WHITE WAX SCALE
Ceroplastes destructor Newstead -- Coccidae
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This scale is a pest of citrus in the states of New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia, but has also been found in New Zealand and occurs through East and South Africa where it is believed to be native. Biological control attempts in Australia were begun in the 1930's with the importation of 25 species of parasitoids that were collected from Ceroplastes spp. in Kenya and Uganda (Gurney 1936, Ebeling 1959, Wilson 1960). Although Diversinervus elegans, Scutellista cyanea and Bothriophryne ceroplastae Compere were reared on C. destructor, only B. ceroplastae and S. cyanea were established. Work in 1968-73 resulted in the establishment of Anicetus communis Annecke and Paraceraptocerus nyasicus Compere, which contributed most to biological control (Sands et al. 1986). Milne (1981) reported complete suppression of C. destructor by A. communis primarily. Kennett et al. (1999) point out that the eventual outcome of this project demonstrated that successful biological control most often lies in securing natural enemies that attack the target pest in its known area of origin.
REFERENCES: [Additional references may be found at: MELVYL Library ]
Ebeling, W. 1959. Subtropical Fruit Pests. Univ. of Calif. Div. Agric. Sci. Pub. 436 p.
Gurney, W. B. 1936. Parasites of the white wax scales collected in East Africa. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 47: 453-56.
Kennett, C. E., J. A. McMurtry & J. W. Beardsley. 1999. Biological control in subtropical and tropical crops. . In: Bellows, T. S. & T. W. Fisher (eds.), Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, New York. 1046 p.
Milne, W. M. 1981. Insecticidal versus natural control of white wax scale (Gascardia destructor) at Kenthurst, N.S.W., during 1972-73. J. Aust. Ent. Soc. 20: 167-70.
Sands, D. P. A., R. G. Lukins & G. J. Snowball. 1986. Agents introduced into Australia for the biological control of Gascardia destructor (Newstead) (Hemiptera: Coccidae). J. Aust. Ent. Soc. 25: 51-9.
Wilson, F. 1960. A review of the biological control of insects and weeds in Australia and Australian New Guinea. Tech. Commun. No. 1, CIBC. Commonw. Agric. Bur., Farnham Royal, Slough, England. 102 p.