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Nygmia phaeorrhoea (Donovan)--Limacodidae





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Brown tail moth is an inavader in North America from Europe, and can defoliate large tracts of forest and shade trees.  Biological control was simultaneously with that against the gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar (L.).  Some of the natural enemies were common to both hosts while others were not.  Although the gypsy moth project did not produce spectacular results, the brown tail moth is now considered to be a minor problem in New England and eastern Canada where it is reported under complete biological control (DeBach 1974) (also see Fiske 1910, Tothill 1916, McLaine 1918, Crossman & Webber 1924, Burgess & Crossman 1929, Dowden 1962, McGugan & Coppel 1962).



REFERENCES:          [ Additional references may be found at:   MELVYL Library ]


Burgess, A. F. & S. S. Crossman.  1929.  Imported insect enemies of the gypsy moth and the brown-tail moth.  U. S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 86.  147 p.


Crossman, S. S. &. H. T. Webber.  1924.  Recent European investigations of parasites of the gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar L. and the brown-tail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhea L.  J. Econ. Ent. 17:  67-76.


DeBach, P. 1974.  Biological Control by Natural Enemies.  Cambridge University Press, London & New York.  323 p.


Dowden, P. B.  1962.  Parasites and predators of forest insects liberated in the United States through 1960.  U. S. Dept. Agric. Agric. Handbk. 226.  70 p.


Fiske, W. F.  1910.  Parasites of the Gypsy and Brown-tail Moths Introduced into Massachusetts.  Wright & Potter Printing Co., Boston.  56 p.


McGugan, B. M. & H. C. Coppel.  1962.  A review of the biological control attempts against insects and weeds in Canada.  Pt. II.  Biological control of forest insects. 1910-1958.  Commonwealth Inst. Biol. Control Tech. Commun. 2:  35-127.


McLaine, L. S.  1918.  The introduction of the parasites of the brown-tail and gypsy moths into Canada.  Ent. Soc. Nova Scotia Proc (1917):  74-6.


Tothill, J. D.  1916.  The introduction and establishment in Canada of the natural enemies of the brown-tail and gypsy moths.  Agric. Gaz.  Canada 3:  111-16.