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EXAMINATION & EXERCISES #4

 

For The  AMOEBOZOA, ZYGOMYCOTA,  ASCOMYCOTA & BASIDIOMYCOTA

 

(Contact)

 

[For answers please also refer to:  Alexopoulos, C. J., C. W. Mims and M. Blackwell.

1996. Introductory Mycology. John Wiley and Sons, New York.]

 

 

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

 

Fill in the blanks and answer questions briefly in the spaces provided.

1.  Racquet mycelium and cleistothecia with poorly defined or rudimentary peridia are encountered in the family of the

           order __________________.  The Deuteromycetous forms known as Dermatophytes are believed to be closely

          related to this Ascomycetous family because _________________________________, The Dermatophytes are

          of interest and importance because ______________________.,

 

2.  Distinguish between "periplasm" and "epiplasm".

3.  Describe the imperfect stage of a typical powdery mildew.

4.  What are "Sooty Molds" and in what geographical area do these predominate?  Give an example of a sooty mold.

 

5.  For each of the items in the column at the left select from the column at the right the one fungus or fungal group which best fits that item, and enter the number of the selected organism or group in the appropriate blank:

 

________  Acervulus

________  Aecia usually on conifers

________  Arthrospores

________  Blue stain

________  Capillitmum

________  Coremium

________  Cystosorus

________  Damping off

________  Diplanetism

________  Endoconidia

________  Epiphram

________  Ergot

________  Flagellated male gamete fertilizes non-motile egg

________  Holocarpic phycomycete

________ "Hyphae" extremely fine, common in soil

________  Late Blight of Potato

________  Merosporangium

________  Notorious wood destroyers

________  Parasite on insects

________  Parasite on mushrooms

________  Parasite on rusts

________  Parasitic homobasidiomycete w/o basidiocarp

________  Peach Leaf Curl

________  Penicillin

________  Phototropism

________  Pseudoplasmodium

________  Rot of oranges

________  Saddle-shaped apothecium

________  Skin infection

________  Slime mold with exogenous spores

________  Sooty molds

________  Soredium

________  Stalked teliospores

________  Subterranean ascocarp

________  Tar Spot

________  Turbinate cell

________  Vertically-septate basidium

________  Volva

________  Yeast multiplying by fission

________  Y-shaped basidia

 

1.   Arcyria

2.   Penicillium chrysogenum

3.   Meliola

4.   Endomyces

5.   Thielaviopsis

6.   Darluca

7.   Olpidium

8.   Rhytisma

9.   Tremellales

10.  Ceratostomella

11.  Claviceps

12.  Cyathus

13.  Hypomyces

14.  Streptomyces

15.  Dermatophytes

16.  Polysphondylium

17.  Ithyphallus

18.  Melampsoraceae

19.  Saprolegnia

20.  Polyporaceae

21.  Tuber

22.  Pythium

23.  Pucciniaceae

24.  Penicillium italicum

25.  Phycomyces

26.  Monoblepharis

27.  Syncephalis

28.  Taphrina

29.  Melanooniales

30.  Phytophthora

31.  Massospora

32.  Exobasidium

33.  Lecanorales

34.  Helvella

35.  Stilbaceae

36.  Dacryomyces

37.  Ceratiomyxa

38.  Spongospora

39.  Urophlyctis

40.  Schizosaccharomyces

 

 

 

6.  Specialists have long been impressed by the basic similarities between Taphrina and certain members or the

          Basidiomycota.  What kind of basidiomycete, in particular, does Taphrina resemble?  Specify what some of the

          points of similarity are.

7.  Discuss the nature, occurrence, and mode of action of spermatia in the fungi.

8.  The majority of the species assigned to the Heterobasidiomycetes are plant pathogens. whereas very few of the

          Homobasidiomycetes are known to incite plant disease. List other points or contrast between these two sub-

          Classes of the Basidiomycota.

9.   State how one would proceed to cross an albino "A" strain with a conidial "B" strain of Neurospora sitiphila if, at

          the same time it was desired to obtain the perithecia in a str1cUy localized area of the culture dish.  In what

          proportion would albinos be expected to occur among the progeny of' such a cross?  Would it be surprising to

          find that an the albinos from a single ascus produced in the cross were of "B" reaction?  Explain in some detail.

10.  By labeled sketches indicate exactly where karyogamy occurs in Synchytrium, Phytophthora, Rhizopus,

          Pyronema, Ustilago and Irpex.

11.  Compare Pyrenomycetes, Discomycetes, Rusts, Smuts, and Homobasidiomycetes in regard to the nature and

          extent of the dicaryophase.

12.  What is a "yeast"?  Distinguish between "sporogenous yeasts and "asporogenous yeasts", between "haplobiontic

          yeasts" and "diplobiontic yeasts."  List four families to which yeasts of various kinds are assigned.

 

13.  Taphrina, Protomyces, Ustilago and Dacrymyces, although not "yeasts" regularly have a "yeast phase" and in

          culture may closely resemble yeasts.  To what orders and classes do these four genera belong?

 

14.  Suppose that all fungi (Eumycophyta) suddenly disappeared from the earth.  Consider the immediate and the

          long-range ramifications or this event, on humans.

 

15.  Heterosporangium gracilie incites a common leafspot disease of Iris.  Even though had you never heard or this

          fungus  before, to learn that Heterosporium is a member of the Dematiaceae-Phragmosporae should provide

          substantial information about it.  What does this tell you?

12.  What is the basis for the belief that the Dermatophytes are closely related to the Gymnoascaceae?

17.  List several fungi that parasitize insects.

18.  List several fungi that parasitize other fungi and specify the hosts.

19.  Forcible discharge of certain reproductive bodies is common in some genera of fungi, e.g." Pilobolus, Nuurospora,

          Entomophthora, Urnula, Sphaerobolus, Sporobolomyces, etc.  Indicate the order to which each named genus

          belongs, and in each case state what structure it is that is discharged.

20.  List all the orders of fungi (Eumycophyta) in which zoospores are found.

21.  Name four families of' the Eumycophyta all known members of which are obligate parasites.

22.  Prepare a dichotomous key to the orders or the Heterobasidiomycetes.

23.  List some fungi (Eumycopbyta) that are intracellular parasites.

24.  What kinds of spores are produced by demicyclic rusts?   Give an example of a heteroecious demicyclic rust.

25.  Of what special importance is each of the following?  Tuber, Polyporaceae, Amanita, Chaetomium, Aspergillus, 

          Ashbya

26.  Certain genera in the Melampsoraceae produce their aecia on pine trees.  What are these genera and how can you

          distinguish one from another macroscopically on the pine host?