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For educational purposes:--

Information on the basics of Entomology


Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Contents


Entomology:  PSOCOPTERA 1

Kingdom:  Animalia, Phylum: Arthropoda

Subphylum: Hexapoda: Class: Insecta: Order: Psocoptera (Corrodentia)



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Pteragota:  Paurometabola

  Order:  Psocoptera (Corrodentia) (42 Families)

    General Summary

    Occurrence & Diet



    Damage & Control)

    References      Citations     Sample Examinations


General Summary of Psocoptera


          Psocoptera (= Corrodentia), or booklice and barklice -- #2>; <Adults, #2> & <Juveniles, #2>  -- are small insects (1/4 to 1/2 centimeter long), that have both winged and wingless members.  Their close relationship to Isoptera (termites) and other insect groups has been suggested.  Their close relationship to the Phthiraptera may eventually have them joined with that order.


          They have biting mouthparts and their thoracic segments are distinct.  The wings have a reduced venation and cross-veins are largely absent.  Some adults are wingless. Their antennae are long and segmented, about one-half the length of the abdomen.  Metamorphosis is incomplete


Occurrence and Diet


          These insects occur on bark and leaves of trees, and they are frequently found in buildings where warmth and high humidity are favorable for the growth of molds.  They feed on lichens and dry vegetable matter, fungi, cereals, pollen and fragments of dead insects. Like the Thysanura (silverfish) they feed on materials that contain starch, such as books, bindings, wallpaper paste and they contaminate food products. Atropus pulsatoria, the book louse, inhabits damp, dark rooms and feeds on the paste of bookbindings, wallpaper, etc.  Some species are gregarious.




          The eggs are laid singly or in clusters on plant bark or leaves and covered by a protective sheath of silk by the female, e.g. Peripsocus phaeopterus.  Most species have six nymphal instars




          Locomotion is correlated to body type and ecological needs.  Apterous species are found in books, while winged species are found in outside environments.


Damage & Control


          Apart from their occasional damage to starchy products, such as found in books, and gathering numbers in households, Borror & DeLong (1954) reported that certain species of Liposcelis and Rhyopsocus have been found to be intermediate hosts of the fringed tapeworm of sheep, Thysanosoma ostinioides Diesing.


          The storage of books in a warm dry room and general cleanliness are preventative measures.




Details of Insect Taxonomic Groups


          Examples of beneficial species occur in almost every insect order, and considerable information on morphology and habits has been assembled.  Therefore, the principal groups of insect parasitoids and predators provide details that refer to the entire class Insecta.  These details are available at <taxnames.htm>.






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