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Lantana camara L. -- Verbenaceae




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Koebele explored the jungles of southern Mexico during 1902 for insects feeding on lantana (Lantana camara L., Verbenaceae).  Lantana was an ornamental plant of Central and South American origins that had escaped from cultivation to become a serious pest in Hawaii.  Koebele shipped 23 species of insects to Hawaii (Goeden 1978).  Koebele suffered problems of extreme temperatures, unscheduled shipping delays, pathogens and other contaminants (Perkins & Swezey 1924).  Upon their arrival by ship in 1903, the insects Koebele collected were liberated directly on lantana plants in the field without host specificity tests.  Eight species, including some of the most effective natural enemies of lantana, were reported established on this plant throughout the islands by 1905 (Andrés & Goeden 1971, Goeden 1978, Julien 1982).


Procedures for exploration of natural enemies of an alien plant in its country or countries of origin were pioneered in the lantana project.  The lantana seed fly, Ophiomyia lantanae (Froggatt) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), was transferred from Hawaii to New Caledonia in 1908-1909 and to Fiji in 1911 (Rao et al. 1971).  These shipments marked the beginnings of a tradition of transfer projects (DeBach 1964), involving biological control agents of proven worth to other countries with the same noxious plants.  Three more species of lantana insects were then transferred from Hawaii to Fiji during 1922-1928 (Rao et al. 1971).


             In California it has been grown since the 1950's in a number of varieties as an attractive landscape plant that is resistant to drought and low temperatures.


For further details on biological control efforts, and biologies of host and natural enemies, please see the following (Perkins 1903, 1904; Jepson 1916, Froggatt 1919, Ramachandra Rao 1920, Koebele 1924, Kunhi Kannan 1924, Swezey 1924, 1925, 1931; Imms 1926, Kermack 1928, Simmonds 1928, 1930, 1931, 1932a,b; Fyfe 1935, 1937; Parham 1935, Veitch 1935, 1941; Beeson & Chatterjee 1939, Currie & Fyfe 1939, Gardner 1944, Khan 1945, McCarthy 1947, Roonwal 1952, Vecht 1953, Krauss 1953, 1962a,b; 1964; Vecht 1953, Pemberton 1954, Parham et al. 1956, Weber 1956, 1957, Djojopranoto 1957, O'Connor 1957, 1960; Davis 1958, 1960, 1961, 1966; Fullaway 1952, 1958, 1959; Dodd 1960, Everist 1960, Lever 1960a,b; Wilson 1960, Davis & Krauss 1961, 1962, 1965, 1966; Haseler 1963, Oösthuizen 1963, Kingsbury 1964, Haselwood & Motter 1966, Waterhouse 1966, Davies & Greathead 1967, Greathead 1967, 1968).



REFERENCES:         [Additional references may be found at:   MELVYL Library ]


Andrés, L. A. & R. D. Goeden.  1971.  The biological control of weeds by introduced natural enemies, p. 143-64.  In:  C. B. Huffaker (ed.), Biological Control.  Plenum Press, New York.


Bailey, L. H.  1949.  Manual of Cultivated Plants.  Rev. ed.  MacMillan Co., New York.  1116 p.


Beeson, C. F. C. & S. N. Chatterjee.  1939.  Further notes on the biology of parasites of teak defoliators in India.  Indian Forest. Rec. (n.s.) Ent. 5:  357-79.


Currie, G. A. & R. V. Fyfe.  1939.  The Lantana bug in Australia.  Progress report.  Austral. Council Sci. & Indus. Res. J. 12:  259-63.


Davies, J. C. & D. J. Greathead.  1967.  Occurrence of Teleonemia scrupulosa on Sesamum indicum Linn. in Uganda.  Nature 213:  102-03.


Davis, C. J.  1958.  Recent introductions for biological control in Hawaii-- III.  Hawaii. Ent. Soc. Proc. 16:  356-58.


Davis, C. J.  1960.  Recent introductions for biological control in Hawaii-- V.  Hawaii. Ent. Soc. Proc. 17:  244-48.


Davis, C. J.  1961.  Recent introductions for biological control in Hawaii-- VI.  Hawaii. Ent. Soc. Proc. 17:  389-93.


Davis, C. J.  1966.  Progress report:  biological control status of noxious weed pests in Hawaii--1965-1966.  Hawaii Dept. Agric. Rept.  4 p.


Davis, C. J. & N. L. H. Krauss.  1961.  Recent developments in biological control of weed pests in Hawaii.  10th Pacific Sci. Cong., Abs. Symposium Papers:  204-05.


Davis, C. J. & N. L. H. Krauss.  1962.  Recent developments in the biological control of weeds in Hawaii.  Hawaii. Ent. Soc. Proc. 18:  65-7.


Davis, C. J. & N. L. H. Krauss.  1965.  Recent introductions for biological control in Hawaii-- X.  Hawaii. Ent. Soc. Proc. 19:  87-90.


Davis, C. J. & N. L. H. Krauss.  1966.  Recent introductions for biological control.  Hawaii. Ent. Soc. Proc. 19:  201-07.


DeBach, P.  1964.  The scope of biological control, p. 1-20.  In: P. DeBach (ed.), Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds.  Reinhold, New York.


Dodd, A. P.  1960.  Biological control investigation projects in Queensland.  3d Austral. Weed Conf. Proc 1, Paper 4.  27 p.


Djojopranoto, A.  1957.  Kepik Lantana dipulau Timor (Teleonemia scrupulosa Stal.) (The Lantana bug (T. scrupulosa) on Timor).  Tehnik Pertanian 6:  77-95.  [summary in English].


Everist, S.  1960.  Strangers within the gates (plants naturalized in Queensland).  Queensland Nat. 16:  49-60.


Froggatt, W. W.  1919.  The Lantana fly (Agromyza lantanae).  New South Wales Agric. Gaz. 30:  665-68.


Fullaway, D. T.  1952.  Fifty years progress in the biological control of weeds-- a review.  Hawaii Bd. Commrs. Agric. & Forestry.  12 p.


Fullaway, D. T.  1958.  Biological control of Opuntia megacantha and Lantana camara in Hawaii.  10th Internatl. Cong. Ent. Proc. 4:  549-52.


Fullaway, D. T.  1959.  Biological control of Lantana in Hawaii.  Hawaii Bd. Commrs. Agric. & Forestry, Bien. Rept. to June 30, 1958:  70-5.


Fyfe, R. V.  1935.  The Lantana bug in Fiji.  Fiji Dept. Agric. Agric. J. 8:  34-6.


Fyfe, R. V.  1937.  The Lantana bug, Teleonemia lantanae.  Austral. Council Sci. & Indus. Res. J. 10:  181-86.


Gardner, J. C. M.  1944.  A note on the imported Lantana bug (Teneonemia scrupulosa Stal).  Indian Forest. 70:  139.


Goeden, R. D.  1978.  Part II:  Biological control of weeds, p. 357-545.  In:  C. P. Clausen (ed.), Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds.  U. S. Dept. Agric. Handb. No. 480.


Greathead, D. J.  1967.  A list of the more important weeds of East Africa.  Commonwealth Inst. Biol. Control Contrib., Tech Bull.  7 p.


Greathead, D. J.  1968.  Biological control of Lantana-- a review and discussion of recent developments in East Africa.  Pest Articles & News Summaries, Sec. C, 14:  167-75.


Haseler, W. H.  1963.  Progress in insect control of Lantana.  Queensland Agric. J. 89:  65-9.


Haselwood, E. L. & G. G. Motter.  1966.  Handbook of Hawaiian Weeds.  Hawaii. Sugar Planters Assoc. Expt. Sta.  479 p.


Imms, A. D.  1926.  The biological control of insect pests and injurious plants in the Hawaiian Islands.  Ann. Appl. Biol. 13:  402-23.


Jepson, F. P.  1916.  The Lantana seed fly (Agromyzidae).  Fiji Dept. Agric. Pam. 21.  1 p.


Julien, M. H. (ed.).  1982.  Biological control of weeds:  a world catalogue of agents and their target weeds, 1st ed.  Commonw. Agric. Bur., Slough, U.K.  108 p.


Kermack, J.  1928.  Action taken in regard to control of noxious weeds.  Fiji Dept. Agric. J. 1:  9-10.


Khan, A. H.  1945.  On the Lantana bug (Teleonemia scrupulosa Stal).  Indian J. Ent. 6:  149-61.


Kingsbury, J. M.  1964.  Poisonous Plants of the United States and Canada.  Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey.  626 p.


Koebele, A.  1924.  Report on enemies of Lantana camara in Mexico, and their introduction into the Hawaiian Islands.  Hawaii. Sugar Planters' Assoc. Bull., Ent. Ser. 16:  54-71.


Krauss, N. L. H.  1953.  Notes on insects associated with Lantana in Cuba.  Hawaii. Ent. Soc. Proc. 15:  123-25.


Krauss, N. L. H.  1962a.  Biological control investigations on insect, snail, and weed pests in Tropical America. 1961.  Hawaii. Ent. Soc. Proc. 18(1961):  132-33.


Krauss, N. L. H.  1962b.  Biological control investigations on Lantana.  Hawaii. Ent. Soc. Proc. 18:  134-36.


Krauss, N. L. H.  1964.  Some leaf-mining chrysomelids of Lantana (Coleoptera).  Coleopterists' Bull. 18:  92-4.


Kunhi Kannan, K.  1924.  Lantana flies (Agromyza lantanae Frogg.) in Hawaii.  Agric. J. India 19:  504-08.


Lever, R. J. A. W.  1960a.  Biological control of Lantana.  World Crops 12:  57.


Lever, R. J. A. W.  1960b.  Lantana bug introductions into some Pacific islands.  World Crops 12:  256.


McCarthy, T.  1947.  Lantana leaf bug found on the north coast.  Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 58:  501.


O'Connor, B. A.  1957.  Entomological notes.  Fiji Dept. Agric., Agric. J. 28:  79-81.


O'Connor, B. A.  1960.  A decade of biological control work in Fiji.  Fiji Dept. Agric., Agric. J. 30:  44-54.


Oösthuizen, M. J.  1963.  The biological control of Lantana camara L. in Natal.  J. Ent. Soc. South Africa 27:  3-16.


Parham, B. E. V.  1935.  Mycological notes--mortality in larvae of Teleonemia lantanae.  Fiji Dept. Agric. Agric. J. 8:  31.


Parham, J. W., T. L. Mune & B. A. O'Connor.  1956.  Lantana and its control in Fiji.  Fiji Dept. Agric. Agric. J. 27:  28-32.


Pemberton, C. E.  1954.  Invertebrate consultants committee for the Pacific.  Report for 1949-1954.  Natl. Acad. Sci.- Natl. Res. Council Pacific Sci. Board.  56 p.


Perkins, R. C. L.  1903.  Enemies of Lantana.  Hawaii. Livestock Breeders' Assoc. 1st Ann. Mtg. Proc. 1902:  28-35.


Perkins, R. C. L.  1904.  Later notes on Lantana insects.  Hawaii. Livestock Breeders' Assoc. 2nd Ann. Mtg., Proc. 1903:  58-61.


Perkins, R. C. L. & O. H. Swezey.  1924.  The introduction into Hawaii of insects that attack lantana.  Bull. Hawaiian Sugar Planters Assoc. Expt. Station No. 16:  83 p.


Ramachandra Rao, R. S. Y.  1920.  Lantana insects in India. India Dept. Agric. Mem., Ent. Ser 5:  239-314.


Rao, V. P., M. A. Ghani, T. Sankaran & K. C. Mathur.  1971.  A review of the biological control of insects and other pests in south-east Asia and the Pacific Region.  Commonw. Inst. Biol. Contr. Tech. Commun. No. 6:  1-149.


Roonwal, M. L.  1952.  The natural establishment and dispersal of an imported insect in India.-- The Lantana bug, Teleonemia scrupulosa Stal. (= Lantana distant; Hemiptera, Tingidae), with a description of its egg, nymph, and adult.  Zool. Soc. India J. 4:  1-16.


Simmonds, H. W.  1928.  Lantana bug "Teleonemia lantanae distant."  Fiji Dept. Agric., Agric. J. 1:  16-21.


Simmonds, H. W.  1930.  Entomological notes.  Fiji Dept. Agric., Agric. J. 3:  82.


Simmonds, H. W.  1931.  Noxious weeds and their control in Fiji.  II.  Biological control.  Fiji Dept. Agric., Agric. J. 4:  29-31.


Simmonds, H. W.  1932a.  A list of insects introduced into Fiji for the biological control of pests and weeds.  Fiji Dept. Agric., Agric. J. 5:  5-9.


Simmonds, H. W.  1932b.  Biological control-- progress report.  Fiji Dept. Agric., Agric. J. 5:  21-22.


Swezey, O. H.  1924.  Present status of Lantana and its introduced insect enemies.  Hawaii. Sugar Planters' Assoc. Ent. Ser. Bull. 16:  72-83.


Swezey, O. H.  1925.  Records of introduction of beneficial insects into the Hawaiian Islands.  Hawaii. Planters' Rec. 29:  369-76.


Swezey, O. H.  1931.  Records of introduction of beneficial insects into the Hawaiian Islands.  In:  F. X. Williams, Handbook of the Insects and other Invertebrates of Hawaiian Sugar Cane Fields.  Hawaii. Sugar Planter's Assoc. Expt. Sta.  400 p.


Vecht, J. van der.  1953.  Het Lantana-Wantsje in Indonesie (Teleonemia scrupulosa Stal., Fam. Tingidae).  Tijdchr. Plantenziek 59:  170-73.  [summary in English].


Veitch, R.  1935.  Insect enemies of Lantana.  Queensland Agric. J. 44:  142-44.


Veitch, R.  1941.  The Lantana leaf bug in Queensland.  Queensland Agric. J. 55:  270-72.


Waterhouse, D. F.  1966.  The entomological control of weeds in Australia.  Mushi 39 (sup.): 109-18.


Weber, P. W.  1956.  Recent introductions for biological control in Hawaii.  Hawaii. Ent. Soc. Proc. 16:  162-64.


Weber, P. W.  1957.  Recent introductions for biological control in Hawaii--II.  Hawaii. Ent. Soc. Proc. 16:  313-15.


Wilson, F.  1960.  A review of the biological control of insects and weeds in Australia and Australian New Guinea.  Commonwealth Inst. Biol. Control, Tech. Commun. 1.  102 p.