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Grapholitha molesta (Busck) -- Olethreutidae




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The oriental fruitmoth was investigated for biological control during 1920-1930 in North America, in France and Australia in 1931-1932 and Japan and Korea in 1932-1933 (Clausen 1978).  Macrocentrus ancylivorous Roher, native to the northeastern United States, was imported in Canada, which reportedly resulted in establishment and population suppression in some areas (LeRoux 1971).  Parasitoids imported to California and the eastern United States from Japan and Korea in the 1930's were Diadegma molestae (Uchida), gave mixed results.  Phanerotoma molestae Muesebeck and Agathis diversa Muesebeck were imported from northern China in 1950, but neither species was established (Clausen 1978).  Macrocentrus ancylivorous was introduced into California and became established, providing excellent control of this moth and other closely related Lepidoptera (Finney et al. 1947).  This parasitoid was later introduced into other countries, such as Argentina, where it established (Clausen 1978).  Considerable tolerance to pesticides seems to have developed in M. ancylivorous (Dustan & Boyce 1966). 


For greater detail on the biological control effort and biologies of host and natural enemies, please refer also to the following (Fink 1926, Driggers 1930, 1941; van Steenburgh 1931, Garman & Bingham 1933, Grandi 1933, Haeussler 1933, 1932, 1940; Daniel 1932, 1936a,b; Pepper & Driggers 1934, Haden 1935, Lopez-Cristobal 1935, Neiswander 1936, van Steenburgh & Boyce 1938, Helson 1939, 1947; Allen et al. 1940, Brunson 1940, Carrion 1940, Brunson & Allen 1944, 1954; Smith 1945, Boyce 1947, Boyce & Dustan 1958, Turica 1960, Wilson 1960, Turnbull & Chant 1961, Allen 1962, McLeod 1962, Crouzel 1963, Putnam 1963, Croft & AliNiazee 1999).



REFERENCES:     For additional references, please also refer to    MELVYL Library

Allen, H. W.  1962.  Parasites of the Oriental fruit moth in the eastern United States.  U. S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1265.  139 p.


Allen, H. W., J. K. Holloway & G. J. Haeussler.  1940.  Importation, rearing and colonization of parasites of the Oriental fruit moth.  U. S. Dept. Agric. Cir. 561.  61 p.


Boyce, H. R.  1947.  Long term trends in parasitism of twig-infesting Oriental fruit moth larvae.  Ent. Soc. Ontario, 77th Ann. Rept. (1946):  21-34.


Boyce, H. R. & G. G. Dustan.  1958.  Prominent features of parasitism of twig-infesting larvae of the Oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) in Ontario, Canada.  10th Internatl. Cong. Ent. Proc. (1956) 4:  493-96.


Brunson, M. H.  1940.  Mass liberation of parasites of the Oriental fruit moth for immediate reduction of infestations.  J. Econ. Ent. 33:  346-49.


Brunson, M. H. & H. W. Allen. 1944.  Mass liberation of parasites for immediate reduction of Oriental fruit moth injury to ripe peaches.  J. Econ. Ent. 37:  411-16.


Brunson, M. H. & H. W. Allen.  1954.  Joint use of parasites and insecticides for control of the Oriental fruit moth.  J. Econ. Ent. 47:  147-52.


Carrion, F. M.  1940.  La lucha contra la Laspeyresia molesta (Busck) en el Uruguay.  Assoc. de Ingen. Agron. Rev. 12:  7-13.


Clausen, C. P. (ed.).  1978.  Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds:  A World Review.  U. S. Dept. Agric.  545 p.


Croft, B. A. & M. T. AliNiazee.  1999.  Biological control in deciduous tree fruit crops.  In:  Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds.), Handbook of Biological Control:  Principles and Applications.  Academic Press, San Diego, New York.  1046 p.


Crouzel, I. S. de.  1963.  Sobre el control biológico de Grapholitha molesta (Busck) en la Repçblica Argentina.  Rev. de Ent. Argentina 26:  129-31.


Daniel, D. M.  1932.  Macrocentrus ancylivorus Rohwer, a polyembryonic braconid parasite of the Oriental fruit moth.  New York Agric. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bull. 187.  101 p.


Daniel, D. M.  1936a.  Mass liberation of an Oriental fruit moth parasite.  J. Econ. Ent. 29:  459-61.


Daniel, D. M.  1936b.  Utilizing parasites in controlling the Oriental fruit moth.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 29:  640-44.


Driggers, B. F.  1930.  Some studies on the larval parasites of the Oriental fruit moth (Laspeyresia molesta Busck).  New Jersey Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 510.  19 p.


Driggers, B. F.  1941.  Three years' survey and liberation of Oriental fruit moth parasites in peach orchards in northern New Jersey.  J. Econ. Ent. 34:  239-44.


Dustan, A. G. & H. R. Boyce.  1966.  Parasitism of the oriental fruitmoth Grapholitha molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Ontario, 1956-1965.  Proc. Ent. Soc. Ontario 96:  100-02.


Fink, D. E.  1926.  The biology of Macrocentrus ancylivora Rohwer, an important parasite of the strawberry leaf roller (Ancylis comptata Froehl.).  J. Agric. Res. 32:  1121-34.


Finney, G. L., S. W. Flanders & H. S. Smith.  1947.  Mass culture of Macrocentrus ancylivorus and its host the potato tuber moth.  Hilgardia 17:  437-83.


Garman, P. & W. P. Bingham.  1933.  Studies on parasites of the Oriental fruit moth.  II.  Macrocentrus.  Conn. Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 356:  73-116.


Grandi, G.  1933.  Introduzione en Italia di un imenoptero americano parassita della Cydia molesta Busck.  Ital. Agric. 70:  1077-80.


Haden, W. R.  1935.  Parasitism of the Oriental fruit moth with special reference to the importance of certain alternate hosts.  Del. Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 194.  42 p.


Haeussler, G. J.  1932. Macrocentrus ancylivorus Rohw., an important parasite of the Oriental fruit moth.  J. Agric. Res. 45:  79-100.


Haeussler, G. J.  1933.  The Oriental fruit moth Grapholitha molesta Busck, and its parasites in France and Italy.  5th Internatl. Cong. Ent. Proc. 2:  533-37.


Haeussler, G. J.  1940.  Parasites of the Oriental fruit moth in Japan and Chosen and their introduction into the United States.  U. S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 728.  62 p.


Helson, G. A. H.  1939.  The oriental peach moth (Cydia molesta Busck).  Investigations in the Goulburn Valley, Victoria.  Progress report for the seasons 1935-38.  Austral. Council Sci. & Indus. Res. Pam. 88.  23 p.


Helson, G. A. H.  1947.  Investigations on the control of the Oriental peach moth, Cydia molesta Busck, in the Goulburn Valley, Victoria.  Austral. Council Sci. & Indus. Res. J. 20:  17-24.


Lopez-Cristobal, U.  1935.  La Peyresia molesta Busck y sus parásitos argentinos.  Nac. Univ. de La Plata, Rev. Fac. Agron. 20:  140-69.


McLeod, J. H.  1962.  A review of the biological control attempts against insects and weeds in Canada.  Part I.  Biological control of pests of crops, fruit trees, ornamentals, and weeds in Canada up to 1959.  Commonwealth Inst. Biol. Control, Tech. Commun. 2:  1-33.


Neiswander, R. B.  1936.  Oriental fruit moth investigations in Ohio.  II.  Ohio Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 569.  30 p.


Pepper, B. B. & B. F. Driggers.  1934.  Non-economic insects as intermediate hosts of parasites of the Oriental fruit moth.  Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 27:  593-98.


Putnam, W. L.  1963.  The strawberry leaf roller, Ancylis comptana fragariae (Walsh and Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), as a source of over-wintered Macrocentrus ancylivorus Rohwer (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Ontario.  Canad. Ent. 95:  1022-23.


Smith, H. S.  1945.  Cost of producing Macrocentrus by the potato-tuberworm method.  J. Econ. Ent. 38:  316-19.


Turica, A.  1960.  Adaptación en el país de un parásito natural del "Gusano del Duraznero."  Idia. 150:  83-5.


Turnbull, A. L. & D. A. Chant.  1961.  The practice and theory of biological control of insects in Canada.  Canad. J. Zool. 39:  697-753.


van Steenburgh, W. E.  1931.  The biological control factors affecting the abundance of the Oriental peach moth (Laspeyresia molesta Busck) in Ontario during 1930.  Ent. Soc. Ontario 61st Ann. Rept. 1930:  57-65.


van Steenburgh, W. E. & H. R. Boyce.  1938.  Biological control of the Oriental fruit moth Laspeyresia molesta Busck in Ontario:  A review of ten years' work.  Ent. Soc. Ontario 69th Ann. Rept. 1938:  65-74.


Wilson, F.  1960.  A review of the biological control of insects and weeds in Australia and Australian New Guinea.  Commonwealth Inst. Biol. Control, Tech. commun. 1.  102 p.