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Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal -- Thysanoptera





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In Hawaii Cuban laurel thrips attacks Ficus retusa and Ficus benjamina, and their feeding causes young terminal foliage to curl and drop.  Rao et al. (1971) reported that swarming behavior of the thrips has caused a public nuisance.  An anthocorid predator, Montandoniola moraguesi Puton, was introduced from the Philippines in 1964, and became established on Oahu, giving noticeable control of the thrips (Rao et al. 1971).


In California Cuban laurel thrips became a prominent pest during the 1960's, causing much the same damage as it did in Hawaii.  Dr. C. A. Fleschner , <PHOTO>of the University of California, Riverside found several species and strains of anthocorid predators in southern Mexico, which were imported and released in California.  Establishment of some predators in California resulted in a marked decrease of the infestation (E. F. Legner, unpub. data).


Biological control searches and control efforts in Egypt, Israel, South America and other areas may be found in the following references (Rivnay 1947, 1968; Bennett 1965, Davis & Krauss 1965, Tawfik & Nagul 1965, Funasaki 1966Clausen 1978, Dahlsten & Hall 1999).



REFERENCES:          [Additional references may be found at:   MELVYL Library ]


Bennett, F. D.  1965.  Observations on the natural enemies of Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal in Brazil.  Commonwealth Inst. Biol. Control Contrib., Tech. Bull. 5:  117-25.


Clausen, C. P.  1978.  Thysanoptera, Phalaeothripidae.  In:  C. P. Clausen (ed.), Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds.  U. S. Dept. Agric. Agric. Handbk. No. 480.  545 p.


Dahlsten, D. L. & R. W. Hall.  1999.  Biological control of insects in outdoor urban environments.  In:  Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds.), Handbook of Biological Control:  Principles and Applications.  Academic Press, San Diego, New York.  1046 p


Davis, C. J. & N. L. H. Krauss.  1965.  Recent introductions for biological control in Hawaii--X.  Hawaii. Ent. Soc. Proc. 18:  245-49.


Funasaki, G. Y.  1966.  Studies on the life cycle and propagation technique of Montandoniola moraguesi (Puton) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae).  Hawaii. Ent. Soc. Proc. 19:  209-11.


Rao, V. P., M. A. Ghani, T. Sankaran & K. C. Mathur.  1971.  A review of the biological control of insects and other pests in the south-east Asia and the Pacific region.  Commonwealth Inst. Biol. Contr. Tech. Comm. No. 6:  149 p.


Rivnay, E.  1947.  Biology of Gynaikothrips ficorum Marsh in Palestine (Thysanoptera).  Bull. Soc. Fouad Ier Ent. 31:  129-40.


Rivnay, E.  1968.  Biological control of pests in Israel (a review 1905-1965).  Israel J. Ent. 3:  1-156.


Tawfik, M. F. S. & A. Nagul.  1965.  The biology of Montandoniella moraguesi Puton, a predator of Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal, in Egypt (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Anthocoridae).  Ent. Soc. Egypte Bull. 49:  181-200.