Unaspis yanonensis (Kuwana) -- Diaspididae
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Also known as the Yanone scale, U. yanonensis is believed to have originated in China (Ebeling 1959). However, it was first discovered in Japan in 1907, where it was rated the most serious insect pest of citrus (Clausen 1927). Later it became established in southern France (Commeau & Sola 1964) where it is now a major pest of citrus (Panis 1982).
None of the 18 species of predators and four species of parasitoids reported from U. yanonensis in Japan is considered effective enough to provide economic control (Murakami 1975). Importations of exotic natural enemies were begun in 1955 with the acquisition of Aphytis lingnanensis from California. It failed to become permanently established, however (Nishida & Yanai 1965). Temporary establishment resulted in the 1970's when a strain of A. lingnanensis was imported from Hong Kong, where it attacked Unaspis citri (Comstock). However, overwintering was not possible (Tanaka & Inoue 1977). Explorations in China in 1980 uncovered Aphytis yanonensis DeBach & Rosen and Coccobius fulvus, both of which became established at sites on Kyushu, Honshu and Shikoku. These parasitoids were initially considered as highly effective in the southern half of Japan (Feruhashi & Nishino 1983, Takagi & Ujiye 1986, Yukinari & Kagawa 1985) (also see Nishida & Yanai 1956, Watanabe 1958, and DeBach 1960, Kennett et al. 1999).
REFERENCES: [ Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library ]
Clausen, C. P. 1927. The citrus insects of Japan. U. S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 15: 15 p.
Commeau, J. & E. Sola. 1964. Une nouvelle cochenille des agrumes sur la Cote d'Azur. Phytoma 16: 49-50.
DeBach, P. 1960. The importance of taxonomy to biological control as illustrated by the cryptic history of Aphytis holoxanthus n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a parasite of Chrysomphalus aonidum, and Aphytis coheni n. sp., a parasite of Aonidiella aurantii. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 53: 701-05.
Ebeling, W. 1959. Subtropical Fruit Pests. Univ. of Calif. Div. Agric. Sci. 436 p.
Furuhashi, K. & M. Nishino. 1983. Biological control of arrowhead scale, Unaspis yanonensis, by parasitic wasps introduced from the People's Republic of China. Entomophaga 28: 277-86.
Kennett, C. E. J. A. McMurtry & J. W. Beardsley. 1999. Biological control in subtropical and tropical crops. In: Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds.), Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, New York. 1046 p
Murakami, V. 1975. Biological and ecological studies on the parasites of Unaspis yanonensis (Kuwana) in Japan. JIBP Synthesis 7: 125-31.
Nishida, K. & S. Yanai. 1956. On the adaptability of Aphytis lingnanensis Compere to Unaspis yanonensis Kuwana. Kumamoto Pref. Fruit Expt. Sta., Japan. 6 p. [in Japanese].
Nishida, K. & S. Yanai. 1965. Parasitization of Aphytis lingnanensis Compere to U. yanonensis. Kumamoto Pref. Expt. Sta. 2: 15-19.
Nishino, M. & K. Takagi. 1981. Parasites of Unaspis yanonensis (Kuwana) introduced from the People's Republic of China. Plant Protect. 35: 255-56. [in Japanese].
Panis, A. 1982.Scale insects (Homoptera,Coccoidea,Coccidae) within the framework of integrated control in Mediterranean citrus culture. Rev. Zool. Agric. Path. Veg. 79: 12-22.
Takagi, K. & T. Ujiye. 1986. Suppressive effects n the arrowhead scale, Unaspis yanonensis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) of the introduced parasitoids Aphytis yanonensis and Coccobius fulvus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Bull. Fruit Tree Res. Sta., Series D 8: 53-64.
Tanaka, M. & K. Inoue. 1977. Introduction of efficient parasite of the arrowhead scale, Unaspis yanonensis (Kuwana) from Hong Kong. Bull. Fruit Tree Res. Tat. Ser. D, 1: 69-85.
Watanabe, C. 1958. Review of biological control of insect pests in Japan. 10th Intern. Congr. Ent. Proc. (1956) 4: 515-17.
Yukinari, M. & M. Kagawa. 1985. Hibernation and harmonization with host scale of Aphytis yanonensis DeBach and Rosen (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), the imported parasitoids of the arrowhead scale, Unaspis yanonensis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), in citrus orchard in Tokushima. Bull. Tokushima Hort. Expt. Sta. 13: 7-15. [in Japanese].