NANTUCKET PINE TIP MOTH
Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) -- Tortricidae
[Also named R. frustrana bushnelli (Busck)]
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Native to the eastern and southern United States, the Nantucket pine tip moth is widely distributed and infests most native and exotic pines in that region (Dahlsten & Hall 1999). It is especially important as a pest of loblolly or shortleaf pine in the south, and as a common pest of ornamentals and nursery stock. Infestations generally occur on seedlings and saplings that are <3 m in height. Although trees are not usually killed, the feeding on the terminal and lateral buds and stems causes discoloration and deformation (Coulson & Witter 1984). In 1971 this insect was found on Monterey pine, Pinus radiata, on a golf course in San Diego County, California (Scriven & Luck 1978). The infestation spread through southwestern San Diego County, and other species of ornamental pines were attacked even though Monterey pine was the principal host plant.
The ichneumonid Scambus aplopappi (Ashmead), and a native tachinid, Erynnia tortricis (Coquillett), parasitized the tip moth to about 10% (Scriven & Luck 1978). A decision was made to introduce natural enemies from the eastern and southern United States in 1979, when an ichneumonid Campoplex frustranae Cushman and a tachinid Lixophaga mediocris Aldrich were introduced. The tachinid did not become established but C. frustranae was established and increased rapidly from 1976-1977 (Scriven & Luck 1978). Parasitization of overwintering tip moths reached 50% by 1979, and many Monterey pin trees at the original parasitoid establishment site improved in appearance and vigor, suggesting that biological control was successful (Scriven & Luck 1978). Campoplex frustranae has continued to spread in southern California with expansion of the tip moth population (Dahlsten & Hall 1999).
Additional references relating to biological control effort, and biologies of host and natural enemies may be found in the following (Baumhofer 1932, Cushman 1932, Schaffner 1950, Graham 1956, Dowden 1962).
REFERENCES: [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library ]
Baumhofer, L. G. 1932. Biological control of the pine tip moth in Nebraska. Wash. Ent. Soc. Proc. 34: 28.
Coulson, R. N. & J. A. Witter. 1984. Forest Entomology. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 669 p.
Cushman, R. A. 1932. Note on the biological control of the pine tip moth in Nebraska. Wash. Ent. Soc. Proc. 34: 28.
Dahlsten, D. L. & R. W. Hall. 1999. Biological control of insects in outdoor urban environments. In: Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds.), Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, New York. 1046 p.
Dowden, P. B. 1962. Parasites and predators of forest insects liberated in the United States through 1960. U. S. Dept. Agric. Agric. Handbk. 226. 70 p.
Graham, S. A. 1956. Forest insects and the law of natural compensations. Canad. Ent. 88: 45-55.
Schaffner, J. V., Jr. 1950. Butterflies and moths. Order Lepidoptera. In: F. C. Craighead (ed.), Insect Enemies of Eastern Forests. U. S. Dept. Agric. Misc. Pub. 657: 343-505.
Scriven, G. T. & R. F. Luck. 1978. Natural enemy promises control of Nantucket pine tip moth. Calif. Agric. 32(10): 19-20.