ELM LEAF BEETLE
Xanthogaleruca luteola (Müller) -- Chrysomelidae
[Also known as Pyrrhalta luteola (Müller)]
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The elm leaf beetle became widely spread in the United States after its invasion from Europe in the 1830's (Howard 1908, Clausen 1956, Dahlsten & Hall 1999). Many introductions of the eulophid egg parasitoid, Tetrastichus gallerucae (Fonscolmbe) (= Tetrastichus xanthomelaenae Rondani) were made from Europe and the Middle East (Berry 1938b, Clair et al. 1988), and it became established in Ohio in 1932 (Hall & Johnson 1983). Elm leaf beetle seems to be controlled by T. gallerucae, preventing high levels of defoliation, and the project in Ohio was judged to be partially to substantially successful (Dahlsten & Hall 1999). Erynniopsis antennata Rondani was introduced and established in Central California from Europe in 1939 (Flanders 1941).
Tetrastichus gallerucae was also introduced and recovered in northern and southern California (Luck & Scriven 1976, Clair et al. 1988). However, overwintering decimates the parasitoid in California such that early season parasitization rates are very low. Tetrastichus brevistigma Gahan, apparently native to the northeastern United States, was reported parasitizing 50-80% of beetle pupae in that area (Berry 1938b). This parasitoid has also been established in California but appears to exert little control on beetle populations (Luck & Scriven 1976). A more recent appraisal of its performance in Ohio suggest that it is no longer important there either (Dahlsten & Hall 1999). Luck & Scriven (1976) reported that E. antennata parasitism significant late in the season in California, but they did not consider the activity of both species of parasitoids sufficient to prevent significant damage.
For greater details of natural enemies and biological control efforts against the elm leaf beetle, please see the following (Silvestri 1904, 1910; Marchal 1905, Provasoli 1932, Flanders 1936, 1941; Clausen 1956, Dowden 1962).
REFERENCES: [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library ]
Berry, P. A. 1938a. Laboratory studies on Tetrastichus xanthomelaenae Rand. and Tetrastichus sp., two hymenopterous egg parasites of the elm leaf beetle. J. Agric. Res. 57: 859-63.
Berry, P. A. 1983b. Tetrastichus brevistigma Gahan, a pupal parasite of the elm leaf beetle, USDA Cir 485. 11 p.
Clair, D. J., D. L. Dahlsten & S. H. Dreistadt. 1988. Biological control of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola, in California--A case study. Proc. 6th Intern. Conf. of Intern. Fed. Organic Agric. Movements, 20 Aug 1986, Santa Cruz, California (in press).
Clair, D. J., D. L. Dahlsten & E. R. Hart. 1987. Rearing Tetrastichus gallerucae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for biological control of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola. Entomophaga 32: 457-61.
Clausen, C. P. 1956. Biological control of insect pests in the continental United States. U. S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1139. 151 p.
Dahlsten, D. L. & R. W. Hall. 1999. Biological control of insects in outdoor urban environments. In: Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds.), Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, New York. 1046 p
Dowden, P. B. 1962. Parasites and predators of forest insects liberated in the United States through 1960. U. S. Dept. Agric. Agric. Handbk. 226. 70 p.
Flanders, S. E. 1936. Japanese species of Tetrastichus parasitic on eggs of Galerucella xanthomelaena (Schrank). J. Econ. Ent. 29: 1024-25.
Flanders, S. E. 1941. Observations on the biology of the elm leaf beetle parasite, Erynnia nitida (R.Desv.). J. Econ. Ent. 33: 947-48.
Hall, R. W. & N. F. Johnson. 1983. Recovery of Tetrastichus gallerucae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an introduced egg parasitoid of the elm leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta luteola) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J. Kan. Ent. Soc. 56: 297-98.
Howard, L. O. 1908. The importation of Tetrastichus xanthomelaenae (Rond.). J. Econ. Ent. 1: 281-89.
Luck, R. F. & G. T. Scriven. 1976. The elm leaf beetle, Pyrrhalta luteola in southern California: its pattern of increase and its control by introduced parasites. Environ. Ent. 5: 409-16.
Marchal, P. 1905. Observations biologiques sur un parasite de la galeruque de l'orme (le Tetrastichus xanthomelaenae). Bull. Ent. Soc. France (1905): 64-8.
Provasoli, L. 1932. Contributo alla biologia ed all'embriologia della Galerucella luteola (F. Muller) e del suo endofago Tetrastichus xanthomelaenae (Rond.). Bol. Lab. Zool. Milano 3: 53-66.
Silvestri, F. 1904. Contribuzione alla conoscenze della matamorfosi e dei costumi della Lebia scapularis Fourc. Redia 2: 68-84.
Silvestri, F. 1910. Contribuzioni alla conoscenza degli insetti dannosi e dei loro simbionti. I. Galerucella dell'olmo (Galerucella luteola F. Mull.). Bol. Lab. Zool. Gen. Agric., Portici 4: 246-88.