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Chloropulvinaria (= Pulvinaria) psidii (Maskell)--Coccidae

[Also known as Green Shield Scale]




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Green guava mealybug (also known as the green shield scale) is a tropical species common to Southeast Asia, the West Indies, Florida and Hawaii (Dahlsten & Hall 1999).  It attacks numerous tropical and subtropical plants, favoring Ficus spp., guava, coffee and oleander (Clausen 1978).  On reachinbg Bermuda, several species of natural enemies were introduced from Hawaii and California, with four becoming established (Bennett & Hughes 1959).  Complete biological control of C. psidii was reported by Simmonds (1969), with Microterys kotinskyi Fullaway considered the most important natural enemy.



REFERENCES:          [Additional references may be found at:   MELVYL Library ]


Bennett, F. D. & I. W. Hughes.  1959.  Biological control of insect pests in Bermuda.  Bull. Ent. Res. 50:  423-36.


Clausen, C. P.  1978 (ed.).  Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds:  A world review.  USDA ARS Agriculture Handbook No. 480.  455 p.


Dahlsten, D. L. & R. W. Hall.  1999.  Biological control of insects in outdoor urban environments.  In:  Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds.), Handbook of Biological Control:  Principles and Applications.  Academic Press, San Diego, New York.  1046 p


Green, E. E.  1909.  The Coccidae of Ceylon.  Part IV, p. 251-334.  Dulou & Co., London.  334 p.


Simmonds, F. J.  1958.  Recent work on biological control in the British West Indies.  10th Intern. Cong. Ent., Proc. 4:  475-78.


Simmonds, F. J.  1959.  The green shield scale, Pulvinaria psidii Mask. (Coccidae), in Bermuda.  Bermuda Dept. Agric., Agric. Bull. 32.  21 p.


Simmonds, F. J.  1969.  Brief resume of activities and recent successes achieved.  Commonwealth Inst. Biol. Contr.  16 p.


Takahashi, R.  1939.  Life-history and control methods of Pulvinaria polygonata Ckll. (Coccidae).  Formosa Gric. Rev. 35:  403-14.  [in Japanese with English summary].


Wolcott, G. N.  1948.  The insects of Puerto Rico.  Puerto Rico Univ. J. Agric. 32:  749-975.


Wolcott, G. N.  1958.  The evanescence of perfect biological control.  10th Internatl. Cong. Ent. Proc. (1956) 4:  511-13.