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FLUTED SCALES (Several Species)


Icerya spp. -- Margarodidae




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Three fluted scale species other than Icerya purchasi Maskell which have caused economic injury are Icerya seychellarum (Westwood), Icerya aegyptiaca (Douglas) and Icerya montserratensis Riley & Howard.  Rodolia cardinalis Mulsant has been successful in controlling these scales either alone or in conjunction with Rodolia pumila Weise, Rodolia limbatus Motschulsky, Rodolia chermisina Mulsant, Cryptochaetum monophlebi (Skuse) and Cryptochaetum grandicorne Rondani (see. Kuwana 1922, Rodriguez-Lopez 1942, Vesey-Fitzgerald 1953, Beardsley 1955, Bedford 1965, Kennett et al. 1965).


Please refer also the the following for greater details on host/natural enemy biologies and biological control (Ribaga 1904, Porter 1916, Balachowsky & Molinari 1930, Wolcott & Sein 1933, Esaki 1940, Graff-Marin & Cortes 1940, Capdeville 1945, Moutia & Mamet 1946, Pemberton 1954, Dumbleton 1957, Gardner 1958, Gonzales & Rojas 1966, Kennett et al. 1999).



REFERENCES:               [Additional references may be found at:   MELVYL Library ]


Balachowsky, A. & L. Molinari.  1930.  L'extension de la cochenille australienne (Icerya purchasei Mask.) en France et de son prédateur Novius cardinalis Muls.  Ann. des Epiphyt. (Paris) 16:  1-24.


Bedford, E. C. G.  1965.  An attempt to control the Seychelles scale, Icerya seychellarum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Coccidae) in South Africa by introducing Cryptochaetum monophlebi Skuse (Diptera: Cryptochaetidae).  J. Ent. Soc. So. Afr. 28:  155-65.


Beardsley, J. W.  1955.  Fluted scales and their biological control in United States administered Micronesia.  Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc. 15:  391-99.


Capdeville, C. C.  1945.  Plagas de la Agricultura en Chile.  Imprenta Pacífico, Valparaiso.  355 p.


Dumbleton, L. J.  1957.  Parasites and predators introduced in the Pacific Islands for the biological control of insects and other pests.  So. Pacific Comm., Tech. Paper 101.  40 p.


Esaki, T.  1940.  Fauna of injurious insects of the Japanese mandated South Sea Islands and their control.  Bot. & Zool. 8:  274-80.  [in Japanese].


Gardner, T. R.  1958.  Biological control of insect and plant pests in teh Trust Territory and Guam.  10th Intern. Cong. Ent. Proc. (1956) 4:  465-69.


Gonzales, R. H. & S. P. Rojas.  1966.  Estudio análitico del control biológico de plagas agrícolas en Chile.  Agric. Tech. 26:  133-47.


Graf-Marin A. & P. R. Cortes.  1940.  Introdución de hiperparásitos en Chile:  Resçmen de las importaciones bechas y de sus resultados.  6th Pacific Sci. Cong. Proc. 4:  351-57.


Kennett, C. E., J. A. McMurtry & J. W. Beardsley.  1999.  Biological control in subtropical and tropical crops.  In: Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds.).  1999. Handbook of Biological Control:  Principles and Applications.  Academic Press, San Diego, New York.  1046 p.


Kuwana, I.  1922.  Studies on Japanese Monophlebinae.  Contrib. II.  The genus Icerya.  Japan Dept. Agric. Com. Imp., Plant Quar. Sta. Bull. 2:  43 p.


Moutia, L. A. & R. Mamet.  1947.  Clemora smithi (Arrow) un ennemi de la canne a sucre a l'ile Maurice.  Mauritius Dept. Agric. Bull. 28.  7 p.


Pemberton, C. E.  1954.  Invertebrate consultants committee for the Pacific, Report for 1949-1954.  Natl. Acad. Sci.--Natl. Res. Coun. Pacific Sci. Board.  56 p.


Porter, C. E.  1916.  Materiales para la entomología ecónomica de Chile. VI.  El género Icerya  Sig.  Ann. de Zool. Aplicada 3:  51-4.


Ribaga, C.  1904.  Attivita del Novius cardinalis Muls. control l'Icerya purchasi Mask. in Italia.  Riv. Patol. Veg. 10:  299-323.


Rodriguez-Lopez, L.  1942.  La incerta plaga de los cítricos.  Ecuad. Dept. Agric. Bol. 17:  10 p.


Vesey-Fitzgerald, D.  1953.  Review of the biological control of coccids on coconut palms in the Seychelles.  Bull. Ent. Res. 44:  405-13.


Wolcott, G. N. & F. Sein, Jr.  1933.  A year's experience with the cottony cushion scale in Puerto Rico.  Puerto Rico Dept. Agric. J. 17:  199-221.