EUROPEAN FRUIT LECANIUM
Lecanium corni (Bouche) -- Coccidae
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A scale complex called the European fruit lecanium, Lecanium corni (Bouche), began to cause severe injury to ornamental and fruit trees on Mackinac Island, Michigan in the 1970's. Heavily infested trees showed dieback and a loss of vigor. Honeydew deposited by the scales became a nuisance in the towns, and subsequent sooty mold growth damaged property. The scale epizootic was attributed to a destruction of natural enemies by weekly applications of dimethoate for fly control (Merritt et al. 1983). The development of an IPM program for flies was followed by a great reduction in dimethoate treatments which was followed by a noticeable decline in L. corni densities. Two years later honeydew deposition was also greatly reduced (Merritt et al. 1983, Dahlsten & Hall 1999).
For additional details on biologies of natural enemies, host and biological control, please refer to the following (Essig 1934, Ebeling 1938, Fenton 1940, Suter 1950, McLeod 1954).
REFERENCES: [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library ]
Dahlsten, D. L. & R. W. Hall. 1999. Biological control of insects in outdoor urban environments. In: T. Bellows & T. W. Fisher (eds.), Principles and Application of Biological Control. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 1046 p.
Ebeling, W. 1938. Host determined morphological variations in Lecanium corni. Hilgardia 11: 613-69.
Essig, E. O. 1934. Insects of Western North America. MacMillan Co., New York. 1395 p.
Fenton, F. A. 1940. The brown elm scale: description and control. Oklahoma Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 245. 6 p.
McLeod, J. H. 1954. Statuses of some introduced parasites and their hosts in British Columbia. Ent. Soc. British Columbia Proc. (1953) 50: 19-27.
Merritt, R. W., M. K. Kennedy & E. F. Gersabeck. 1983. Integrated pest management of nuisance and biting flies in a Michigan resort: dealing with secondary pest outbreaks. p. 277-99. In: G. W. Frankie & C. S. Koehler (eds.) Urban Entomology: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Praeger Publ., New York. 493 p.
Suter, P. 1950. Zur Biologie von Lecanium corni Bché. (Homopt. Coccid.). Mitt. Schweiz Ent. Ges. 23: 95-103.