ABDOMEN - The
posterior of the three principal divisions or tagmata of the insect body
composed of no more than 12 metameres; functionally, the abdomen is the seat
of reproduction and contains the visceral systems of digestion,
elimination, respiration, circulation, storage and reproduction.
ABDUCTOR - Referable to a structure or
tissue, which draws away, or outward from the central body of an animal or
ABDUCTOR MUSCLE - A muscle that pulls a
structure away from the central body of an animal or a structure.
ABDUCTOR TENDON - An apodeme to which the
abductor muscle is attached; a broad, flat apodeme attached to the ectal
margin of the mandible.
ADDUCTOR - Referable to a structure or
tissue, which draws into or toward the central body of an animal, or a
ADDUCTOR MUSCLE - A muscle that pulls a
structure toward the central body of an animal or a structure.
ADDUCTOR TENDON - An apodeme to which the
adductor muscle is attached; a broad, flat apodeme attached to the ental
margin of the mandible.
ADFRONTAL AREA - A sclerite located between the
epistomal suture and the adfrontal suture on the facial region of
lepidopterous larvae; a possible remnant of the frons.
SUTURE - A
suture or faintly defined line that parallels the epistomal suture in
ALVEOLUS (Pl. ALVEOLI) - A pocket in the
cuticula accommodating a seta or similar unicellular structure.
AMBULATORY APPENDAGE - Any
tubular evagination of the body wall used for walking; a leg.
ANATOMY - A detailed study or
description of structure, or a reference to structure.
ANNULATIONS - A series of minute
parallel ridges partially or completely ringing a structure such as the
glossa of Apis mellifera or the galea of Heliothis zea.
ANTECLYPEUS - A distal membranous
portion of the clypeus.
ANTENNA (pl. ANTENNAE) - A segmented,
sensory appendage of variable length and design located on the frontal or
lateral margins of the head.
ANTENNAL SCLERITE - A peritreme
or ring-like sclerite at the base of the antenna.
ANTENNAL SUTURE - A suture separating the
antennal sclerite from the sclerites of the head.
ANTERIOR ARTICULATTON -
Referring to the depression or knob on the mandible or subgena upon which
the anterior angle of the mandible articulates with the head capsule.
ANTERIOR TENTORIAL ARMS - The
anterior invaginations or apodemes which make up the tentorium; the legs of
a TT-shaped or A-shaped tentorium.
ANTERIOR TENTORIAL PITS - The
pits or depressions of the body wall marking the points of invagination of
the anterior tentorial arms.
ANUS - The
exterior and posterior opening of the hind gut.
APPENDAGES - Any of the evaginations of the
body wall whicharticulate with the body wall and serve a sensory,
locomotory, or reproductive function; legs, wings, antennae, cerci, etc.
APODEME - A multicellular invagination
of the body wall; structures comprising the endoskeleton.
ATRIUM - Any
chamber or cavity at the entrance or a body opening; in Musca domestica
larva, the preoral cavity.
AXON - A
process or nerve fiber of a nerve cell or neuron.
BASEMENT MEMBRANE - The
fibrous non-cellular sheath underlying the epidermis of the integument.
BODY WALL - The integument; all of the elements
of the integument including the cuticula, epidermis and basement membrane.
BUCCULA - In Oncopeltus fasciatus,
a descriptive term for the vertical plates of the head arising ventrally on
either side of the base of the labium.
CANALICULUS (pl. CANALICULI) - Any
minute canal; the tubes traversing the ectal surface of the labella in the
larva of Musca domestica.
CANTHUS - In Phyllophaga rugosa,
a descriptive term for the sclerlte invading the compound eye at the
lateral margins of the clypeus.
CARDO - The
proximal sclerite of the maxilla articulating with the postgena and the
CEPHALIZATION - An evolutionary trend
toward the coalescence especially of sensory structures anteriorly or
within the head capsule.
CEPHALOPHARYNGIAL SKELETON - A
descriptive term for the sclerotized portions of the rasping and sucking
mechanism in muscoid larvae; collectively, the mouth hook, hypostomal
sclerite and cibarium.
CERCI) - A pair of posterior sensory appendages arising from the tenth
metamere; usually segmented, long and filamentous.
CERVICAL PLATE - In the larva of Phyllophaga
rugosa, a sclerotization of the cervix forming a broad plate which is adnate
with the posterior aspect of the head and attached to a narrow postocciput.
CERVIX - The
neck or membranous sheath connecting the head and thorax.
CHAETOTAXY - The descriptive anatomy of
setal patterns particularly on the head, thorax and abdomen of larvae, but
also including such areas as the ental surface of the labium.
CHALAZA - A multicellular protrusion or
evagination of the body wall; usually a descriptive term referable to
protrusions bearing a large seta.
CHEMORECEPTOR - A specialized
structure, usually a seta, provided with sensory nerves for the reception
of chemical stimuli.
CHITIN - One of
the basic constituents of the exocuticle and endocuticle of the cuticula; a
polysaccharide chemically identified as a poly acetylglucosamine.
CIBARIAL DILATOR MUSCLES -
Muscles arising from the clypeus which dilate the cibarium, or specifically
operate the cibarial diaphragm.
CIBARLAL PUMP - A modification of the
cibarial cavity into a pumping device; contraction of the cibarial dilator
muscles expand the membranous walls of the cibarial cavity or raise a
cibarial diaphragm; contraction of the cavity or diaphragm is accomplished
by a return to its normal (unexpanded) shape by means of the natural elasticity
of its cuticular composition.
CIBARIUM - The cavity preceding the mouth
formed by the ental surface of the clypeus and the dorsal surface of the
CLYPEUS - A facial sclerite lying
between the epistomal suture and the juncture of the labrum with the head
capsule; usually the region lying below the epistomal suture or anterior
COLLECTING CHANNEL - In the
adult of Musca domestica, a descriptive term for the canaliculi
paralleling the discal sclerite into which the canaliculi of the labella
empty or terminate.
COMMISSURE - A connective between two bilaterally
symmetrical tissues or structures; e.g., the connective between two
hemispheres of a ganglion or two longitudinal trunks of the respiratory
COMPOUND EYE - A photoreceptor
comprised of numerous but separate visual elements each of which is
provided with an individual lens or dioptric apparatus.
CONDYLE - An articulatory structure as a
ball-shaped protuberance which is usually accommodated by a groove or socket
to form a joint.
CONJUNCTIVAL MEMBRANE - The
membranous invagination or infolding of the body wall between metameres or
between tergites and sternites; actually this is a suture, although the
term is reserved for sutures which permit articulation and expansion
between large sclerotic areas.
CORONAL SUTURE - The stem of the
Y-shaped epicranial or ecdysial suture of the head.
COXAE) - The basal or proximal segment of the leg which articulates
directly with the body wall.
COXAPODITE - The basal elements of a
primitive leg; composed of a subcoxa (or pleurites) and a coxa.
Divisions of a coxapodite such as the subcoxa and coxa.
CUTICULA - That portion of the body wall
which is secreted by the epidermis and is cast off during ecdysis; collectively
the epicuticle, exocuticleand endocuticle.
DEUTOCEREBRUM - The median lobe of the
supraoesophagial ganglion; the ganglion which innervates the antennae.
DICHOPTIC - A descriptive term for Musca
domestica relative to the distance of separation between the compound
eyes; in female Musca domestica as compared with the male the eyes
are widely separated.
DICONDYLIC ARTICULATION - A dual
hinge or two specific points at which a structure is articulated.
DIOPTRIC APPARATUS - The
light receiving element or lens of a photoreceptor or eye; usually includes
the cornea and subcorneal crystalline body.
DISCAL SCLERITE - In the mouth parts of
adult Musca domestica, a descriptive term for a V-shaped sclerite
margining the prestomum of the labella.
DISTAL - Any
point or segment furthest removed from the body mass or structure bearing
DISTAL PLATE OF THE PREMENTUM - In Apis
mellifera, a descriptive term for the narrow plate anterior to the prementum.
DORSAL GUTTER - A dorsal, longitudinal
groove in the proboscis or labium of Oncopeltus fasciatus; a channel
which ensheathes the stylets.
DORSAL LATERAL PLATE - One of
the principal articulatory sclerites of the cervix; part of a hinge
DORSAL SENSORY PAPILLAE - In the
larva of Musca domestica, a dorsal pair of minute, sensory projections
at the anterior aspect of the larval head.
ECDYSIAL SUTURE - A Y-shaped cranial
suture found in larvae and some adults along which the integument is
ruptured during molting; the epicranial suture.
ECTAL - Any
surface furthest removed from the principal body mass.
ENDITE - A
mesal lobe of the coxapodite.
ENDOCUTICLE - The innermost layer of
the cuticula lying between the exocuticle and the epidermis.
ENDOSKELETON - Collectively, the
multicellular invaginations of the integument or apodemes, e.g., tentorium
ENTAL - Any
surface nearest the principal body mass.
EPICRANIAL SUTURE - A
Y-shaped cranial suture occurring in larvae and some adults; the ecdysial
suture of larvae.
EPICUTICLE - The thin, outermost layer of
EPIDERMIS - The epithelial layer of cells
which secrete the cuticula; the hypodermis of authors.
EPIPHARYNX - A membranous lobe in the oral
cavity of Apis mellifera arising from the ental surface of the
clypeus; a flap underlying the labrum (but not a part of it).
EPISTOMAL RIDGE - The infolding or apodeme
of the epistomal suture to which the anterior arms of the tentorium are
anchored; usually a prominent endoskeletal projection.
EPISTOMAL SUTURE - A
transverse cranial suture bearing the anterior tentorial pits and
demarcating the clypeus and the frons.
EVAGINATION - An outward projection
or protrusion of the body wall.
EXITE - A lobe
of the coxapodite occurring on the outer or ectal surface of the appendage.
EXOCUTICLE - The middle, sclerotized layer
of the cuticula.
EXOSKELETON - Refers to the
sclerotized integument which serves mechanically as a skeleton.
EYES - Any of
the photo receptors such as the compound eyes and ocelli.
FEMUR - The
second proximal segment of the telopodite; the leg segment articulating
with the trochanter and the tibia.
FOOD CANAL - Any of the tubes formed by
grooved and closely appressed structures used for conducting liquid foods
in haustellate mouth parts.
FOOD CHANNEL - In the larva of Musca
domestica, the series of parallel grooves on the ventral surface of the
larval head which appear to aid in channeling fluids into the functional
mouth; in the haustellate mouth parts, the tube through which liquids are drawn.
FOOD GLANDS - Extensively coiled,
lobular glands with ducts on the posterior lateral margins of the
hypopharyngial lobe in the worker caste of Apis mellifera; these
glands secrete the royal jelly fed to bee larvae; the hypopharyngial
OF THE PROBOSCIS - In Apis mellifera, the
ventral depression of the head which accommodates the labium or basal
portion of the proboscis.
FRONS - A
facial area of the head dorsad of the epistomal suture and between the
compound eyes; the facial area enclosed by the frontal sutures of the
epicranial or ecdysial suture; the "front" of authors.
FRONTAL BRACE - In the larva of Heliothis
zea, the apodeme arising from the frontal sulcus; an internal ridge
thought to be an invaginated frons.
FRONTAL GANGLION - A
small globular ganglion of the stomodeal nervous system lying above the
oesophagus and in front of the supraoesophagial ganglion.
FRONTAL LUNULE - In the adult Musca
domestica, a descriptive term for a triangular sclerite lying at the
apex of the frons and above the antennal sockets.
FRONTAL MUSCLE - A muscle arising from
the ental surface of the frons and associated with the pharynx, in Heliothis
zea, one of the muscles associated with the cibarial pump.
FRONTAL SACS - In the larva of Musca
domestica, sac-like invaginations lying behind the cibarial apparatus;
contains the primordial cells for the frontal areas and appendages of the
FRONTAL SULCUS - In the larva of Heliothis
zea, a deep groove or suture of the head giving rise to the frontal
ridge; what appears to be a coronal suture of an incorrectly identified
FRONTAL SUTURE - In the adult of Musca
domestica, the triangular suture margining the frons and invaginated
into the ptilinum.
FRONTOCLYPEUS - A facial area combining
the frons and the clypeus in the absence of an epistomal suture.
GANGLION (pl. GANGLIA) - A nerve center
comprised of the terminal axons of the afferent nerves, the association
neurons, and the nerve cells of the efferent nerves.
GENAE) - The cranial area identified as the cheeks; specifically, the
cranial area below and sometimes before the compound eyes.
Primitive in form with structure occurring early in an animal's
phylogenetic history; primitive.
GENITAL PORE - External orifice of the
median oviduct or the ejaculatory duct.
GLAND CELL - One of the modified epidermal
cells evolved for a secretory function.
GLOSSAE) - An endite of the labium; usually a median pair of lobes at the
apex of the prelabium; in the adult of Apis mellifera, the median
tube or tongue of the proboscis.
GNATHOCEPHALON - A hypothetical
posterior division of the definitive head bearing the gnathal metameres and
the mandibulate appendages.
GULA - The
ventral sclerite of the prognathous head bounded by the postoccipital (or
gular) suture; probably a sclerotized expansion of the ventral cervix.
GULAR SUTURE - A descriptive name for
the postoccipital suture; in the absence of a clearly identifiable
postoccipital suture, the suture bounding the gula.
HAUSTELLATE - Insects with sucking
HAUSTELLUM - The median, tubular region in
the mouth parts of the adult Musca domestica.
HEAD - The
tagma which is the center of sensory perception and food ingestion; the
region bearing the functional mouth as in the larva of Musca domestica.
HINGE PLATE - In the adult Musca
domestica, a descriptive term for a sclerite posterior to and
articulating with the clypeus.
HOLOPTIC - A descriptive term for Musca
domestica relative to the distance of separation between the compound
eyes; in the male Musca domestica as compared with the female, the
eyes are set close together.
HYOID SCLERITE - In the mouth parts of
the adult Musca domestica, a small sclerite lying in the narrow
channel between the food canal and the cibarium.
HYPOGNATHOUS - A condition of the head
where the mouth parts are in a pendent position and the frontal areas are
HYPOPHARYNGIAL LOBE - A
membranous lobular expansion of the hypopharynx before the mouth in Apis
HYPOPHARYNGIAL SUSPENSORIA -
Apodemes which activate the anterior portion of the hypopharynx.
HYPOPHARYNX - the median lobe or
tongue which in the mandibulate mouth parts lies before the mouth; forms
the floor of the cibarium on its dorsal aspect and the roof of the
salivarium on its ventral aspect.
HYPOSTOMAL SCLERITE - An
H-shaped sclerite in the larva of Musca domestica articulating with
the cibarium on its posterior aspect and anteriorly with the mouth hook;
serves to support the salivary duct and provides a salivary channel on its
INSTAR - Any of
the stages in the development of a holometabolous larva; the first instar
is the physical form of the larva between its eclosion from the egg and its
first molt, etc.
INTEGUMENT - The covering or envelope
enclosing the animal's body; in insects, the cuticula.
INTERSEGMENTAL MEMBRANE - The
infolded cuticula between metameres, usually soft and flexible.
INVAGINATE - An infolding cf the cuticula;
apodemes and intersegmental membranes are invaginations of the body wall.
JUGA) - A descriptive term used in Oncopeltus fasciatus to identify
sclerites laterad of the anteclypeus or tylus; the mandibulate plate since
the apodeme associated with the mandibular muscles arise from these
LABELLUM (pl. LABELLA) - The fleshy,
pad-like lobes at the distal end of the proboscis in adult Musca
domestica, possibly derived from labial palps; the spoon-shaped
sclerite at the distal end of the glossa in Apis mellifera.
LABELLAR SCLERITE - An
apodeme in the proboscis of adult Musca domestica which articulates
LABIAL GUTTER - The dorsal groove in
the labium which accommodates the stylets, specifically the dorsal groove
in Musca domestica; the dorsal gutter of Oncopeltus fasciatus.
LABIAL-MAXILLARY COMPLEX - A
partial or complete fusion of the labium and maxillae to form a complex
such as in the mouth parts of the larvae of Phyllophaga rugosa and Heliothis
LABIAL PALPS - The palpi of the
labium; the telopodite of the labial appendages.
LABRAL APODEME - An apodeme upon which
the muscles articulating the labium are inserted.
LABRAL STYLET GROOVE - In the
mouth parts of Oncopeltus fasciatus, a groove on the ental surface
or the labrum which accommodates the basal stylets.
LABIUM - The most
posterior of the gnathal appendages; a composite structure forming the
floor of the mouth cavity in mandibulate mouth parts and appendages which
are variously modified in haustellate forms.
LABRUM - A
cranial sclerite articulating at its proximal margin with the clypeus, and
forming an upper lip for the mouth cavity.
LARVAE) - The immature stages of the Holometabola, or insects with a complete
metamorphosis, following eclosion and preceding pupation.
LATERAL PLATES - The principal
articulatory sclerites of the cervix; a hinge sclerite usually composed of
a DORSAL LATERAL PLATE articulating with the postocciput and a VENTRAL
LATERAL PLATE articulating with the episternum.
LATERAL SCLERITE - Paired
sclerites occurring on the lateral margins of the hypopharynx in Leucophaea
LIGULA - The
anterior portion of the prementum of the labium; a term usually used to
describe the anterior area of the labium when the glossae and paraglossae
LINGUA - A term
applied to the fleshy distal portion of the hypopharynx.
LONGITUDINAL SUTURE - The
lateral, longitudinal invagination of the abdominal body wall demarcating
the tergum and sternum.
LORAL ARM - An apodeme articulating with
the basal aspect of the hypopharynx.
LORUM - A
descriptive term in Apis mellifera for a Y-shaped sclerite forming a
labial-maxilla yoke, its arms articulating with the cardo and the stem with
MAGGOT - The
common, descriptive term for the immature or larval stages of Musca
MANDIBLE - The most anterior of the
gnathal appendages; in the mandibulate forms, the jaws employed for
cutting, crushing and grinding solid foods.
MANDIBULAR APODEME -
Apodemes attached to the mandible upon which either abductor or adductor
muscles are inserted.
MANDIBULAR PLATES -
Sclerites laterad of the anteclypeus or tylus in Oncopeltus fasciatus;
the jugum cf descriptive entomology.
MANDIBULAR SCLERITE - A
cranial sclerite in the adult of Heliothis zea laterad of the
proximal proboscis; a sclerite that appears to be a remnant of the
MANDIBULATE - A term used to describe
mouth parts composed of a mandible-maxilla-labium complex; referable to an
animal with chewing mouth parts.
MAXILLA (pl. MAXILLAE) - The second of
the post-oral gnathal appendages; appendages of the mandibulate type of
mouth parts serving to augment the mandibles and as an aid in the ingestion
of food; variously modified into a proboscis in the haustellate forms.
MAXILLARY APODEME - An
apodeme associated with the articulatory muscles of the maxillae.
MAXILLARY ARTICULATION - A
groove or flange on the posterio-ventral edge of the cranium upon which the
MAXILLARY PALP - The palpi of the
maxillae; the telopodite of the maxillae.
MAXILLARY PLATE - A descriptive term in Oncopeltus
fasciatus for a sclerite lateral and ventral of the proximal proboscis;
a sclerite lying below the jugum and above the buccula.
MENTUM - A term
applied to the distal portion of a divided postmentum.
METAMERE - Any of the principal
subdivisions of an insect's body; in the prototype, a functionally
independent unit in the worm-like animal comprised of a prostomium, 18
subdivisions or metameres, and a periproct.
METAMERISM - A descriptive term used to
identify an animal with a body composed of ring-like subdivisions or
METAMORPHOSIS - The post-embryonic
developmental process; the post-embryonic development required before
attaining the imaginal or sexually mature stage.
MICROTRICHIA - Minute, hair-like
spines of a non-cellular composition; fixed, exocuticular outgrowths of the
body wall, the aculei of descriptive entomologists.
MOLA - The
posterior, grinding area of the mandible.
MOLAR AREA - The grinding area of the
mandible; the mola.
MONOCONDYLIC ARTICULATION - A
single point of articulation of an appendage; a single articulation point
compared with the hinge-like, dicondylic articulation.
MORPHOLOGY - The
science or study of the functional form of an animal.
MOUTH - The
anterior orifice of the oesophagus; frequently refers to the apparent
external opening of the digestive tract; technically, not the oral cavity
or the passage to the cibarium and pharynx.
MOUTH HOOK - The hook-shaped, oral sclerlte
ln the maggot employed as a rasping structure.
MOUTH PARTS - The organs of
ingestion; including the modified ambulatory structures as the mandibles,
maxillae and the labium, and such cranial lobes as the labrum and
hypopharynx; applied to the ingestive apparatus of mandibulate and
haustellate forms, and includes the specialized oral structures of the
MULTICELLULAR PROCESS - Any of
the evaginations or invaginations of the body wall including the epidermis;
includes apodemes as well as external protuberance
NONCELLULAR PROCESS - A
protuberance composed entirely of cuticula; not an evagination involving
NYMPH - The
post-embryonic forms of insects with a gradual or paurometabolous
metamorphosis; the sexually immature forms of such Exopterygota as Leucophaea
maderae or Oncopeltus fasciatus.
OESOPHAGUS - The anterior undifferentiated
stomodaeum or fore gut of an insect leading from the mouth to the
mesenteron; or if the stomodaeum is differentiated, that anterior portion
from the mouth to the crop, or proventriculus, etc.
OCCIPITAL FORAMEN - The
posterior opening of the cranium or head capsule serving as a passageway for
the gut, tracheae, ventral nerve cord, etc. into the lumen of the head;
that portion of the head margined by the postocciput.
OCCIPITAL SUTURE - The
suture or demarcation of the occiput.
OCCIPUT - A posterior sclerotized region
of the head set off by an occipital suture and lying between the vertex and
genae and the postocciput.
OCELLI) - Small, round to ovoid photo receptors with a single dioptric
apparatus; "simple" eyes that may occur in clusters or as a group
of 3 or 2.
OCULAR SCLERITE - A peritreme or
sclerotic rim encircling the compound eye.
OCULAR SUTURE - A suture demarcating
the sclerotic rim or ocular sclerite of a compound eye.
ONTOGENY - The developmental history or
embryological development of an individual.
ORAL CAVITY - The mouth; an anterior
expansion of the oesophagus.
ORAL FLAP - A membranous, fleshy lobe at
the posterior, mesal angle of the mandible.
OVIPOSITOR - Appendicular structures in the
female arising from the eighth and ninth metameres variously modified for
the handling and deposition of eggs; a modification of the caudal metameres
for the deposition and insertion of eggs.
PALPIFER - A sclerite of the maxilla
which bears the maxillary palp.
PALPIFORM - Any appendage or protrusion
that is segmented and resembles a palpus such as the maxillary palp.
PALPIGER - A sclerlte of the labium which
bears the labial palp.
PAPILLA (pl. PAPILLAE) - A minute,
tubular protrusion usually sensory in function.
PARAGLOSSA (pl. PARAGLOSSAE) - An endite of
the labium occurring in position to the outside of the glossa.
PARANOTAL LOBES - The flap-like
evaginations of the lateral margins of the tergum in fossil forms which may
have been the precursors of wings.
PERIPROCT - The anus-bearing subdivision
of the abdomen; the 20th division of a hypothetical prototype bearing the
PERITREME - A
ring-like sclerite or protuberance encircling a structure such as a seta or
PHRAGMA - The apodemes arising from the
tergum of the thorax which produce an internal flange for muscle
PHYLOGENY - The genealogy of a species;
tracing the development or evolutionary history of an individual through
such categories as genus, family, order, etc.
PILIFERS - A descriptive term for a pair
of setaceous flaps occurring on the proximal margins of the proboscis in
the adult of Heliothis zea; possible remnants of mandibles.
PIT - A circular
opening in the cuticula leading to the alveolus of a sensory seta or to the
pore canal of a dermal gland.
Collectively the sclerites that comprise the lateral aspect of the thorax.
POISON CELL - A modified epidermal
cell capable of secreting an urticating fluid into the lumen of a seta.
POSTCLYPEUS - The sclerotized
proximal portion of the clypeus where this sclerlte is divided into
sclerotized and membranous areas.
POSTERIOR CONDYLE -
Usually a ball-shaped protuberance on the posterior margin of the mandible
which articulates with a cranial groove; the primary mandibular
POSTERIOR TENTORIAL BRIDGE -The
posterior aspect of a typical TT-shaped tentorium; the united arms of the
posterior tentorial invaginations.
POSTERIOR TENTORIAL PITS - The
points of the cranial invaginations which produce the posterior aspect of
POSTGENA (pl. POSTGENAE) - The
posterio-ventral aspect of the head; frequently the ventral aspect of the
POSTGENAL INFLECTION - In Apis
mellifera, a ventral depression of the head cavity which accommodates
the caudal aspect of the proboscis.
POSTLABIUM - The basal or caudal, undivided
portion of the labium articulating with the cervix in the hypognathous
POSTMENTUM - The postlabium.
POSTOCCIPITAL RIDGE - A
broad flange-like apodeme produced by an invagination at the postoccipital
POSTOCCIPITAL SUTURE - A suture
demarcating the postocciput, and the line of invagination for the
POSTOCCIPUT - The most posterior
sclerite of the head, usually a collar encircling the occipital foramen;
the sclerite articulating with the labium in primitive forms.
PREORAL CAVITY - The cavity of the head
formed by the mandibulate mouth parts preceding the cibarium and the mouth.
PRELABIUM - The anterior portion of the
labium bearing the palps and endites; the prementum.
PREMENTUM - The prelabium.
PRESTOMAL TEETH - In the mouth parts of
adult Musca domestica, five sclerotized plates anchored on the
discal sclerite; apparently used for scraping a food medium.
PRESTOMUM - A functional mouth in the
labella of Musca domestica; the opening on the anterior aspect of
the labella margined by the discal sclerite.
PRETARSUS - The most distal but incomplete
tarsal segment of the leg usually retracted within the fifth tarsus; bears
the claws and other terminal structures.
PRIMARY ANTENNAE -
Antennae borne by the prostomium of the theoretical prototype.
PRIMARY SETAE - Those setae of a naked larva,
or the prominent bristles, which are fixed and constant in position.
PRIMITIVE - Ancient in occurrence; a
structure which appeared early in the phylogenetic history of a species.
PRIMORDIAL MOUTH HOOK - A
formative mouth hook in the maggot, incomplete in development but
recognizable as the developing hook of a subsequent instar.
PROBOSCIS - The common term used to
describe the entire haustellate mechanism; a sucking tube or prominent
structure of the sucking apparatus such as the labium of Oncopeltus
PROGNATHOUS - A modification of the
head which permits the forward direction of the mouth parts and a rotation
of the facial region to a dorsal position.
PROSTHECA - The mesal, fleshy protuberance
of the mandible of Phyllophaga rugosa midway between the mola and
the tip; possibly a remnant of an endite similar to the lacinia of the
PROSTOMIUM - The head or anterior
subdivision of the theoretical prototype bearing the eyes, antennae and
PROTOCEPHALON - A combined head
structure of a prototype involving the prostomium and the first post-oral
PROTOCEREBRUM - The most anterior (or
dorsal) lobe of the supraoesophagial ganglion which innervates the compound
eyes and ocelli.
PROTOTYPE - A primitive, theoretical form
which was the ancestor or precursor of a definitive form.
PROTRACTOR MUSCLE - Muscles
which project an appendage or structure away from the central body mass.
PROXIMAL - Anything that is closest to
the central body mass; basal.
PTILINUM - An invaginated and emersible
sac in the head of adult Musca domestica which can be expanded
thereby increasing the size of the head and assisting the insect in
escaping from its pupal case by bursting the puparium.
RETRACTOR MUSCLES - Any
muscle system which draws or pulls a structure within or towards the main
body mass or from its extended position.
ROD - In the
mouth parts of Apis mellifera, a sclerotized U-shaped or channeled
structure normally enclosed within the glossa.
ROSTRUM - The fleshy base of the
proboscis in the adult Musca domestica.
SALIVA - The
secretion of the salivary glands which primarily serves as a digestive
substance (contains enzymes) but which may also serve as an anticoagulant.
or be modified so that it will harden into a silk.
SALIVARIUM - A cavity, formed by the
ventral surface of the hypopharynx and the ental surface of the labium,
into which saliva is secreted; in some forms, this cavity may be enclosed
to form the vessel of a salivary pump.
SALIVARY GLAND - The tubular glands
which secrete saliva or a substance which will form silk upon drying as in
the holometabolous larvae.
SCALE - A
modified seta which is flat or spatulate in shape.
SCLERITE - An area of the integument or a
segment of an appendage which is hard or plate-like and is usually bounded
by sutures which may be flexible infoldings of the cuticula.
SCLEROTIN - A polymerized, tanned protein
which imparts the hard and horny characteristics of the exocuticle.
SCLEROTIZED - Cuticula impregnated
with a polymerized, tanned protein; a hard, inflexible portion of a
structure or integument.
SCLEROTIZATION - The process of
hardening the cuticula.
SECOND ANTENNA - A theoretical second
pair of sensory structures which may have occurred on the first post-oral
SECONDARY SETAE - Setae which serve as
clothing hairs usually abundant in number and which do not occur in a
SENSORY NERVE CELLS - The
secondary or afferent nerve cells which receive stimuli and transmit such
stimuli to the nerve centers.
SETA - A
hollow, unicellular protuberance of the body wall secreted by a modified
epidermal cell or trichogen cell; usually a hair or bristle like structure.
SETAL MEMBRANE - The thin sheet of
cuticula secreted by a tormogen cell surrounding the base of a setae and
serving as a floor in the alveolus.
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM - A
difference in characteristics, coloration or physical form of a structure
in the opposite sexes of a particular species.
SITOPHORE - A shallow channel on the
dorsal, proximal surface of the hypopharynx before the mouth.
SPECIALIZED - A highly evolved form
or structure; a modification occurring relatively late in the evolutionary
history of an individual.
Non-cellular protuberances of the body wall which are hard and inflexible
and composed of exocuticle; these may be hair-like and resemble setae, but
are not hollow and do not arise from an alveolus.
SPINNERET - A modification of the
salivarium for the storage, ejection and manipulation of silk.
SPUR - The
multicellular protuberances of the body wall which are seated in a flexible
membrane and which may be articulated.
STERNUM - The ventral aspect of the
thorax or abdomen.
STIPES - In the
maxillae, the sclerotized area bearing the palp and the endites, galea and
lacinia; a coxite comparable to the coxa of a leg.
STOMODAEAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - A
secondary nervous system tied in with the central nervous system and
associated with the function of the digestive tract, and comprised of the
frontal ganglion, occipital ganglion and the corpora allatum.
STRIDULATING TEETH - In the
larva of Phyllophaga rugosa, a row of stout spines situated on the
dorsal aspect of the stipes; it is assumed that a sound may be produced
when these spines are rubbed upon the mandible.
STYLETS - The bristle-like mandibles and
maxillae of Oncopeltus fasciatus which comprise the piercing and
SUBCOXA (pl. SUBCOXAE) - A basal
articulating sclerite proximal to the coxa ln a primitive leg; elements of
the subcoxae probably were elaborated into the pleurites of specialized
SUBGENA - The lateral margin of the
cranium above the articulations of the mandibles; the pleurostoma.
SUBGENAL SUTURE - The suture demarcating
the subgena and the gena; the pleurostomal suture.
SUBMENTUM - The most proximal subdivision
of the postlabium which articulates directly with the cervix.
SUBOCULAR GROOVE - In Leucophaea
maderae, a vertical suture occurring between the ocular suture and the
SUBOESOPHAGEAL COMMISSURE - The
commissure or hemispherical connective of the tritocerebrum which loops
under the oesophagus.
SUBOESOPHAGEAL GANGLION - The
ventral brain mass of the head lying below the oesophagus; a probable
fusion of three pair of ganglia comprising the gnathocephalon which
innervates the mouth parts.
SULCUS - A
suture which is deeply grooved or forms a distinct furrow.
SUPERLINGUAE - Paired, lobe-like
structures occurring laterad of the hypopharynx ln some forms which are
assumed to be vestiges of a second pair of mandibular appendages; the
SUPRAOESOPHAGEAL GANGLION - The
dorsal brain mass in the head occurring above the oesophagus and composed
of three pairs of ganglia innervating the eyes and antennae; probably the
brain centers of the protocephalon.
SUTURE - A seam
or impressed line or infolding of the body wall at the point of division
between distinct parts of the body wall or segments of an appendage.
TACTILE SENSE ORGANS -
Sensory structures modified for the perception of mechanical stimuli.
TAGMA (pl. TAGMATA) - The principal
regions of an insect's body; the head, thorax and abdomen.
TARSI) - Terminal segments of a leg; ail of the subdivisions distad of the
TELOPODITE - The distal primary division of
a primitive appendicular structure; in the definitive leg, collectively the
trochanter, femur, tibia and tarsi.
TENDON - An
elongated, tubular or cord-like apodeme connecting a muscle system with a
TENTORIAL PIT - A depression in the
cuticula marking the point of invagination of the body wall which produced
an apodeme of the tentorium.
TENTORIAL BRIDGE - That
portion of the posterior tentorium which bridges the occipital foramen; the
cap of a TT-shaped tentorium.
TENTORIUM - A composite apodeme or
endoskeletal structure of the head serving as a transverse brace above the
mouth parts or on the ventral aspect of the head capsule.
TERGUM - The
dorsal aspect of the thorax and abdomen.
THECAL SCLERITE - In adult Musca
domestica, a descriptive term for a sclerite occurring on the posterior
surface of the haustellum.
THORAX - The ambulatory
tagma of an insect's body composed of three metameres and bearing the legs
TIBIA - A
segment of the telopodite or of the leg between the femur and the tarsi.
TORMOGEN CELL - A modified epidermal
cell which secretes the setal membrane.
TRICHOGEN CELL - A modified epidermal
cell which secretes a seta or a scale.
TRITOCEREBRUM - The third or ventral
ganglia of the supraoesophagial ganglion; the ganglion of the first
post-oral metamere which innervates the hypothetical second pair of
TROCHANTER - A segment of the telopodite or
of the leg articulating with the coxa and femur.
TYLUS - In Oncopeltus
fasciatus, a descriptive term for the head sclerite articulating with
the proboscis; probably the anteclypeus.
UNICELLULAR PROCESS - A
protuberance of the body wall involving a single cell in its formation,
e.g., a seta.
VALVULA (pl. VALVULAE) - The components
of an ovipositor derived from appendicular structures or primitive
VENTRAL LATERAL PLATE - One of
the principal articulatory sclerites of the cervix; a hinge sclerite.
VENTRAL NERVE CORD -
Collectively, the central ganglionic nervous system of the thorax and
abdomen; the composite interconnected metameric ganglia of all of the
post-oral metameres which would technically include the tritocerebrum and
the suboesophageal ganglion.
VENTRAL SENSORY PAPILLAE - In the
maggot of Musca domestica, the ventral pair of papillae situated on
the anterior aspect of the functional head.
VERTEX - The
cranial area above the frons and between the compound eyes.
VESTIGE - A remnant of an ancient
structure or system which is functionless in the present-day form.