Selenaspidis articulatus (Morgan) -- Diaspididae
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Also called the West Indies scale, rufous scale is distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Kennett et al. 1999). It is regarded as a pest only in certain citrus producing areas of the West Indies and northern South America, however (Talhouk 1975). Rufous scale was found as damaging to citrus in Peru as California red scale (Wille 1952. Beingolea 1969). Studies showed the ineffectiveness of resident natural enemy complexes. Aphytis lingnanensis was introduced there in 1962, but failed to establish (Beingolea 1969). Ebeling's (1959) report that rufous scale was native to Africa stimulated explorations in Uganda in 1970. From several shipments made to Peru, a new species of Aphytis, later described as A. roseni DeBach & Gordh), was successfully established (Herrera 1964, Bartra 1974). Complete biological control was obtained in coastal areas by 1975 (Rosen & DeBach 1978).
REFERENCES: [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library ]
Bartra, C. E. 1974. Biology of Selenaspidis articulatus Morgan and its principal biological control agents. Rev. Peru Ent. 17: 60-8.
Beingolea, O. 1969. Biological control of citrus pests in Peru. Proc. 1st Intern. Citrus Symp., Riverside, Calif. 2: 827-38.
Ebeling, W. 1959. Subtropical Fruit Pests. Univ. Calif. Div. Agric. Sci. 436 p.
Herrera, J. M. 1964. Ciclos biológicos de las queresas de los cítricos en la costa central. Rev. Peruana Ent. 7: 1-8.
Kennett, C., J. A. McMurtry & J. Beardsley. 1999. Subtropical and tropical crops. In: Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds.). 1999. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, New York. 1046 p.
Rosen, D. & P. DeBach. 1978. Diaspididae. In: C. P. Clausen (ed.), Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds. U.S.D.A. Agric. Handbk. No. 480, Washington, D.C. 545 p.
Talhouk, A. S. 1975. Citrus pests throughout the world. Citrus Tech. Monogr. No. 4, p. 21-24. Ciba-Geigy, Basel, Switzerland.
Wille, J. 1952. Entomologia Agr. Peru, 2nd ed. Min. Agric., Lima.