telenominae)



56b. Abdomen with lateral margins carinate



57a (56b). Marginal vein very long, much longer than the stigmal . [Stigmal vein short; postmarginal absent] ............ (Proctotrupoidea) Scelionidae (Teleasinae)



57b. Marginal vein shorter than previous



58a (57b). Antennae of && usually with 7 segments, rarely with 6-8 segments, ending in an enlarged, solid club; of %% with 12 segments, rarely with 11 segments ..... (Proctotrupoidea) Scelionidae (Baeinae)



58b. Antennae with 12 segments in both sexes, rarely with 10-11 segments ......... (Proctotrupoidea) Scelionidae (Scelioninae)


Subfamilies of (Proctotrupoidea) ..... Diapriidae:



59a (54b). Second sternite of abdomen short, with concave apical margin . [Lateral margins of abdomen carinate, with a distinct ornamental lining or overfold) ....(Proctotrupoidea) Diapriidae (Ambositrinae)



59b. Second sternite of abdomen very large



60a (59b). Lateral margins of abdomen with a distinct ornamental lining; the abdominal tergites fused into a carapace but retaining the sutures between tergites; antennae not inserted on a distinct frontal shelf ........ (Proctotrupoidea) Diapriidae (Ismarinae)



60bb. Not as previously described



61a (60b). Antennae of && with 15 segments, rarely 14 and exceptionally with 12-13, with no abrupt club; of %% with 14 segments, usually with 3rd segment modified ........... (Proctotrupoidea) Diapriidae (Belytinae)



61b. Antennae of && with 11-13 segments, rarely 14, with a somewhat abrupt club; of %% with 13-14 segments, the 4th segment modified, rarely the 3rd of no segments modified ............... (Proctotrupoidea) Diapriidae (Diapriinae)


Families & Subfamilies of Cynipoidea:



62a (18a). Radial cell at least 9X as long as broad; hind basitarsus 2X as long as segments 2-5 combined ...(Cynipoidea) Ibaliidae (Ibaliinae)



62b. Radial cell not 9X as long as broad; hind basitarsus less than 2X as long as segments 2-5 combined



63a (62b). Largest tergite of abdomen (lateral view) 4, 5, or 6, at least 2 short tergites preceding the large tergite .......... (Cynipoidea) Liopteridae (Mesocynipinae)



63b. Largest tergite of abdomen (lateral view) 2 or 3, never more than 1 short tergite (often none) preceding the large tergite



64a (63b). Scutellum with a characteristic raised 'cup' on the disc ..Cynipoidea) Cynipidae (Eucoilinae)



64b. Scutellum without previously described cup



65a (64b). Body without sculpture; scutellum smooth, rarely with basal pits; length under 2 mm. ............ (Cynipoidea) Cynipidae (Charipinae)



65b. Body sculptured unless mesoscutum and scutellum are fused without a suture; length usually greater than 2 mm



66a (65b). Abdomen with distinct petiole; body when viewed from above distinctly wedge-shaped; tergite 2 longer than 3 along dorsal margin ........... (Cynipoidea) Figitidae (Anacharitinae)



66b. Abdomen sessile or nearly so



67a (66b). Tergite 2 usually much smaller than 3 and saddle-shaped; hypopygium of && ending without caudal spine ......... (Cynipoidea) Figitidae (Figitinae)



67b. Tergite 2 or fused 2+3 usually large; hypopygium of && ending in a caudal spine (Cynipoidea) Cynipidae (Cynipinae)


Families & Major Subfamilies of Chalcidoidea



68a (22b). Fore wing folded longitudinally when at rest. [Hind femur enlarged and toothed below] .......... (Chalcidoidea) Leucospidae



68b. Fore wing not folded



69a (68b). Hind wing greatly enlarged and toothed below, teeth sometimes fine and limited to a short distal zone; hind tibia curved around femur



69b. Hind femur sometimes enlarged, but not regularly toothed below, and tibia not distinctly curved



70a (69a). Axillae distinctly advanced; prepectus large, not impressed. [Hind tibia with 2 spurs]

. ........... Chalcidoidea) Pteromalidae (Chalcedectinae, Cleonyminae)



70b. Axillae at most only slightly advanced; prepectus sometimes large but impressed



71a (70b). Basal tergites of abdomen emarginate in mid line; notauli only slightly impressed, very widely separated. [Ovipositor usually strongly exserted] ......... (Chalcidoidea) Torymidae (Podagrioninae)



71b. Basal tergites of abdomen not emarginate; notauli clearly running extended (= percurrent) ......... (Chalcidoidea) most Chalcididae



72a (69b). Mesopleuron completely inflated, without impressed lines, grooves, or pits ...... (Chalcidoidea) most Encyrtidae



72b. Mesopleuron with at least a mesopleural 'suture,' usually with impressed femoral furrow



73a (72a). Mesosternum elongated, mid coxae widely separated from fore coxae. [Notauli usually distinctly impressed, never entirely absent] ........... Chalcidoidea) Eupelmidae (Eupelminae)



73b. Mesosternum short, mid coxae usually widely separated from hind coxae ............. (Chalcidoidea) Encyrtidae (Encyrtinae)



74a (72b). Tarsi with 3 segments; %% antennae setose (see also wingless %% of Agaonidae and Sycophaginae) ........... (Chalcidoidea) Trichogrammatidae



74b. Tarsi with 4-5 segments



75a (74b). Fore and hind tibiae very short, much shorter than femora; fore tibia without an apical spur. [Mouth parts of && with a backwardly directed radula-like process] ........ (Chalcidoidea) Agaonidae



75b. Fore and hind tibiae about as long as femora; fore tibia with an apical spur



76a (75b). Venation greatly reduced and limited to basal 1/3rd of wing, not extending beyond level of wing coupling, stigmal vein always absent. [Hind wing clearly stalked at base] ............ (Chalcidoidea) Mymaridae



76b. Venation not as previously described, stigmal vein normally distinct



77a (76b). Spur of fore tibia short and straight; tarsi with 4 segments .(Chalcidoidea) Eulophidae.



77b. Spur of fore tibia curved and often large; tarsi almost invariably with 5 segments



78a (77a). Hind coxa greatly enlarged and flattened; lateral thorax without impressed femoral furrow, but with mesopleural 'suture' ......... (Chalcidoidea) Elasmidae (Elasminae)



78b. Hind coxa not greatly enlarged; lateral thorax with femoral furrow indicated ........ (Chalcidoidea) other Eulophidae



79a (77b). Mandibles large, sickle-shaped. [Pronotum very reduced at mid line; body usually metallic] .......... (Chalcidoidea) Eucharitidae



79b. Mandibles not sickle-shaped though sometimes large



80a (79b). Mesepimeron with caudal margin deeply excised. [Basal tergites of abdomen emarginate at mid line; mesepimeron with an impressed line] .......... (Chalcidoidea) Torymidae (Toryminae)



80b. Mesepimeron with caudal margin entire or only slightly emarginate



81a (80b). Abdomen with transverse rows of very large, deep punctures. [Hind tibial spurs thickened and one enlarged; occiput carinate; lateral thorax shining and prepectus small] ............ (Chalcidoidea) Ormyridae



81b. Abdomen without previously described punctures



82a (81b). First 2 tergites of abdomen fused above but with the line of junction retained, free laterally, abdomen consisting mainly of these 2 segments. [Body often metallic blue, green, or purple; pronotum carinate at downward slope] ......... Chalcidoidea) Perilampidae



82b. If basal tergites are fused, then of different form



83a (82b). Body mostly glabrous, flattened; mesopleuron shining, without distinct femoral furrow but with an irregular pit or pits. [Antennae without ring segments; 1 hind tibial spur; stigmal vein well developed] ......... (Chalcidoidea) Pteromalidae (Spalangiinae)



83b. Not as previously described



84a (83b). Cerci large, longer than wide. [Basal tergites of abdomen usually emarginate at mid line; occipital carina usually distinct; ovipositor usually strongly exserted] ............... (Chalcidoidea) most Torymidae



84b. Cerci small, often indistinct



85a (84b). Abdomen broadly sessile, without pronounced constriction at junction with propodeum. [Fore wing with long marginal, short stigmal, and no postmarginal vein; notauli distinct] ........... (Chalcidoidea) Aphelinidae



85b. Abdomen distinctly constricted at base, but appearing sessile when the petiole is short



86a (85b). Antennae with 7-10 segments, inserted near mouth ........... (Chalcidoidea) Pteromalidae (Eunotinae)



86b. Antennae with 11-13 segments, inserted distinctly above mouth



87a (86b). Axillae distinctly advanced; prepectus not impressed, caudal margin straight or sloping forward; eyes hairy............ (Chalcidoidea) Pteromalidae (Cleonyminae)



87b. Axillae not obviously advanced; prepectus normally impressed, caudal margin normally concave; eyes rarely distinctly hairy



88a (87b). Inner margins of axillae much closer than inner margins of notauli, often meeting at mid line; hind coxa large . [Mesepimeron not impressed] ..(Chalcidoidea) Pteromalidae ...............




88b. Inner margins of axillae not much closer than inner margins of notauli, or hind coxa small



89a (88b). Pronotum large and with simple caudal margin; genal carina well developed, at least at mandible; hind coxa small; propodeum usually concave in mid-line; antennae with 11 segments (club counted as 3 segments), with one ring segment ........... (Chalcidoidea) Eurytomidae (Eurytominae)



89b. Not as previously described



90a (89b). Notauli deep and running extended; hind coxa large ........... (Chalcidoidea) Pteromalidae (Miscogasterinae)



90b. Notauli shallow, not running, indicated only anteriorly; hind coxa not unusually enlarged ............ (Chalcidoidea) Pteromalidae (Pteromalinae)


Families of Chrysidoidea:



91a (24b). Antennae with 17-40 segments. [Head elongated; antennae inserted near mouth under a pronounced frontal shelf; && wingless; pterostigma linear] .......... Chrysidoidea) Sclerogibbidae



91b. Antennae with 10-13 segments



92a (91b). Antennae inserted high on the forwardly produced face . [antennae with 10 segments, and with 13 segments; 7 visible tergites in abdomen of %%] ............ (Chrysidoidea) Embolemidae



92b. Antennae inserted near mouth, or, if high on face, then venation not attaining costal margin.



93a (92b). Antennae with 10 segments in both sexes; fore tarsus of && usually chelate. [6-7 visible tergites] ......... .Chrysidoidea) Dryinidae



93b. Antennae with 12-13 segments, rarely with 11 segments; fore tarsus simple



94a (93b). Pronotum reaches back to tegula; 7-8 visible tergites .......... (Chrysidoidea) Bethylidae



94b. Pronotum does not reach back to tegula, but is separated by a lobe of the scutum; 5-6, rarely 4, visible tergites ........... (Chrysidoidea) Cleptidae


Families of Pompiloidea:



95a (24a). Mesopleuron with a 'horizontal' (scrobal) groove ........ (Pompiloidea) ..... Pompilidae



95b. Mesopleuron without a 'horizontal' groove. .......... (Pompiloidea) Rhopalosomatidae


Subfamilies of (Pompiloidea) Pompilidae:



96a (95a). Fore femur greatly enlarged; eyes hairy tin & . [Medial margin of eyes almost parallel, closed above antennae or at vertex; femora without apical spines; hind tibia without spines above or at apex; 2nd sternite of abdomen without a transverse sulcus; empodium very small ............ (Pompiloidea) Pompilidae (Planicepinae)



96b. Fore femur not enlarged (somewhat enlarged in some species of Aporus); eyes smooth, or at most with a few minute hairs



97a (96b). Eyes deeply emarginate medially above the mid point . [Antennae short and stout, scape expanded below; vertex distinctly raised; hind tarsal claws strongly hooked; hind coxa greatly enlarged, 2X as long as mid coxa; femora without apical spines; 2nd sternite of abdomen without a transverse sulcus ............ (Pompiloidea) Pompilidae (Ceropalinae)



97b. Eyes with medial margin at most slightly sigmoid, closest either at vertex or below at clypeus



98a (97b). Metapostnotum small or not visible in mid line, its caudal margin irregular (not straight); femora each with a single enlarged spine at apex anteriorly, rarely with additional small spines (rarely reduced on hind femur and, more rarely, on mid femur too, but then 2nd and 3rd radial cells united) . [Apical tarsal segment usually with a median row of spines below] ........... (Pompiloidea) Pompilidae (Pompilinae)



98b. Metaposnotum clearly developed in mid line (sometimes small in Chirodamus), and with somewhat straight caudal margin; femora without spines at apex anteriorly, or, if spines are present, there is never regularly one large spine on each femur (fore femur may have only one spine) ........... (Pompiloidea) Pompilidae (Pepsinae)


Families & Subfamilies of Scolioidea & Some Vespoidea:



99a (20a). Winged



99b. Wingless (&& only)



100a (99a). Hind wing with notched jugal (and usually anal) lobe; pronotum not angulate above tegula .......... (Vespoidea) Tiphiidae



100b. Hind wing without 'jugal' lobe; pronotum angulate above tegula, less so in Mutillidae



101a (100a). Mid tibia with 1 apical spur; fore wing with 2 submarginal cells; tegula elongated ........ (Vespoidea) Tiphiidae (Tiphiinae)



101b. Mid tibia with 2 apical spurs; fore wing with 3 submarginal cells; tegula short



102a (101b). Antennae arise from simple sockets; && winged ........... (Vespoidea) Tiphiidae (Anthoboscinae)



102b. Antennae arise from beneath a frontal ridge; && wingless .......... (Vespoidea) Tiphiidae (Thynninae)



103a (100b). Anal lobe of hind wing notched (with pre-axillary incision); mid tibia with 1 spur; apex of wing with close pseudovenation; meso- and metasterna together form a flat plate, which is divided by a transverse, somewhat sinuous suture, and overlies the bases of the mid and hind coxae; && winged .......... (Scolioidea) Scoliidae



103b. Anal lobe of hind wing not notched; mid tibia with 2 spurs; apex of wing with microtrichia; meso- and metasterna do not form such a plate; && wingless ........... (Vespoidea) Mutillidae



104a (99b). Thorax with distinct segmentation ........... Vespoidea) Tiphiidae (Thynninae)



104b. Thorax without distinct segmentation dorsally ............ (Vespoidea) Mutillidae


Families of Vespoidea:



105a (26a). Fore wing not folded longitudinally when at rest, and with 2 submarginal cells ............ (Vespoidea) Masaridae



105b. Fore wing folded longitudinally when at rest, and with 3 submarginal cells



106a (105b). Tarsal claws simple; tegula not margined; social species ......... (Vespoidea) Vespidae



106b. Tarsal claws 2-forked; tegula with raised margin (indistinct in some Odynerus); solitary species ......... (Vespoidea) Eumenidae


Families & Subfamilies of Sphecoidea:



107a (27b). Notauli well developed; hind wing usually without 'jugal' lobe; fore wing with 2 interradial cross veins unless venation is reduced ........ (Sphecoidea) Sphecidae (Ampulicinae)



107b. Notauli absent or poorly defined; hind wing with 'jugal' lobe; fore wing with only 1 interadial cross vein (except in Astatinae) .......... (Sphecoidea) Sphecidae.....108



108a (107b). Fore wing with 2 interradial cross veins (radial cell distinctly appendiculate); 2 mid tibial spurs ........... (Sphecoidea) Sphecidae (Astatinae)



108b. Fore wing with 1 interradial cross vein; 1-2 mid tibial spurs



109a (108b). Hind wing with distinct 2nd anal vein, well separated from 1A . [Mid tibia with 2 spurs; 'jugal' lobe of hind wing without notch] ........... (Sphecoidea) Sphecidae (Sphecinae)



109b. Hind wing without distinct 2nd anal vein



110a (109b). Labrum visible beyond clypeus, or mid tibia with 2 spurs .(Sphecoidea) Sphecidae (Nyssoninae)



110b. Labrum not protruding (or only very slightly so) and mid tibia with 1 spur



111a (110b). Hind wing with 'median' cell shorter than 'costal' cell ........... (Sphecoidea) Sphecidae (Crabroninae)



111b. Hind wing with 'median' cell longer than 'costal' cell



112a (111b). Eyes deeply emarginate (Sphecoidea) Sphecidae (Trypoxyloninae)



112b. Eyes not or very slightly emarginate



113a (112b). Pterostigma enlarged ........ (Sphecoidea) Sphecidae (Pemphredoninae)



113b. Pterostigma little wider than the combined C+R width



114a (113b). Abdomen with 1st segment short, node-like ......... (Sphecoidea) Sphecidae (Cercerinae)



114b. Abdomen subsessile .......... (Sphecoidea) Sphecidae (Larrinae)


Families of Apoidea:



115a (27a). Labial palp with first 2 segments elongated, sheath-like, and flattened, in strong contrast to distal 2 segments; galea with postpalpal part greatly elongated, usually longer than stipes; glossa elongated and pointed, usually longer than prementum; mid coxa over 2/3rds as long as distance from its base to base of hind wing; pre-episternal groove or suture absent below scrobal suture (long-tongued bees)



115b. Labial palp with segments similar and subcylindrical; galea with postpalpal part much shorter than stipes; glossa shorter than prementum; mid coxa (or at least exposed part) much shorter than distance from its base to base of hind wing; pre-episternal groove usually present below scrobal suture (short-tongued bees)



116a (115a). Labrum longer than broad; subantennal suture directed toward outer margin of antennal socket; 2 submarginal cells; scopa, when present, on gastral sterna ............ (Apoidea) Megachilidae



116b. Labrum broader than long; subantennal suture directed toward inner margin of antennal socket; wings with 3 submarginal cells, distal veins weak and no distinct submarginal cells in Trigona (Apidae), 2 cells in some Ceratinini); scopa, when present, on hind tibia



117a (116b). Hind tibial spurs absent (except in Bombus); scopa of && forming a corbicula (= pollen basket) on hind tibia (except in queens); inner apical margin of hind tibia (except in queens) provided with a comb of rigid setae; pygidial plate absent; distance between costal ends of the 2 recurrent veins (if present) nearly 2X as great as length of 2nd recurrent vein and longer than 1st recurrent; social species with queen and worker castes and large colonies ...... (Apoidea) Apidae



117b. Hind tibial spurs present; scopa of && not forming a corbicula; inner apical margin of hind tibia without a comb of rigid setae; pygidial plate present or absent; distance between costal ends of the 2 recurrent veins (2nd may be absent) less than 2X as great as length of 2nd recurrent vein and shorter than, or equal to, 1st recurrent; non-social species without && castes ......... (Apoidea) Anthophoridae



118a (115b). Inner hind tibial spur of && greatly broadened basally so that the whole spur is crescent-shaped, the concave side finely ciliate; pre-episternal suture absent below scrobal suture; submentum V-shaped; (distrib. fr. northern Queensland and northward) ........... (Apoidea) Melittidae



118b. Inner hind tibial spur not broadened basally and not crescent-shaped; pre-episternal suture present below scrobal suture (except in Stenotritinae and Hesperocolletes of Colletidae); submentum absent or in form of a plate, but not V-shaped



119a (118b). Glossa broad, emarginate, truncate, or rounded apically in all && and most %%, pointed in a few %%; submentum present, sometimes only weakly sclerotized; mentum usually recognizable although often weakly sclerotized; galea not evenly tapering to pointed base, prepalpal portion shorter than postpalpal portion (Apoidea) Colletidae



119b. Glossa pointed apically; submentum and mentum absent or scarcely recognizable and not sclerotized; galea elongated before palpus and evenly tapering to pointed base, prepalpal portion usually as long as postpalpal portion ........... (Apoidea) Halictidae


Subfamilies of (Apoidea) Anthophoridae:



120a (117b). Pygidial plate absent or represented by apical spine usually hidden in dense pubescence; clypeus not strongly protuberant, lateral parts seen from below but little bent back and not parallel to long axis of body ............ (Apoidea) Anthophoridae (Xylocopinae)



120b. Pygidial plate present in &&; clypeus strongly protuberant, so that, seen from below, lateral parts are bent back parallel to long axis of body



121a (120b). Marginal cell longer than distance from its apex to wing tip, pointed on wing margin; stigma large, extending well into marginal cell beyond base of R; small, slender bees ..... (Apoidea)

Anthophoridae (Nomadinae)



121b. Marginal cell shorter than distance from its apex to wing tip, apex of cell rounded and separated from wing margin; stigma small, not extending into marginal cell beyond base of R; large, robust species .......... (Apoidea) Anthophoridae (Anthophorinae)


Subfamilies of (Vespoidea) Formicidae:



122a (25a). Abdomen attached to alitrunk by a waist consisting of 2 somewhat reduced and nodiform segments



122b. Abdomen attached to alitrunk by a waist consisting of a single reduced segment, which may be nodiform, erect or inclined scale-like, or even prostrate and somewhat hidden by overhanging abdomen .........



123a (122a). Larger species, total length usually exceeding 8 mm, with large eyes and long, slender, serially dentate mandibles. [Myrmecia; 65 spp] ......... (Vespoidea) Formicidae (Myrmeciinae)



123b. Smaller species, or, if largest workers or soldiers are over 8 mm, eyes very small or absent an/or mandibles not elongated



124a (123b). Pygidium flattened at apex, the flattened part bordered with denticles arranged in rows on each side; underside of head with a strong carina on each side running forward from posterior corner. [Cerapachyini, Lioponera, Syscia, Sphinctomyrmex; 55 spp.] ........ (Vespoidea) Formicidae [Ponerinae (part)]



124b. Pygidium simple; no distinct carinae on underside of head extending forward from posterior corners



125a (124b). Eyes absent; small to minute army ants. [Queens dichtha diiform, i.e. blind, wingless, with simple alitrunk, abdomen long and bulky]



125b. Eyes large to minute, but normally present in Australian species; not army ants



126a (125a). Extremely minute (under 2.5 mm) slender yellow species; antennae with 12 segments. [Rare and subterranean; Leptanilla; 1 sp.] ........... (Vespoidea) Formicidae (Leptanillinae)



126b. Small species, but usually over 2.5 mm long; antennae with 10 segments. [Aenictus; 3 spp.;] (Vespoidea) Formicidae (Dorylinae)



127a (125b) Tarsal claws toothed; tibial spurs of mid and hind legs distinctly pectinate; Australian species very slender, black, with large eyes; inhabiting hollow twigs and similar plant cavities. [Tetraponera; 2 spp.]........... (Vespoidea) Formicidae (Pseudomyrmecinae)



127b. Tarsal claws simple; tibial spurs of mid and hind legs, when present, simple or at most very indistinctly pectinate; body form and nesting habits very diverse. [Podomyrma, Crematogaster, Meranoplus, Strumigenys] ........... (Vespoidea) Formicidae (Myrmicinae)



128a (122b). Sting well developed and functional, usually extended and visible in dead specimens.



128b. Sting absent, or vestigial and not extensible



129a (128a). A large (10 mm or more), tawny yellow species with large convex eyes set at the middle of the sides of the head; long, robust mandibles with finely dentate inner margins; palpi segmented 6,4; alitrunk and petiole much as in Myrmecia; body with abundant rigid & erect hairs; tarsal claws toothed. [Presumably in southwestern Western Australia; Nothomyrmecia; 1 sp.] (Vespoidea) Formicidae [Myrmeciinae (part)]



129b. Disagreeing with some or all of the previously described characters. [Amblyopone, Rhytidoponera, Leptogenys, Odontomachus] ....... (Vespoidea) Formicidae [Ponerinae (part)]



130a (128b). 7th sternite rolled into a short ventroapical cone with a round apical orifice (with or without a coronula of minute hairs) that serves as a nozzle for a defensive acid spray; not to be confused with the cloacal orifice, which is more dorsal and normally hidden . [Melophorus, Oecophylla, Camponotus, Polyrhachis] ......... (Vespoidea) Formicidae (Formicinae)



130b. Gastric apex without such an acid-spraying cone (dried specimens may at times have the 7th sternite distorted into a somewhat conical shape, but then still without a circular orifice); defensive secretion in the form of a viscous fluid, ejected through a slit-like orifice. [Leptomyrmex, Iridomyrmex, Technomyrmex] ............ (Vespoidea) Formicidae (Dolichoderinae)




Boucek, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). C.A.B. International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK. 832



Brown, W. L., Jr. & R. W. Taylor. 1970. Superfamily Formicoidea, p. 951-59. In: E. F. Riek, In: Hymenoptera

(Wasps, bees, ants), p 867-983. The Insects of Australia. CSIRO, Div. Ent., Canberra. Melbourne Univ Press, Melbourne. 1029 p.


Michener, C. D. 1965. Classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bull. Amer. Mus.

Nat. Hist. 130: 1-362.


Michener, C. D. 1970. Superfamily Apoidea, p. 943-51. In: E. F. Riek, In: Hymenoptera (Wasps, bees, ants), p

867-983. The Insects of Australia. CSIRO, Div. Ent., Canberra. Melbourne Univ Press, Melbourne. 1029 p.


Naumann, L. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies), Vol. 2, p. 916-1000. In: The Insects of

Australia, 2nd ed. Cornell Univ. Press, NY. 1137 p.


Riek, E. F. (with C. D. Michener, L. W. Brown, Jr. & R. W. Taylor). 1970. Hymenoptera (Wasps, bees, ants), p

867-983. In: The Insects of Australia. CSIRO, Div. Ent., Canberra. Melbourne Univ Press, Melbourne. 1029 p.