For teaching purposes: quote cited references only
[References for this review may be found at <Nyland>]
[Note: All Basque words are in Italics and Bold-faced Green]
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An ancient language form that originated in the North African area of our most ancient civilizations has been studied by Nyland (2001). He found that many words used to describe names of places and things in the area of The Netherlands seem to be closely related to the ancient language, Nyland called Saharan, and which later was predated by the Igbo Language of West Africa. Fortuitously, the Basque Language is a close relative to the original Saharan. Following is a discussion of this relationship:
In discussions of the English language, the Ogam script and the Benedictines, Nyland (2001) showed how the Benedictine clergy and their grammarians invented thousands of words by manipulating the universal language, the Saharan/Basque language, with the use of the vowel-interlocking Ogam formula. The same was done when they created the Dutch and German languages but with an important difference. For English they followed the example of Latin and Sanskrit, and used primarily that half of the Basque vocabulary that started with vowel-consonant (VC). To invent Dutch and German, both halves of the Basque language, VC and CV words were used and the originally strict VCV Formula rules of word agglutination were relaxed. That is why their work resulted in quite different languages. In order to understand the methods of word and name translations, it is necessary to become familiar with a specific procedure (see Ogam script & Translations).
BENEDICTINE ABBEY OF EGMOND
Although the languages mentioned are not mutually fully understandable, it is relatively easy for a native of The Netherlands to learn both German and English because Dutch is a kind of bridge between the two. The reason for this appears to be that all three languages were made up during the same era by the same brotherhood of Benedictine grammarians who worked closely together and borrowed newly created words regularly. Then they shaped the words according to predetermined sets of character rules. The Egmond Abbey, which was built in 922 A.D. near the North Sea coast, west of the City of Alkmaar in North Holland, appears to have been the central clearinghouse for the exchange and distribution of words and literature. Contact between this abbey and the other scriptorium was frequent. The Abbey was accessible by boat both from the sea to the west, and from the Rhine hinterland to the east. The name "Egmond" relates to the linguistic activities going on at the abbey: eg.-mo-ond.
egin to create
Documents available from Alcuin's time in the late 800's (Shipley-Duckett 1951) tell us that the monks from England regularly sailed to the mainland, while the monks from Germany and Austria would go over land and by boat down the Rhine. These monks were highly mobile in their small boats and this may well have been the origin of the name .
ol. ola olatu waves
The main linguistic center of the French language, located in the Benedictine Abbey of Cluny, appeared to have had little direct contact with Egmond Abbey. Its main contacts over land with the Romance world instead. The Scandinavian, Hungarian and East European linguistic efforts were still many years in the future. Over the centuries the Benedictine grammarians created tens of thousands of new words out of the universal Saharan language, many of which did not fit in the design plan for the home languages. Rejected words were taken in context to Egmond Abbey where they were evaluated by local Benedictine linguists and others visiting from other countries and then exchanged. Unwanted words passed into oblivion. This may have been the fate of the majority of the grammarians’ creations.
It was in about 1,060 A.D. that the Abbot Willeram, of Ebersberg Benedictine Abbey in Bavaria (east of München) wrote a commentary on Solomon's Song of Songs, the Bible's wedding song. In it, love is explained in an allegorical sense as a dialog between Christ and His Church. The love bed is conceived as evangelism and lovely breasts as mercy. It is not likely that Willeram was the writer's real name because the meaning tells us that it was the title of his work:
Willeram: il.-.le-era.am. (the "w" has no meaning)
As was normal practice, shortly after completion, the manuscript was taken to Egmond Abbey and made available for study by the visiting monks/grammarians. Willeram's work had a profound influence upon the early development of both Dutch and German. The document is now located in the nearby library of the University of Leiden, Holland. Similarly, at about the same time, the four lines of "Olla Vogala", written in the Rochester Benedictine Abbey near Chatham, England, were taken to Egmond after some of its new words were accepted into the English language (olla became "all", nestas became "nests" etc). All four lines were published in context that made it possible to bring out the hidden Basque sentences. In Egmond several of the newly created words were quickly picked up by the monks working on the Dutch and German languages e.g. 'hebban' became "hebben" in Dutch, "haben" in German, "have" in English, while vogala became "vogels" (birds) in Dutch and "Vögel" in German. First let us look in detail at "Olla Vogala" (van Oostrom).
The following lines were written on the back page of a prayer book dating from the 11th century, originating in the Benedictine scriptorium of Rochester, England. The third and fourth lines are considered by linguists to be the oldest known prose in the Dutch language, shown here in context:
quid expectamus nunc
abent omnes volucres nidos inceptos nisi ego et tu
hebban olla vogala nestas hagunnan hinase hic
enda thu wat unbidan we nu.
Lines 1 and 2 contain recognizable Latin words, be it a kind of dog-Latin. Literally, in the order given they read: "What do we expect now gone away all birds' nests begun except I and you (Furlong). Lines 3 and 4 are thought to say in Dutch: Hebben alle vogelen nesten begonnen behalve ik en jij; wat verwachten we nu ("All birds have started nest building except you and I; what can we expect now?"). Lines 1 and 2 therefore say roughly the same in Latin what lines 3 and 4 say in archaic Dutch. These words, supposedly coming from the pen of a Benedictine monk, were received with chuckles and wondering. It better applied to a lover telling his beloved to mirror herself on the behavior of the birds. But is this really what the monk wrote? Again apply the VCV Formula and see what happens; (the "/" indicates a break in the vowel-linking; "c" and "q" must be read as "k", "v" as "b."
kuid expektamus nunk : .ku-id./ek.-.s.-.pe-ek.-.ta-amu-us./.nu-un.-.k./
.ku iku ikuskari visitor
id./ idu idurikortsu very distrustful
ek. eka ekaitz storm
.s. ase asetu to get tired
.pe epe epel weak
ek. eko ekoitzi to supply
.to ota otapur crumb
amu amu amultsu trusting
us./ usu usu usually
.nu inu inular evening
un. una una dull
.k. aka akatsun miserable
The visitors were very distrustful. Tired and weak from the storm, I gave crumbs to the usually
trusting (birds) on that dull, miserable evening.
abent omnes volukres: abe.ent./om.-.ne-es./.bo-ol.-.ju-uk.-.re-es./
abe abe abestu to sing
ent./ entz entzungale longing to hear
om. ome omendatu to pay tribute, to thank
.ne ene enegana to me
es. esa esan to express
.bo abo abots voice
ol. ola ola cabin
.ju aju ajuria field of heather
uk. uka ukan to have
.re are arremankor sociable
es./ esa esamesaka gossiping
I longed to hear them sing, expressing thanks to me. Their voices (could be heard) from the cabin in the
field of heather where they had their sociable gossiping time.
nidos inkeptos nisi ego: .ni-ido-os./in.-.ke-ep.-.to-os./.ni-isi/ego/
.ni eni eni to me
ido ido idoroketa discovery, revelation
os./oso oso complete
in. ino inoizka occasionally
.ke oke okerbidetu to go astray
ep. epe epel timid
.to eto etorle arrival
os. osa osatu to unify (with family)
.ni ani anitzetan often
isi/ isi isilbidez quietly
ego/ego egon to stay
(It was) a complete revelation to me. Occasionally, when a timid arrival had gone astray, looking
for its family, it often quietly stayed.
et tu hebban olla vogala: et./.tu/.he-eb.-.ba-an./ol.-.la/.bo-oga-ala/
et./ eto etor to come
.tu/ atu atutxa oak forest
.he ihe ihesleku to shelter
eb. eba ebatzi to decide
.ba aba abarratsu many branched
an./ana anaitu together
ol. ole oles egin to call upon
.la ela elaberritsu talkative, chattering
.bo abo aboskatu o voice
oga oga ogasun wealth
ala/ ala alaitasun happiness
They came to the oak forest and decided to shelter together among the many branches and called
upon (all) by chattering and voicing a wealth of happiness ....
nestas hagunnan hinase: .ne-esta-as./.ha-agu-un.-.na-an./.hi-ina-ase/
.ne ene enean at the time
esta esta estaldu to pair off
as./ ase asegaitz urge
.ha oha oharatu to become receptive to mating
agu agu agudotu to get active
un. uni unibertsalki generally
.na ina inarrosi to agitate
an./ ano ano food supply
.hi ehi ehizaldi to hunt
ina ina inarroskatu excitedly
ase/ ase asegabi greedily
At the time that they got the urge to pair off. Becoming receptive to mating, they got generally active and
agitated over their food supply. They hunted excitedly and greedily,
hik enda thu wat unbidan we nu: .hi-ik./en.-.da/.t.-.hu/at./un.-.bi-ida-an./eu/.nu
.hi ahi ahitugaitz inexhaustibly
ik. ike ikerraldi exploring
en. ena -ena superlative
.da ada ada noise
.t. ate ateratu to depart
.hu/ehu ehundaka by the hundreds
at./ ata atano evergreen oak forest
un. una unatasun fatigue
.bi abi abiatu to leave behind
ida ida idazlan writing
an./ana anaia monk
eu eu eu you
.nu/inu inurritu to inspire
Exploring inexhaustibly. Noisily they departed by the hundreds from the oak forest, leaving your
exhausted monk behind to write and inspire you.
This is a masterful piece of "double speak" in three languages, Latin, Basque and Dutch. The unique creativity lies in the linguist's ability to write one sentence in Latin, translate this into archaic Dutch and still hide a quite different story in both sentences to be decoded with the use of Basque. This hidden story makes clear that the birds arrived at their wintering grounds in south-east England where they were fed and observed by the monk. In spring, the birds paired off and departed to nest somewhere in the north. The monk's word "nestas" has therefore nothing to do with nest building; it simply means: "at the time they had the urge to pair off." The new word "vogala" certainly described the small songbirds beautifully, they really do "voice a wealth of happiness". There are quite a number of songbird species over wintering in southern England that may have been the "vogala" such as blue and grey tits.
Dutch has many words and names that seem to be unique to the language. However, most of these are also found in Basque, often with a closely related meaning. Several of these words have been declared "slang" by linguists in an effort to rid the new language of pre-Christian vocabulary. About some of the words it is hinted that they were borrowed from Yiddish and therefore are supposedly not Dutch at all. This is not true (see the origin of Yiddish ).
The Dutch use some rather strange sounding words without knowing the meaning of them; Ingvaeoon is possibly the most outlandish. The pre-Christian inhabitants of Holland were called ingvaeoon by Tacitus, a word which Dutch linguists say means: "living along the ocean, a Saxon word...." To find out the original meaning, again apply the VCV interlocking formula:
Corpse-exposure was, of course, common practice among all peoples worshipping the supreme Goddess of the Ashera Religion. Exposure to the elements was done in special protected facilities to properly release the soul of the deceased from the body for speedy re-incarnation into a newborn child. Dutch linguists use the word Ingvaeoons as the name of the language spoken by the pre-historic people of Holland, a use that the actual meaning of the word shows is incorrect.
PLACE NAMES IN THE NETHERLANDS
Most older Dutch place names can be decoded with the VCV Formula and translated with the Basque dictionary. There is no doubt that the people spoke the pre-Christian language of all of Europe that was the universal language of the Neolithic, tht Edo Nyland has called Saharan, of which Basque is a close relative. Some of the sentences hidden in the following names must have histories of their own:
Amerongen: ame-ero-onge-en., ameskor (dreaming) erosle (Redeemer) onginahi (kindness) enegana (to me): "I am dreaming about
the Redeemer's kindness to me".
woman): "The foreign woman escaped unharmed from her abductors".
Barnegat: .ba-arnegat, ebanjelari (evangelist) arnegatu (to get angry): "The evangelist got angry".
Beveland: .be-ebe-ela-and., ibeni (to introduce, tell) ebertar (Hebrew) ela (story) andi (marvelous): "Tell the marvellous story
Delden: .de-el.-.de-en., ade-ela-ade-ene, adeitasun (good manners) ele (conversation) ederretsi (pleasing) adeitsu (courteous)
-enetan (always): "Good manners, pleasing conversation and always courteous". (compare this name with the neighboring
"Hengelo"). (Delden is the author's family homestead).
Delft: .de-el-.f.-.t., ede-ela-afa-ati, eder (beautiful) ela (story) afa (happy) atxikitzaile (faithfulness): "Beautiful story of happy
Drachten, .d.-.ra-ak.-.te-.en, ada-ara-aka-ate-entz, adarka (by goring, stabbing) arakintzo (massacre) akabatu (to end a life)
atezatu (to live on) entzute (fame): "The stabbing massacre
ended his life, but his fame lives on". Was that about St. Boniface?
Drente, .d.-.re-en.-.te, adei (courteous) errezibimendu (welcome) enetan (always) etenda (tired): "Always a courteous welcome
(for those who are)
Ede: ede, ederren (the most beautiful): "The most beautiful".
Ellekom: el.-.le-eko-om., ela-ale-eko-ome, ela (story) alegera (happy) ekonomo (administrator) omenezko (honorable): "Happy
story of the honorable administrator".
Enschede: en.-.ske-ede, ena (superlative) aske
(free, independent) eder
(beautiful): "Very independent and beautiful".
Goes: gus, gustoko (my favorite): "My favorite (town)".
Gouda: .go-uda, egoitzar (home) uda
(summer): "Summer home".
Groningen: .gro-oni-inge-en., aguro (diligent) onibilera (prosperous) ingiratu (to get ready) eneganatu (to attract people):
prosperous and getting ready to attract people".
Heilo: .he-ilo, ihe-ilo, ihesari eman (to escape) ilordu (agony): "(We) escaped the agony".
den Helder: .de-en./.he-el.-.de-er., ede-ene/ihe-ela-ade-era: ederren (the most beautiful) ene (to attract, come to) ihesleku (shelter,
harbour) elaberritsu (fond of the news) adeitsu (courteous) errezibimendu (welcome): "Come to the most beautiful harbor
for the latest news
and a courteous welcome".
Hengelo: .he-enge-elo, uher (malicious) engera (disgusting) elorritsu (crude): "Malicious, disgusting and crude". (Compare this
name with neighboring
Hilversum: .hi-il.-.be-er.-.su-um., ahi (I hope) ilezin (immortal) ebertar (Hebrew) errixee (common people) isuri (to inspire)
umiltasun (humbleness): "I hope that the
immortal story of Jesus will inspire the common people to humbleness".
de Koog: de/.ko-og., ede-ako-oga, eder (beautiful) akorduan euki (to remember) ogasun (estate): "Beautiful estate (worth)
Leerdam: .le-er.-.da-am., ale-ere-eda-am.: alegera (happily) eregu (indulging) edan (to drink) ameskoikeria (delirium): "Happily
drinking (causes) delirium".
Medemblik: .me-ede-em.-.bli-ik., ome-ede-emo-obli-iku: omenezko (honorable) edesti (history) emon (to give) obligazio
(obligation) ikusbera (vigilant): "Our honorable history
obliges us to be vigilant".
Naarden: na-ar.-.de-en., nabarmen (obvious) arazotu (to be worried) adelatu (to prepare) enetan (always): "It is obvious that
they are worried and
Rekken: .re-ek.-.ke-en., arrerakor (kind) ekarri (to bring) aker
(male goat) eni (to me): "Kind (of you) to bring the
male goat to me".
Renkum: .re-en.-.ku-um., arren (please) ene (come to me) ekurutasun (peace of mind) umiltasun (humbleness): "Please come
to me (to find) peace
of mind and humbleness".
Staphorst: .sta-ap.-.ho-orst, esta-apa-aho-orrits: estatuburu (head of state) apailatu (to organize) ahogozagarri (delicious) orrits
head of state organized a delicious banquet".
Utrecht: ut.-.re-ek.-.t., uti-ire-eki-itu: utzi (to abandon, put a stop to) iresle (destruction) ekinalean (doing as much as possible)
itundu (to make a treaty): "To put a stop
to the destruction, do as much as possible to make a treaty".
Walcheren: adaption of: alkarren (together, mutual): "Togetherness".
Zwolle: .zu-ol.-.le, azu-ole-ele, azurruts (skeleton) oleazio (last rites) eleizakoak (Sacraments): "(He gave) the skeleton the last
rites of the Sacraments".
GROUPINGS OF WORDS
Certain letter combinations were used repeatedly by the Benedictines to make up a diversity of words, as can be seen in the following list -- gooien, hooien, looien, pooien, tooien, rooien -- which all use the Basque word oian meaning: forest or wood. There are many other such letter combinations.
Some "oian" words.
(to throw) go-oien, ego-oian, egotzi (to
throw) oian (wood): Throwing
Some "aik" Words.
Every newly invented language was given some "characteristic" peculiarities and Dutch was assigned (beside the guttural "g") the "ij," pronounced something like "eye." Another letter combination, pronounced exactly the same way, is "ei," but Dutch shares this peculiarity with German. It is interesting to note that the "i" of "ij" is pronounced the English way instead of like in Latin, which may indicate that English grammarians had a hand in concocting this one. A few Dutch words with "ij" or "ei" and their origin follow:
Dutch: Origin: Comment:
Then there is the boy's name "Haiko or Heiko" which came from aiko maikoka (making excuses). Maiko (dinner guest) became the Dutch girl's name "Maaike" etc. One interesting bit about Prof. R. "de Rijk", the internationally known, Basque-speaking professor in Leiden, whose name is derived from: "de Rai-ik": dei (called) arrai (kind) ik (you): "called: you are kind". A good Basque name to have, even if he didn't know it. Many Dutch names start with "van" meaning "from." The origin of "van" is ban (b and v are interchangeable) which is an abbreviation of the Basque word banatu meaning, "to disperse," "to separate from." Most Dutch names and words can be shown to have been wrought out of Basque; take Edo Nyland’s name", ni-land.: ni (my) landa (field, countryside). An early branch of the family in Gescher (West Phalia), Germany, still spells the name as Niland. Many Dutch names have been distorted so much that it is nigh impossible to trace their origin with any certainty, just like elsewhere in Western Europe.
Some "aide" Words.
beide (both), bai-aide, bai (yes) aide (family): Say yes for a family.
rijden (to ride) rai-aide-en, arraitu (to be happy) aide (family) endekoi
Some "ust" Words.
buste (bust) .bu-uste, aburu (opinion) uzte (to leave out, to refuse): Refuse an opinion.
gust (barren*).gu-ust., igurtzi (to rub) ustu (to empty): Rub to empty.
justitia(justice).ju-usti-iti-iha, uju (shout of joy, pleased) uzti (omission)
itiki (to discover, expose) ihardukitze (dispute): Pleased to expose the omission in the dispute.
kust (coast) .ku-ust., ekuru (quietly) uste (hopeful): Quietly hopeful.
lust (delight)luzatu (to make it last): Make it last.
rust (rest) .ru-uste, arrunt (simple) uste (trust): Simple trust.
* not producing milk
Some "olde" Words.
bolder (bitt) .bo-olde.er., abonau (to approve of) oldez (instantaneous)
erremolke (towing): Give the signal to start towing.
folder (brochure) .fo-olde-er., ebo-olde-er.,eboluzionatu (to develop,
organize) oldez (instantaneous) erabilgarbitasun (availability):
Organize instantaneous availability.
kolder (giddiness) koldar (cowardly): Cowardly.
polder (diked-in area) .po-olde-er., oposatu (to obstruct) olde (unrestricted,
natural) eraiketa (movement): Obstruct the natural movement (of the water).
soldeer (solder) .so-olde-er., oso (simple) olde (instantaneous) erremedio
(to repair): Simple instantaneous repair.
zolder (ceiling) zo-olde-er., zohi (sod) oldei (moss) eraman (to carry):
It carries the mossy sod.
There is no way of determining where the basic rules for the creation of the Germanic languages were first laid down. The original powerhouse of Germanic language-creation was apparently in York, England, where Alcuin had been the undisputed master of the grammarians and language teachers. In 782, after many years in York, England, Alcuin had joined Charlemagne at his Palace school in Aachen where he functioned as headmaster and motivator, as he had done before in York (see Benedictines). It may have been Alcuin, the master organizer, who oversaw the development of the basic structure and grammar of Dutch and German. What is more important is to realize that all three languages had been largely invented, and were not evolved naturally. The rules laid down by the Benedictines were generally adhered to in the creation of the vocabulary, but exactly what these rules were, is still to be researched.
While studying the language, our modern academics realized that there was something involved they didn't know about and decided that the truth could be established scientifically by using classical comparative methodology. To accomplish this, our linguists proposed four criteria that were supposed to be diagnostic: 1) phonological correspondences, 2) shared vocabularies, 3) common grammatical features and 4) identical constructive particles. But the Benedictines, eminent linguists that they were, had been 1,500 years ahead of our academics and, using these same four "diagnostic criteria", had built a careful "genetic" relationship into the languages. This had already been done with Sanskrit and the Romance languages where Latin, Spanish, French and Italian all are similarly "genetically" related. In addition, it would later be done to create the Slavic and the Finno-Ugric groups of languages. The work was so professional that linguists at the University of Pennsylvania were now able to "prove without a doubt" the existence of the "genetic" relationship, through "advanced computer analysis" (Johnson 1996).
This contrived relationship between English, Dutch and German is best shown by analyzing a number of words which display an "obvious genetic" relationship to each other. An attempt has been made to identify the word (shown in CAPITALS), which appears closest to the Basque language, and it is assumed that this is the originally created word. The other two words were then supposedly touched up according to the rules laid down for each language. In case the words are alike, no words are capitalized. As usual the "b" and "v or f" are interchangeable, so are "c" and "k"; the sharp "sch" is always written as "x" in Basque.
ebadura (slice of
bread) akeita (coffee) eri
.b.-.lo-od, eba-alo-odo, ebakidura
(wound) alor (farmer) odolisurle (bloody):
blue-BLAAUW-BLAU: from blaust (blow on
the eye), a "blue" eye, in English called a black eye.
Boer-BOER(farmer)-bauer: buru (people);
(on) board-AAN BOORD-AN BORD borda (ship's
cabin); "Ship's cabin".
boat-boot-Boot: bota (to
launch); To launch. or: bo-at, bota (to
launch) atoitu (to
arrows)-BOOG-BOGEN boga (to bend;
BOOK-BOEK-Buch: buka, bukatze
(finishing?); "Are you finished?"
boom (floating timber)-boom
(tree)-BAUM: .bau-um, abaunza (mass of
branches) umo (ripe,
berre-eka, berregin (to
re-do, to repair) ekinaldi
place) otarre (basket):
"Put the basket in a shady place".
bench-BANK-BANK: bank, banku (bench):
BOSS-baas-böse (angry): boz (voice);
.bo-ote-er., eboluzionatu (to
produce) ote (perhaps)
(contribution) anaitu (in
unity) atalkide (member)
card-kaart-KARTE karta (letter), "Letter."
ke-eldar., kentze (to put
(delirious): "Put him away
dish) isurki (liquid):
"Wooden dish for liquids".
chamber-KAMER-Kammer: kamar, errekamara (chamber): "Chamber". (erre
cheese-KAAS-Käse: ka-as., kario (expensive)
chest-KIST-KISTE ki-ist., kinkila
(protection): "Protection for drygoods".
(tradition) ologi (to feed
coach-koets-KUTSCHE kutsha, kutxa (box, chest): "(Large) box".
eku-uste, ekuru (quietly)
come-KOMEN-kommen: komen, komeni (to be
helpful). "Be helpful".
eko-oren; ekoitzi (to
produce) orrenbeste (same
CRUST-korst-Kruste: currust, kurrustu (crust):
DARK-DONKER-dunkel: donker, donkeria (evil,
bad); "Evil", bad. or: DARK: da-ark.,
DAY-dag-Tag: dai, daigun (let's):
(everywhere) odol (blood):
door-DEUR-Tür: deu-eur, deuseztatu (to shut
out) euriketa (rain
storm): "Shut out the rainstorm".
(spontaneous) opetsi (to offer)
.dra-ago-on., dura-ago-on., adurra (to
drool) ago (mouth)
dura-ak., adurra (to drool) akarraldi (in anger): "He drools in
dri-ifi-it, iduri (it
appears) ifili (to be) ito (to
drown, go down):
.be-ed.-.ro-onki-in.; obe-eda-aro-onki-in; obegipeko (favorite)
dumb-dom-DUMM:du-um, idu-ume, iduri (to
(childish): "Appears to be childish".
eat-ETEN-essen: eten (interruption). "Interruption".
evil-euvel-ÜBEL: ubel (purple),
the favorite color of the Priestess. "Evil".
FAME-faam-famos: fama (fame);
FAR-ver-fern: far, ifar (north):
FAULT-fout-Fehler: falta (error); "Error".
feast-feest-FEST: fa-est., afa (happy) este
(intestine): "Happy intestine".
.fi-ibe-er., abiatu (to
begin) ibeni (to put
on) erremedio (remedy);
(jolly): .fi-id.-.de-el., ifili (to be) idekoki
field-VELD-FELD: fa-eld., afa (happy) eldu (to
ripen): "Happy to (see it) ripen".
.fi-ingir, .bi-ingir., ibili (to act) ingiratu (to be
afa (happy) jori
(abundance) di (place
of), "Place of happy abundance".
afa-alaig, afa (happy) alaigarri
(comforting). "Happily comforting".
fleet-VLOOT-Flotte: flota (fleet);
folk-volk-Volk: bolk, boladak (group of
people). "Group of people".
afa (happy) arrendu (to call
upon): "Happy to call upon".
fa-uz.-elir, afa (happy) uzkali (to
vanquish) elikera (food);
GARDEN-gaarde-Garten: jardun (to be
busy with): (probably borrowed from France.) "To be
good-goed-GUT: gut, gutizia (desire,
(archaic)-graduell: .g.-.ra-ada-al; igo-ora-ada-al; igon (to grow tall)
grain-GRAAN-Grän: garan, garaun (grain); "Grain".
grey-GRIJS-grau: gris (grey);
hand-hand-Hand: hand, handiera
(tasteful) onizan (useful) igita (harvest);
house-huis-HAUS: hau-aus, haundi (large) ausarki
(abundantly, more than enough): "More than
HEATHER-heide-Heide: heder, hederia (bundled
together, broom); "Bundled together, broom".
king-KONING-König: kon-ing, konde
(disposition), "Nobleman's disposition".
.ke-euki-in; ikertu (to
examine) eukitzaile (contents)
(frightened) anitzetan (often).
la-am.-.b., ala-amai, alai (joyful) amaigabeko (endless)
lick-LIKKEN-lecken: likin (sticky);
ele (story) ebanjelio
(gospels): "The story of the Gospels".
lust-lust-Lust: luzt, luzatu (to
prolong, to stretch out): "To prolong, make it last".
ma-agi-ik, ama (mother,
Priestess) agindu (command)
ikarakortu (to be
MAID-meid-Maid: ma-aid., ama
(relative); "Mother's relative".
eme (woman) erkatu (to
compare): "The women compare".
matey-MAAT-MAAT: ma-at, ama
(mother's) ateka (bad
moment); "Mother's bad moment".
meager-MAGER-MAGER: ma-ager, ama
(mother's) ager (appearance);
meal-MAAL-Mahl: ma-al, ama (mother's)
full); "Mother's apron full".
(mountain) ete (perhaps)
ehortziri (to bury):
increase) eta (amount) al (power,
emeta (gently) elki (to
empty); "Empty gently".
ama-anu, ama (mother) anu
(fainting); "Mother's fainting".
ama-auzo, ama (mother) auzogabetu (to move
away): "Mother runs
NAIL-nagel-Nagel: nai-il, nai (wish) il (death):
.na-ade-el, anaia (brother)
adelu (finery) elkarbatu (to stitch
neighbour-buur-NACHBAR: nabari (obvious,
in sight): "In sight".
NIGHT-nacht-Nacht: nait, naitaezko
nose-neus-NASE: nasa, arnasa (to
breathe): "To breathe".
.po-ede-er, opor (time off)
beautify) ereti (occasion):
arru-uste, arrunt (simple) uste (trust):
(flushed): "Flushed face".
rider-ruiter-REITER: rai-tor, arrai (gentle) aitor
(legendary patriarch), probably referring to
are-ekit, arren (please) ekite (to
persevere): "Please persevere".
rime (hoarfrost)-RIJP (pron:
raip)-reif: .rai-aip., arraitasun
(brightness) aipa (to
.za-al.-.mon, iza-ale-emo-on., izate (nature) alegera
salt-zout-SALTZE: saltze, gesaltze (to
melt). "It melts".
scratch-KRAS-Kratzen: karras, karrask (scrape, scratch). "Scratch".
ezel-den; ezelan (somehow)
denbora ediren (find
.zen-den., izen-denok; izeneztatu ((signed
by) denok (all of
us); "Signed by
aski-ipu, askitan (many
times, often) ipurterre
.sho-it., exo-ito, exorzizatu (cast
out, eliminate) itoi (filth):
aku-urtz; akuilatu (to
stimulate/bring about) urtzintz (sneeze);
sing-zingen-singen: ing, zingle
(delicate): "Delicate (voice)".
singe-verzengen-SENGEN: .zeng, izengabetu (to
discredit): "Discredited (burned his fingers)".
avoid); "Unable to avoid".
sister-ZUSTER-schwester: zuzter, zuztertu (growing up fast): "Growing up fast".
.so-olda-at; osoki (totally)
oldar (brave) atxikimendu
ezi-ilo; ezik (without)
ilordu (hour of
stone-steen-STEIN: stai-in, estai (stay
put) indar (strong,
firm); "Stays firmly in place".
become heavy) urizapparada
sta-arrat, asta (donkey) arrate (narrow
passage): "Donkey's narrow
su-uga-ar, isu-uga-ara, isuri (to flow)
su-upe-el, isu-upe-ela, isuri (to
inspire, to cause) upeohol (stave) elastiko
sweat-zweet-SCHWITZE: xu-itze, xukatu (to mop
up) itzetik mustuka (quickly
with the cloth).
egin (to make fun of) elastiko (bump/
thumb-duim-DAUME: dau-um., daukat (I have) umoretsu (fun).
"Thumb up, I have fun".
tobacco-TABAK-TABAK: ta-bake, taldeko (of the
group, tribe) bake (peace);
(Smoking the peace
true-trouw-TRAU: ta-arau, ta
(discipline): "Slapping discipline".
under-ONDER-unter: ondar (bottom):
wall (wattle)-wal-Walle: wattle, atela (place of
door opening): The "w" is usually meaningless. "Place
warp-WERP-Wurf: erp, erpintsu (pointed):
WATER-WATER-Wasser: ater, atera (to get).
"Go get it".
weather-weder-WETTER: etor, etorki (expecting).
"(What to) expect?"
weave-weef-WEBE: ebe, eba,
decisions). "Making decisions".
ai-be, ai (strong
(necessity, indispensable): "Strong desire for
wind-wind-Wind: ind, indar
(strength, force). "Hard blow".
("pile of lumber"). Wood could come from ud- udare (pear
WORD-woord-Wort: ord, ordainbide
(promisory note): "Promise".
work-WERK-WERK: erk, erakarpen
world-WERELD-Welt: ereld, eraldatu (to
reform, to renew); the world was to be made over.
(hesitant, afraid): "Afraid".
.ie-este-er.-.da-a.i, aie-este-ere-eda-ahi: aieneka (grieving)
The Friesian language will be discussed elsewhere but included here is a list of the Friesian islands, of which there are more than 50, now divided between Nederland, Germany and Denmark. All the names of these islands can be translated with the use of the Basque dictionary, which confirms the same underlying language. Here are some:
Texel, the most westerly of all the islands: tek-sil, tekadun (having pods) silo (storage barn): "Storage barn for the pea and bean
must have been a high and prominent feature, clearly seen from the sea.
Vlieland, bili-landa, bili (to and fro) landa (region): "To and fro region?"
Terschelling, tera-schilin: tera (to, towards) txilin (tinkling bells, community pasture): "To the community pasture" where all the
animals have bells to
ward off bad spirits and dangers, and also to be heard.
Ameland, ame-landa, amets (strong desire, longing for) landa (country-side, region): "I long for my country-side"; it still is a
wonderful place to
Schiermonnikoog, txir-mon-nik-oga, txir (oyster) mondar (beach) nik (my) ogasun (property): "My private oyster
Rottum, rot-um, arrotsu (proud) ume
(child): "Proud little island".
Urk, (island in the middle of the Zuider Zee); it may have had the Friesian corpse-exposure facility for the departed. If so, here
the bodies were exposed to the air so the soul would be released from the body and proper re-incarnation could take place.
The bones were later bundled together and placed in a tribal tomb. This practice was continued by the R.C. church which to
this day displays the bones of many martyrs and Saints in glass show-cases. In early "Christian" times, this holy site was
desecrated by "urka" (gallows).
Borkum, bor-kum, borda
(hut) kuma (cradle), "Hut with a cradle".
Juist, ju-ist, jujatu (to judge, evaluate) istil (mud): "Judge, evaluate the mud".
Baltrum, bal-trum, bala
(profusion) trumoi (thunder clap): "A profusion of
Langeoog, langa-og, langa
(barrier, fence) ogasun (property): "Fenced property".
Spiekeroog, sop-iker-og, sopi (soppy wet) ikerketa (to explore) ogasun (property): "Soaking wet I explored the property".
Minsener, min-senar, min (in pain) senar
(husband): "My husband is in pain".
Oldoog, old-og, oldar
(attack) ogasun (property): "Attack on the
Scharhorn, ar-horn, xare
(small net) horni (supplying food): "Small net for
Eiderstadt, ei-dor-suta-d., ei (they say) dator (he is coming) sutargi (home, homefire) -da (for/to me): "They say he is coming
home to me".
Süderoog, udur-og, sudur
(sticking out, far out) ogasun (property): "Far out property".
Rantum, rant-um, arrantzu (large catch of fish) ume (child): "The child caught a lot of fish".
Jorsand, jor-sand, joritsu (rich) santujale (devout): "Rich and devout" (person).
Rømø, ro-mo, arro
(proud, upright) modu (manner): "Proud/upright
Koresand, korru-sant, korru (circle) santujale (devout, religious): "Holy (stone) circle?" Was this one of the many pre-Christian
stone circles found
all over the Atlantic coast of Europe and North Africa?
Kilsand, kil-sant, kili (gentle)
santujale (devout): "Gentle and devout"
Fanø, fano (horsepasture): "Horse
Skallingen, ska-al.-ling-en., sikatu (dry out) alik ondoen (as well as possible) lingirda (seaweed) -enetan (always): "Always
dry out the seaweed
as well as possible".
Ho Bugt, ho-bukat, aho
(mouth) bukatu (inlet): "Mouth of the inlet (this
is a channel)".
Blåvands huk, bla-band-huk, bila (searching for) banda (direction) hukiketa (point of contact): "Searching for direction to our
point of contact".
Bolsward, bol-su-ard, bolada (occasion) su
(fight, brawl) ardo (wine): "On occasion a drunken
Franeker, f.-.ran-neker, afa (happy) arran
(bells) nekarazi (tired of): "I'm tired of the
happily tingling bells".
Harlingen, (the main harbour): har-ling-en, harri (stones) lingirda (slime, seaweed) -enetan (always): "The stones are always
Lemmer, (harbor on the south-west coast), lemar (helmsman).
Ljouwert, L-jau-ert, (L:?) jaundu (to dominate) erd (center): "Dominates the
Marknesse, mark-neska, markatu (to wave) neska
(unmarried young woman): "A young woman is waving".
Sneek, sine-ek, sinesgarri (testimony) ekinaldi (persistence): "Testimony to persistence".
Ulrum, uler-um, uler
(to understand) ume (child): "I understand the
Wirdum, uhir-du-um, uhir
(naughty) du (he has) ume (child): "She has a naughty
Zurich, zurik (flatterer): "Flatterer".