Cydia pomonella L. [= Carpocapsa pomonella (L.)]-- Olethreutidae
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Although primarily a worldwide pest of apple, codling moth is important in walnuts causing economic injury, and in some stone fruit crops as a quarantine pest, which requires fruit fumigation even though infestations may be extremely light (Putman 1963, Croft & Ridel 1987, Croft & AliNiazee 1999, Legner, unpub. data). Codling moth is though to have originated somewhere in eastern Eurasia and was accidentally introduced worldwide through infested fruit (Lloyd 1960). Damage to the fruit is through the feeding of larvae on the pulp, core and seeds. There are up to four generations per year in California, depending on weather and locality. Winter is passed by immature larvae in their cocoons under bark or in other sheltered places. The eggs are laid singly on the upper sides of leaves, on twigs and fruit spurs, and usually near fruits. They hatch in six to 12 days, and the young larvae immediately enter the fruit where they feed and become mature in 3-4 weeks.
Efforts to introduce parasitoids into the United States and Canada were made during 1904-1921, but initial results were not spectacular, even though Ascogaster quadridentata Wesn., imported from Europe, did become established in eastern North America (Boyce 1948, Johannsen 1957, McLeod 1954, Smith & Vosler 1914). No other foreign parasitoids were ever established in California (Riley & Howard 1892, Nel 1942, Janjua et al. 1958, Wilson 1960, Valentine 1967, Clausen & Oatman 1978).
Chemical pesticides have been widely used to control codling moth (Barnes 1959, Madsen & Morgan 1970), however there has been a gradual interest to reduce population densities with classical biological control. The excessive use of insecticides against this insect has been responsible for secondary and sporadic pest outbreaks in many areas (Croft & Hoyt 1983), and thereby interfering with integrated pest management. Although early reports indicated the presence of many useful predators and parasitoids, the heavy dependency on pesticide use has encumbered biological control progress (Brodie 1907, Rosenberg 1934, Boyce 1941, Simmonds 1944, Croft & AliNiazee 1999).
Croft & AliNiazee (1999) indicate that conservation and management of endemic parasitoids such as Trichogramma spp. has been implemented in codling moth control strategy in several countries of western Europe and North America. The Soviet Union is particularly active in using inundative releases of Trichogramma against codling moth on large acreage (see Croft & AliNiazee 1999), and their research has stressed development of methods for parasitoid mass production and release. In Germany Stein (1960) reported nearly a 50% reduction in damage by codling moth when Trichogramma spp. were released against first generation populations. In North America there has been less use of these parasitoids, however. In Ontario Trichogramma minutum Riley was reported to be an important natural enemy of codling moth (Boyce 1941) providing >50% parasitism ins some years which resulted in reduced larval densities.
Other larval parasitoids of potential are Macrocentrus delicatus Cress, M. instabilis Mues., M. ancylivorous Rohwer, Phanerotoma fasciata Prov., Pimpila pterelas Auett. and Pristomerus vulnerator Grav. (Simmonds 1944, Putman 1963, Labanowski 1981, Subinprasert 1987), and Liotryphon caudatum (N. Mills, pers. commun.). Ascogaster was accidentally introduced from Europe to North America, and is the most important larval parasitoid of codling moth, causing ca. 25% parasitism in some areas. With early season releases, higher parasitism can be attained in eastern Washington State (J. J. Brown, pers. commun.), and in Austria (Rupf 1976, Rupf & Russ 1976). Pupal parasitoids including Dibrachys cavus (Wlk.), Eupelmus cyaniceps Ashm., Pimpla annulipes Brulle and Eurytoma sp., are not considered very important in natural control (Putnam 1963, Clausen 1978).
Predaceous insects and birds also are important natural control agents that suppress codling moth in Europe and North America (Putnam 1963, Glen & Milsom 1978, Solomon et al. 1976). Among these Terebroides corticalis Melsch, the ant Solenopsis molesta (Say), some carabid and staphylinid beetles , and the spider Agelena naevia Walck, feed on larvae. However the most effective predators are woodpeckers Dendrocopos pubescens L. and D. villosus L. (MacLellan 1959, Croft & AliNiazee 1999). Solomon et al. (1976) reported that in Wales, woodpeckers and blue tits, Paarus caevunlens L. and P. major L. were important predators. In Oregon a large number of predaceous insects, including mirids Deraeocoris sp. and Phytocoris sp. were generally present in apple orchards throughout the growing season (Croft & AliNiazee 1999). MacLellan (1962) considered several mirid species important egg and larval predators in Nova Scotia.
It has been found that certain sprays of lead arsenate and sulfur fungicides inhibits oviposition of Ascogaster quadridentata (Cox & Daniel 1935, Boyce 1941), and organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides are thought to severely interfere with natural enemy performance (Croft & Hoyt 1983). The use of these insecticides early in the season at petal fall and first cover for control of leafrollers, aphids, scale insects and some moth species coincides with the general increase of most parasitic and predaceous insects in commercial orchards (Croft & AliNiazee 1999). Such sprays disrupt biological control of primary and secondary pests such as codling moth and leafrollers. Recently the use of Bacillus thuringiensis, a codling moth granulosis virus, and juvenile hormone related pesticides and chitin synthesis inhibitors such as diflubenzeron have introduced a new diversity of materials with greater selectivity to a broad range of these natural enemies (Westigard 1979) (also see Cushman 1913, Boyce 1936, Naphtali 1941, and Lloyd 1944).
Larvae of Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.) and C. rufilabris Burm. have been found to attack the eggs of codling moth (Putman 1963). Food sprays may be used to increase the effectiveness of these species (Hagen et al 1971).
Of especial interest is the apparent absence of codling moth from the Owen's Valley of eastern California (E. R. Oatman & E. F. Legner, unpublished). An isolated area where apples have been grown for over 100 years (e.g., the Japanese Internment camp of Manzanar at Lone Pine). But to date (2019) codling moth has not been reported attacking apples anywhere in that area.
REFERENCES [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library ]
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