RED WAX SCALE
Ceroplastes rubens Maskell -- Coccidae
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A pest of numerous plants of economic importance, including citrus in south Asia, Japan, Australasia and Pacific islands, red wax scale ranges also to Kenya and the Seychelles islands (Kennett et al. 1999). It was found in Japan in 1897, where it soon became serious on citrus in Kyushu, and later spreading to Honshu and Shikoku. Attempts to establish natural enemies from California in 1924 and Hawaii in 1932-38 were not successful (Yasumatsu & Tachikawa 1949). A highly effective parasitoid was found in western Kyushu in 1946, however (Yasumatsu 1951). Originally described as Anicetus annulatus Timberlake, the parasitoid was later identified as A. ceroplastis Ishii, and then finally as A. beneficus Ishii & Yasumatsu in 1957. This parasitoid was colonized throughout citrus areas of Honshu and Shikoku where it produced complete biological control within three to four host generations (Yasumatsu 1953).
Significant reductions of C. rubens were obtained in Korea following the introduction of A. beneficus in 1975 (Kim et al. 1979). It was suggested by Yasumatsu (1958) that A. beneficus was actually native to Japan, but might have arisen as a mutation from A. ceroplastis, a closely related species that attacks another species of Ceroplastes in Japan. Alternatively, A. beneficus may have been accidentally introduced, although it is not known naturally outside of Japan. The discovery that A. beneficus attacks C. rubens in China (Jiang & Gu 1983) suggests that it came from there, however.
For additional details on biological control effort and biologiesl of host and natural enemies, please also see the following (Green 1909, Tachikawa 1955, Clausen 1958, Ohgushi 1958, Wilson 1960).
REFERENCES: [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library ]
Clausen, C. P. 1958. Biological control of insect pests. Ann. Rev. Ent. 3: 291-310.
Green, E. E. 1909. The Coccidae of Ceylon. Part IV: 251-334. Dulou & Co., London. 334 p.
Jiang, H. & H. G. Gu. 1983. An investigation on parasitoids of red wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens Maskell. Nat. Enem. Insects 5: 249-50.
Kennett, C. E., J. A. McMurtry & J. W. Beardsley. 1999. Biological control in subtropical and tropical crops. In: Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds.), Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, New York. 1046 p.
Kim, H. S., D. Y. Moon, J. S. Park, S. C. Lee, P. C. Lippold & Y. D. Chang. 1979. Studies on integrated control of citrus pests. (2) Control of ruby scales (Ceroplastes rubens) on citrus by introduction of a parasite natural enemy, Anicetus beneficus (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae). Korean J. Plant Protect. 18: 107-10.
Ohgushi, R. 1958. Studies on the host selection by three species of Anicetus wasps (Encyrtidae) parasitic on Ceroplastes scales (Coccidae). Kyoto Univ. Col. Sci. Mem. Ser. B 25: 31-8.
Tachikawa, T. 1955. Some notes on the Japanese species of the genus Anicetus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Japanese J. Appl. Zool. 20: 173-76.
Wilson, F. 1960. A review of the biological control of insects and weeds in Australia and Australian New Guinea. Commonwealth Inst. Biol. Control, Tech. Commun. 1. 102 p.
Yasumatsu, K. 1951. Further investigations on the hymenopterous parasites of Ceroplastes rubens in Japan. J. Kyushu Univ. Fac. Agric. 10: 1-27.
Yasumatsu, K. 1953. Preliminary investigations on the activity of a Kyushu race of Anicetus ceroplastis Ishii which has been liberated against Ceroplastes rubens Maskell in various districts in Japan. Sci. Bull. Kyushu Univ. Fac. Agric. 14: 17-26.
Yasumatsu, K. 1958. An interesting case of biological control of Ceroplastes rubens Maskell in Japan. Proc. 10th Intern. Congress Ent. 4: 771-75.
Yasumatsu, K. & T. Tachikawa. 1949. Investigations on the hymenopterous parasites of Ceroplastes rubens Maskell in Japan. J. Kyushu Univ. Fac. Agric. 9: 99-120.