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EXAMINATION & EXERCISES #2

 

FOR THE ASCOMYCOTA

 

(Contact)

 

[For answers please also refer to:  Alexopoulos, C. J., C. W. Mims and M. Blackwell.

1996. Introductory Mycology. John Wiley and Sons, New York.]

 

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1.  For each of the entries listed below, name the genus or a genus in the Ascomycota that "fits,"  and indicate the order to which

         this genus belongs:

 

 

Spot Anthracnose -------------------

Sooty Mold --------------------------

Chestnut Blight ----------------------

Inoperculate Discomycetes --------

Apple Scab ---------------------------

Asci with more than 8 spores ------

Arthrospores -------------------------

Cleistothecium -----------------------

Sphaceloma imperfect stage -------

Parasitic on insects ------------------

Obligately parasitic Ascomycota --

Fission yeast -------------------------

Monilia imperfect stage ----------

Ascomycota in a lichen -------------

Trichogyne ---------------------------

Spermatia -----------------------------

Hysterothecium ---------------------

"Blue Stain" of wood ---------------

Parasitic on other fungi ------------

Four-spored asci --------------------

Subterranean ascocarp -------------

Racquet mycelium ------------------

A disease of cherry -----------------

Proascus -----------------------------

Perithecia imbedded in stroma ----

Foot cell ------------------------------

Globular ascus ----------------------

Long, slender ascospores ----------

Muriform ascospores --------------

Efficient cellulose pest -------------

Coprophilous Ascomycota -------

Tar Spot disease --------------------

Gibberellic acid ---------------------

Orange-colored perithecium ------

Conidia borne in acervulus --------

Oidium imperfect stage -----------

"Earth Tongue" ---------------------

"Saddle Fungus" --------------------

Needle Cast disease ----------------

Perithecium-like ascostroma ------

Pseudoparaphyses -----------------

Antheridium ------------------------

Dicaryotic mycelium --------------

Diploid cells multiply by budding-

 

GENUS

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2.  Complete the following classkfications:

 

Class:  _____________________________

Subclass:  __________________________

Order:  ____________________________

Family:  ____________________________

Genus:            Byssochlamys

 

 

Class:  _____________________________

Subclass:  __________________________

Order:  _____________________________

Family:  ____________________________

Genus:            Morchella

 

Class:  _____________________________

Subclass:  __________________________

Order:  _____________________________

Family:  ____________________________

Genus:              Neotria

 

 

Class:  _____________________________

Subclass:  __________________________

Order:  _____________________________

Family:  ____________________________

Genus:            Stamnaria

 

 

 

For the following fill in the blanks or underline the correct statements:

 

3.  Three representative genera of the Hemiascomycetes are:  ___________________, ___________________,

      ___________________,

 

4.  Schizosaccharomyces octosporus is a  (budding)  (fission) yeast.  It is (haplobiontic)  (diplobiontic) 

       (haplo-diplobiontic)

 

5.  Venturia inaequalis incites a disease of ___________________ that is called ____________________.

        This fungus has a  (Monilia)  (Graphium)  (Polytrincium)  (Fusicladium)  (Oidium)  (Spaceloma) imperfect

         stage.  The parasitic mycelium of V. inaequalis  (is)  (is not) confined to a subcuticular position.  The sexual

          process initiating the development of the perfect stage occurs (in spring)  (in mid-summer)  (in autumn) at high

          latitudes and involves the union of  (an antheridium)  (a spermatium)  with a trichogynous extension of an

          ascogonial coil.

 

6.  If an unfamiliar cup fungus were encountered and examining it microscopically revealed that it had elongated

       2-celled ascospores, it may be concluded with considerable confidence that this species belonged to the Sub-series

       ______________________________ of the Discomycetes.

 

7.  An Oidium imperfect stage is typical of  (Elsinoe)  (Microsphaera)  (Thielavia)  (Myriangium)  (Erysiphe) 

       (Sphaerotheca)  (Byssochlamys).

 

8.  In agar culture species of Taphrina may closely resemble  (Endomyces)  (Saccharomyces)  (Schizosaccharomyces)

       (Byssochlamys), both macro- and microscopically.

 

9.  Asci arise from ascogenous hyphae in (Phyllactinia)  (Byssochlamys)  (Thielavia)  (Endomycopsis)  (Eurotium) 

       (Dipodascus)  (Taphrina)  (Neurospora)  (Daldinia)  (Higginsia)  (Pyronema).

 

10.  The yeast usually used in baking  (is)  (is not)  a "sporogenous" yeast.  The metabolic produce of the yeast that is

         concerned in the leavening of bread dough is ______________________.

 

11.  Saccharomyces cerevisiae  (has)  (does not have)  the ability to hydrolyze starch.  Therefore, a sterile

         unhydrolyzed grain mash  (will)  (will not)  provide a satisfactory source of carbohydrate for growth of this

         years and/or for alcoholic fermentation.

 

12.  With a substantial supply of sugar, minerals, etc., but a poor supply of oxygen, cells of Saccharomyces  (will

          soon die)  (will thrive and multiply rapidly)  (will live but will not bud very much).

 

13.  In the pressence of an abundance of free oxygen, Saccharomyces cerevisiae tends to produce _____________and

          ___________________ as end products of its respiration.  When the oxygen supply is low, alcohol and

          __________________ are produced.  The alcohol is (ethyl alcohol)  (methyl alcohol)  (butyl alcohol).

 

14.  "Aspergillosis" in birds usually involves infection by  (Aspergillus niger)  (Aspergillus amsteledami)

           (Aspergillus flavus)  (Aspergillus fumigatus). 

 

15.  About  (one fourth)  (one half)  (three fourths) of all known lichen fungi are assigned to the order Lecanorales.

          Lichens whose thalli are of the upright, "shrubby" type are technically described as  (crustose)  (foliose) 

          (fruticose).

 

16.  Eremothecium and Ashbya are important fungi  (because they incite disease in a crop plant)  (because they have a

         prominent role in decomposing organic matter in the soil)  (because they produce an important antibiotic) 

         (because they are excellent sources of a certain vitamin).

 

17.  Penicillin is obtained commercially from Penicillium ___________________.  This species of Penicillium  (has)

          (is not known to have)  a perfect stage.

 

18.  The following genera belong to the Operculate Discomycetes:  (Monilinia)  (Leotis)  (Helvella)  (Urnula) 

          (Dibotryon)  (Hypodermella)  (Verpa)  (Pyronema)  (Mollisia)  (Ascobolus).

 

19.  Most higher Ascomycota apprently produce their asci through crozier formation.  Fusion of two nuclei in the

          young ascus was first observed by    (de Bary)  (Harper)  (Dangeard)  (Thaxter)  (Seaver)  about  (1860)   (1890)

          (1915)  (1930).

 

20.  The special cell division process whereby ascospores are delimited is called ___________________.  This

          process was first described by   (de Bary)  (Strasburger)  (Harper)  (Raper)  (Thaxter)  (Dodge)  about   (1850)

          (1875)    (1900)  (1925).  The unused cytoplasm that is left over in the ascus after spore delimitation is termed  

          (epiplasm)  (periplasm).  At inception, ascospores are  (always)  (almost always) unicellular, and  (always) 

          (almost always)  uninucleate.

 

21.  Large unicellular sculptured ascospores occur in  (Tuber)  (Neurospora)  (Taphrina)  (Myriangium)  (certain members of the

          Pezizales)  (many members of the Helotiales).

 

22.  Mycelial cells of Taphrina are typically  (uninucleate)  (binucleate)  (multinucleate).  In T. deformans proasci are

          formed    (subcuticularly)  (just under the epidermis)  (scattered among the host cells near the surface of the

          attacked host organ).

 

23.  Daldinia and Xylaria belong to the order __________________.  These two genera differ principally   (in the

          form of their stromata)  (in the structure and shape of their ascospores)  (in the substrates on which they grow).

 

24.  The "Dermatophytes" that incite ringworm, athlete's foot and nail lesions in humans are believed to be related to

          the Gymnoascaceae  (because members of both groups are keratinophilic)  (because of certain mycelial

          peculiarities which are shared by the two groups).

 

25.  In the following list place a check mark after any tiem that is found both in Venturia and in Neurospora:

 

conidiophores:  _________

conidia:  ______________

spermatia:  ____________

ascogonium:  ___________

ascogenous hyphae:  _____       

 

haustoria:  ______________

septate hyphae:  _________

ascospores:  ____________

heterothallism:  ___________

proasci: _________________