For teaching purposes only
[References for this review may be found at <Nyland>]
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Also called the Grammarian's Dictionary. It was in this form that the Benedictine grammarians used the dictionary in their scriptoria to manipulate and agglutinate the original Saharan/Basque vocabulary in their efforts to create the Indo-European languages of Western Europe. Sixteen consonants are the basis of this organization, each of which is subdivided into 25 different VCV's for a total of 400 VCV's. Double R was used as another consonant, adding 25 more VCV's, for a total of 425, of which ca.107 were reserved for future expansion of the VCV dictionary, but never used (see Nyland’s (2001) VCV Formula)
The grammarians apparently had made up cards for the 300+ VCV's which had meanings associated. Each card showed one VCV in large letters, with the varied meanings written under it in small letters. These cards were then laid out a large table with the interlocking vowels forming pairs of cards. This provided the grammarians not only with an enormous number of vocabulary possibilities but also creative entertainment. If a specific word needed to be assembled, a definition or related comment was written and the appropriate word cards arranged. New words would often be accidentally invented which had not yet been called for. In this manner a very large vocabulary was invented with many duplicating words. The result was that English now has so many words that the language needs a thesaurus to keep them all available and alive. It is the only language with such a thesaurus.
The following is a simplified version of the dictionary developed by Nyland (2001).
THE OGAM / BASQUE DICTIONARY OF VCV WORDS
BASQUE WORDS WHERE THE SECOND LETTER IS A CONSONANT
The following are Basque words in which the second letter from the left is as shown at the beginning of the list. (e.g., ABA (2nd letter is a "B"). The first and last letter of the word is either spelled as a noun or sounds like one.
CLICK on letter to locate Igbo words with specific consonant:
(Note: All Basque words are in Bold-faced Green):
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
ABA. priest, rectory, occasion, chance, opportunity, slingshot, advantage, surpass, rower, almost, branch, shade.
ABE. support, cross, receive, hospitable, animal, manger, stable, cattle, race, fertile, elegant, wealth, rich, brutality, patriotic,
choir, concert, to sing.
ABI. nest, speed, hurry, departure, impulsive, start, walk, talent, to begin, skillful.
ABO. voice, approve of, lawyer, to proclaim, to shout out.
ABU. opinion, agree, to express a thought.
EBA. cut, slice, harvest, remnant, evaluation, evangelist,
gospel, fraud, plunder, hide-out, thief, to decide.
IBA. river, lowland, confluence, shore, ferry, valley.
IBE. to place, to put on, to introduce, act of putting on.
IBI. to ford or cross or walk or trip, route, roadmap, to run, vagabond, nomadic, impassible, to behave or act, trecede, wade,
be, or go.
OBA. better, naturally, improvement.
ADA. noise, to mend, patch, horn, branching, to tease, to gore, firewood, deceive, long hair, ramification, trumpet sound.
ADE. temple, rude, gentle, adorn, courteous, to prepare.
ADI. watch out, announce, interpret, advice, meaning, suggestive, sign, symbol, logical,care-less, dumb, intelligent, judgment,
friendly, to explain,
understanding, be careful.
ADO. courage, bravery, stimulate, agree, worship.
ADU. slobber, luck, to be charmed.
EDA. to drink, thirst, drunk, glass, poison, potable.
IDA. to write, subject of writing, document, clerk.
UDA. summer, spring, autumn, dog days, pear.
AFA. happy, pleasing, supper, mealtime.
IFA. north, north wind.
UFA. panting, scornful, to blow, to stink.
pole/stick, abundance, hitting, to lash, to whip.
AGE. agency, rod, notorious, symbol, sign, to declare, document, public, revelation, obvious, sample, discovery, to appear,
EGA. wing, to fly, to evaporate, edge, escape, protection, thirsty, anxiety, aircraft, shelter, to favour.
(something), to undo, bargain, action, to convince.
throw, to nurse, rest, to vomit, to expel.
sunlight, east wind, to burn, sunset.
IGA. fruit, to rise, sunday, dress up, wilted, sign, prophet, to guess, to travel, bearable, tolerant, to notice, last year, dead,
IGE. frog, to plaster, mason, to swim, to float, escape, to
OGA. wealth, property.
UGA. abundant, fruitful, to abound, bountiful, breast,
AHA. I hope, perhaps, anger, argument, power, trial, capable, attempt, possible, almighty, shame, bold, shy, mouthful, to
forget, injury, ram, yawn, dirt, duck, to bark.
to pronounce, to bridle, to mention, spoken language, chaff, to exaggerate, to yawn, to kneel down, to deceive, to utter.
auek = these ones)
EHA. N.A. but often used as ea, the emphasis of an indirect question.
IHA. almost, jovial, expertise, dry, wallow, answer, frightened, argue, spend time, carnival, to scatter, to discuss. (ia= almost,
OHA. bed, concubine, warning, comment, thoughtful,
spontaneous, distracted, attention, look- out, counselor.
UHA. belt, pebble, coast, flood, deluge, to fasten, water
tower, riverbed, turbidity, island, to turn yellow, floodgate, lettuce.
OJA. edge of the forest.
AKA. the end, death, ultimate, to argue, notched, defective,
chip, fault, perfect, superior, to end a life.
EKA. substance, solstice, storm, to be used to, bringer,
transport, contribution, to bring.
IKA. familiar, fright, terror, enormous, timid, to terrorize, teachings, example, to learn, student, class, coal, fig trees, horror.
spectator, to visit, to wash, bucket, hostility.
OKA. overfull, nausea, satiety, to vomit, bellyful, plum,
occasional, disgust, despise, plentiful.
UKA. hand, sock, boxer, forearm, pummel, elbow, to have,
possession, wrist, to deny.
ALA. in that way, even so, as, so-so, daughter, indeed, however, fate, casual, amen, fatally, I swear to, happy, similar, sudden,
wire fence, outcry, widow, to cause pain, miracle, feeding, widow, to fill with joy, destiny, necessary.
abundance, total, barn, threshing.
ELA. story, word, novel, talkative, swallow, elastic.
ILA. dead, month, hair, pea, in a row, to murder, moon, lunatic, tombstone, lifetime, white ash, to destroy, to weaken.
grave yard, funeral, complaint, mourner, everlasting.
OLA. factory, foundry, cabin, plank, octopus, sledge, like
this, canopy, wave, just like this.
AMA. mother, Priestess, Goddess, 11, 12, 15, two weeks, end, many, to destroy, grandmother, rope, to fasten, to lace, cunning,
decade, to turn off, to quench, spoiled child, endless.
annoy, wrath, refund, blunt.
EMA. female, vagina, prostitute, to calm, lust, result, generous, lady, to give, to hit, receipt, emission, performance, fruitful,
to abduct, wife, single, to get married, to
produce, to teach.
IMA. statue, image, sculpture, magnet, wicker, wattle, idol.
OMA. grandma, house of Oma.
UMA. child, pregnant, procreation, fertile, birth, mature,
ANA. brother, congregation, religious order, civil war,
anarchy, anatomy, to unite. (aña = wet nurse)
ENA. to swallow, that, -superlative.
ENE. my, exclamation (pain, surprise), property, in me, to me, to attract to me, come to me, when, my dear, before,
INA. hail, to swallow, to agitate, to shake, to open, to trim, pruning.
INU. to nurse, sunset, evening, twilight, ant, heath, prickly, tingle, inspiring, thunder, stupid.
ONA. here, closer, prosperity, unacceptable, welcome, approval, admit.
piety, advantageous, improve, to come here, to accept, to praise, decent, tolerant, honesty, blessing, charity, right now,
UNA. boredom, annoyance, dull, cowherd, fatigue.
APA. kiss, sit down, to cook, elegant, ornament, to make up, bathroom, to organize, luxury, priest, humble, shelving, dinner
guest, ravine, meek, poverty, foam, special, hoof, spongy.
EPA. decision, trial, court, judge, to cut, sentence.
bottom, glowworm, kinglet, short of time.
IPA. north, polar, N.W., Nordic, northern.
OPA desire, offering, sacrifice, gift, rich, abundant, to
wish for, to give.
ARA. there, proportion, according to, to adapt, to conform, agreement, apt, adequate, meat, lustful, scraped, carnivorous,
butcher, to assimilate, sexual, farther, curious, massacre, spider, plum, echo, prong, towards here, thorny, curse, exorcise,
interval, immediate, mediator, closet, duck, corrupt, pure, job, employ, worried, refine.
shouting, boastful, to complain, careful, eagle, arrogant, weep, disorderly, plunder, greed, hastily, capture, rare, to
drag, rat, evening, oar, egg, row, yawn, race, breed, reason, absurd, arbitrary, stone, infrequent.
ARE. even so, sand, more, to grow, rake, those, like that, his/her, approach, enemy hostility, recent, cover with sand.
equipment, kind, from then on.
ARI. mission, thread, to him/her, wire, active, until, exercise, wound, soul, ruthless, light, hasten, escape, race, thoughtless,
pertinent, oak grove.
ARO. weather, season, epoch, all, carpenter,
ARU. toward, farther, movement, to wander.
ERA. manner, appearance, opportunity, cause, to decide, sentence, entirely, reform, polite, use, profit, to move, available,
nonsense, exercise, effective, promote, influence, trouble, builder, murder, milk, scatter, active, method, sample,
education, explain, to spend, patience, to suffer, sticky, attack, devotion, murmur, according to, convenient, ring (on
finger), agitation, to carry.
to wander, sting, to sweep, destructive, to burn, to cremate, negligence, easy.
ERE. too, as well, example, statue, ideal, to sow, to scatter, laurel wreath, wasteland, wilderness, hymn, occasion, side,
law, king, region, prayer, kingdom, stream, south wind, stream, care, to claim, corrosive, cure, to remedy, blacksmith's
shop, tool, tugboat, charity, growl, cripple, refund, to surrender, row, limp, renter, roual road, tolling bells, slowly, to
reserve, respect, result, to retire, argument, touchy, simple, suspicious, welcome.
ERI. sickness, finger, vigil, noxious, death, recovery, agony, fatal, to have an opinion, unanimous, to compare, common, to
think, to call, to spill, to flow.
people, castor oil.
ERO. crazy, every, carrier, to suffer, to tolerate, patience, transport, insane, to decline, ruin, risky, to fall, to die, slide, to cause,
to buy and sell, merchandise, bribe, to redeem, comfort, mourning, store, basket, erotic.
robust, to settle,to take root, secure.
abundant, to accuse.
IRA. profession, profitable, to earn, to grow up, lucrative, victorious, paying, to mix, to make, suggestion, bargeman,
migratory, to spend time, to suffer, past, durable, constant, safe conduct, profit, warning, to announce, filter, offense,
to injure, to leave, shot, school day, education, teacher, school, boiling, fervor, enraging, passion, reading, print, to stick,
ghost, exciting, to wake up, to upset, to plow, revolt, to endure, perishable, patient, firmness, to ignite.
IRE. your, opener, to open, to dig, hole, crack,
to devour, destructive, to swallow, to absorb, to ruin.
IRI. town, city, to open, civic, to pulverize, wasteful, to squander, achievement, to acquire, to arrive, to get, to judge, opinion,
agreement, moderator, unanimous.
sled, to yearn for, sarcastic.
IRO. reproach, toilet, manure pile,
outhouse, garbage dump, irony, culvert.
IRU. 3, three sided, image, picture, to seem, to resemble, symbol, conceivable, worship idols, to simulate, false belief, to
represent, to appear, trimester, trio, weaver, to reverse, clover, one third, 60, 70, 300, fraud, trick, deceit, cheat, crook.
ORA. dog, filling, present, now, modern,
yet, right now, to catch, to grab always, update.
ORE. putty, dough, deer, mole (on skin),
beauty mark, balance, aerialist, hour, o'clock, to watch, dentist.
ORI. that, yellow, gold colored, except,
pale, to paint, freckle.
ORO. all, every, also, in addition, totality, similar, to unify, to monopolize, to buy up, to hoard, Creator, monument, memory,
to remind, universal, moss, ambitious.
ORU. lower part of ground, building
site, lot, place of oats.
URA. he, she, that one, him, her, watery, bank of the river, to flood, ocean, watered wine, to float, washbasin, sugar water.
a law, lettuce.
URE. waterfowl, boiled water, water carrier, nobility, dropsy, warm water, runny nose, irrigation ditch, riverbank, flood,
aquatic, water, to launch, beach resort, by the sea, to dilute.
URI. city, communal forest, low tide, butter, grease, urban.
stink, freely, gratis, female animal, grove of hazel trees.
URO. irrigation canal, brick casing, water
pipe, marsh hen, cistern, reservoir, cold water.
URU. flower, to dip in flower.
ASA. ancestor, to go away, to reject, shocking, agitation, excitement, revolt, to disturb, scared, alarm, to get angry, to annoy,
ESA. to say, expression, witty, wise, phrase, speaker, gossip, weaving back and forth, to relate, meaning, lecture, moral of the
to surround, to gather, round-up.
ISA. blow with a broom, long-tailed, short-tailed, broom,
furze, gorse, tail.
OSA. to get well, uncle, unfinished, therapy, composition, incurable, component, health, doctor, healer, sick, integrity,
perfection, hospital, to unify.
USA. dove, usage, usual, get used to, sense of smell, suspicion, to guess, to stink, to smell, aroma, custom, habit, to use, holy
USE. to sneeze.
ATA. door, drummer, litel, main entrance, exterior, fragment, simple, to divide, whole, member, integral part, evergreen forest,
advantage, benefit, introduction.
clear, calm, shelter, door to door, to stretch.
ETA. and, abundance, era, stage.
in, fragile, breaking point.
eloquence, to adapt to, to agree, inspiration.
ITA. harvest with sickle, leak, drip, manger, to ask, interrogation, to question; ITXA: hope, trust, to await, have faith in
OTA. gorse, stubble, crumb, basket, lobster, prawn, mouthful,
bite, wild mountains.
pruning, to wake up.
UXA. to shoo away, beating for game.
AZA. cabbage, bark of tree, skin, water surface, shallow, make-up, explanation, to scar, to appear, to warn, to discover, crust,
to show, manifest, to cover, difficult to explain, proposal, insincere, to peel, noise, planting season, sheaf, furrow, to dare.
EZA. lack, shortness, negative, cancellation, to erase, signal, judgment, one who knows, knowledge, reason, evident, to
introduce, to guess, to recognize, ugly, to silence, to omit, founder, distinctive, discussion.
to omit, to deny, disdain, fragile, unknown, except, not only, negative response.
impatient, excellent, supreme, grudge, ill-will, unbearable, inability, undeniable, precarious, nickname.
IZA. nature, creation, character, to be, to exist, reality, past, entity, in fact, except, it will be, co-exist, procedure, star, celebrity,
moderation, to twinkle, island, identity, inborn.
UZA*. churlish, unkind, to drive away/off.
A similar list can be made up for the many VCCV's such as azka, etxe, izki, ospe, uste, uzke, etc. Keep in mind that the "s" and "z" are frequently mixed up and therefore both must be tried to select the proper translation.