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For educational purposes:--

Information on the basics of Entomology


Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Contents


Entomology:  PLECOPTERA 1

Kingdom:  Animalia, Phylum: Arthropoda

Subphylum: Hexapoda: Class: Insecta: Order: Plecoptera



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Insecta:  Pteragota:  Hemimetabola

  Order:  Plecoptera (15 Families)

    General Summary




     Sample Examinations

     References      Citations


General Summary of Plecoptera


          The Plecoptera -- <Adults> &  <Juveniles>  -- are mandibulate insects with a hetero-metabolous metamorphosis. Although they have two pairs of well-developed wings, these are feeble fliers, and do not move far from their aquatic breeding grounds.  They have prominent elongated antennae and 3-jointed tarsi. The wing venation may represent a primitive type, as there is considerable variation in venation in the order.   The hind wing is pleated like an accordion.  Both wings are folded back against each other.


          Adults. -- The adults do not feed very much, and when they do they are exclusively vegetarian.


          Naiads. -- The immatures are always aquatic, inhabiting swift-flowing streams with stony beds primarily. They possess the antennal and cercal features of the adult and breathe with thoracic and abdominal gill tufts in various positions.  Sometimes vestiges are found on adults, although these are not aquatic. The antennae are long.


          Distribution. -- Like most aquatic insects they have a wide distribution particularly in mountain streams.  The most generalized families are found in southern regions and the most specialized in northern regions. Perla maximum is a common species found in European streams (Borradaile & Potts, 1958).




Details of Insect Taxonomic Groups


          Examples of beneficial species occur in almost every insect order, and considerable information on morphology and habits has been assembled.  Therefore, the principal groups of insect parasitoids and predators provide details that refer to the entire class Insecta.  These details are available at <taxnames.htm>.






Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Contents