Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana)--Pseudococcidae
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Comstock mealybug became an extremely serious citrus pest in Israel in 1937 (Rivnay 1946, Clausen 1956, DeBach 1964). Clausenia purpurea Ishii was imported from Japan in 1940, which resulted in the mealybug ceasing to be a pest. Rivnay (1946) reported that it was subsequently very difficult to find the host. The mealybug invaded the United States and the Soviet Union, becoming serious on apple. This stimulated the introductions of Allotropa burrelli Musesbeck, Pseudaphycus malinus Gah. from Japan to America and only the latter species to the Soviet Union.
When Comstock mealybug finally reached the San Joaquin Valley of California in the 1970's, it caused considerable damage to ornamentals in cities and towns and contaminated automobiles and walkways with sticky honeydew. Three species of parasitoids were introduced directly from Japan, and readily became established (Meyerdirk et al. 1981). These were P. malinus, A. burrelli and Allotropa convexifrons Muesebeck. The native parasitoid Zarhopalus corvinus (Girard) and predators Leucopsis ocellaris Malloch and Chrysopa spp. provide excellent biological control (Meyerdirk et al. 1981, Ervin et al. 1983). Densities of the mealybug were reduced >68% by this natural enemy complex (also see Harrar & McKelvey 1942, Clancy 1944, Haeussler & Clancy 1944, Shutova 1947, Luzhetskii 1950, Gaprinasvili & Tvaladze 1957, Stativkin et al. 1958, Morimoto et al. 1961, Sonina 1962, 1965; Takahashi 1963, Murakami et al. 1967).
REFERENCES: [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library ]
Clancy, D. W. 1944. Hyperparasitization of Clausenia purpurea Ishii, an important parasite of the Comstock mealybug. J. Econ. Ent. 37: 450-51.
Clausen, C. P. 1956. Biological control of insect pests in the continental United States. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. No. 1139: 151 p.
DeBach, P. (ed.). 1964. Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds. Reinhold Publ. Corp., New York. 844 p.
Ervin, R. T., L. J. Moffitt & D. E. Meyerdirk. 1983. Comstock mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae): cost analysis of a biological control program in California. J. Econ. Ent. 76: 605-09.
Gaprinasvili, N. K. & J. I. Tvaladze. 1957. On the question of using Cryptolaemus to control Pseudococcus comstocki under conditions of Tbilissi. 3rd. Conf. of the All-Union Ent. Soc. II Tbilissi, p. 27-8. [in Russian].
Haeussler, G. J. & D. W. Clancy. 1944. Natural enemies of Comstock mealybug in the Eastern States. J. Econ. Ent. 37: 503-09.
Harrar, J. G. & J. J. McKelvey, Jr. 1942. Biological control of the mealybug (Pseudococcus sp.). Phytopathol. 32: 7.
Luzhetskii, A. N. 1950. Pseudaphycus as a parasite of Comstock's mealybug. Bul. Akad. Sci. Uzbek, S.S.R. 1: 34-54. [in Russian].
Meyerdirk, D. E., I. M. Newell & R. W. Warkentin. 1981. Biological control of Comstock mealybug. J. Econ. Ent. 74: 79-84.
Morimoto, T., M. Takeshita & H. Hashimoto. 1961. Studies on the exterminatory effect of Spicaria rubido-purpurea against Pseudococcus comstocki and Icerya purchasi in the field. Dochi Univ. Res. Rept. 10: 17-20. [in Japanese].
Murakami, Y., R. Morimoto & H. Kajita. 1967. Possibility of biological control of Pseudococcus comstocki in Japan. Mushi 39: 85-96.
Rivnay, E. 1939. Studies in the biology and control of Pseudococcus comstocki Kuwana, on citrus in Palestine. Hadar 12: 1-16.
Rivnay, E. 1946. The status of Clausenia purpurea Ishii and its competition with other parasites of Pseudococcus comstocki Kuw. in Palestine. [Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea-Encyrtidae, and Hemiptera-Homoptera: Coccoidea]. Bull. Soc. Fouad Ier Ent. 30: 11-19.
Shutova, N. 1947. Biological control methods for Comstock's mealybug. Sad. i. Ogorod 3: 70-72. [in Russian].
Sonina, A. K. 1962. Combined chemical and biological methods of controlling Pseudococcus comstocki. Zahch. Rast. Vred. Bol. 9: 49.
Sonina, A. K. 1965. Biological control with Pseudaphycus malinus (Encyrtidae). Sadovodstvo 7: 19-20.
Stativkin, V. G., B. M. Peregonchenko & V. V. Sinitsyn. 1958. New method for the selection and introduction of (prasitized pupae) of Pseudococcus comstocki. Sel Kokhoz. Tadzhikistana 6: 53-5. [in Russian].
Takahashi, R. 1963. Experimental results on the control of the Comstock mealybug. Niigata Agric. Expt. Sta. Spec. Rept. 36: 1-120. [in Japanese].