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Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) -- Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)




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Sweetpotato whitefly is a pest of many kinds of field crops in tropical and subtropical areas of the world (Anonymous 1986).  In 1990 an outbreak of this pest occurred in southeastern California especially on cotton and vegetable crops.  This whitefly is known to vector plant viruses (Costa 1976) and causes growth disorders of plants (Hoelmer et al. 1991, Schuster et al. 1990, 1991; Yokomi et al. 1990).  It was reported as early as 1894 from the United States by Russell (1975), but rarely was problematic until around 1981 in the southwestern United States (Johnson et al. 1982) and Florida in 1986 (Hamon & Salguero 1987).  It is unclear if its recent problem status in California and Arizona is due to pesticide resistance, a destruction of natural enemies or an invasion of a new biotype from Mexico and Florida. 


As of 1999 there has been no concentrated effort to import natural enemies against the sweetpotato whitefly; but if the problem persists, some effort in classical biological control will certainly be made.


The following references include some related species of whiteflies which may afford information on biological and other means of control.



REFERENCES:         [Additional references may be found at:   MELVYL Library ]



Anonymous.  1986.  Distribution, p. 13-16.  In:  M. J. W. Cock (ed.), Bemisia tabaci - a literature survey on the cotton whitefly with an annotated bibliography.  FAO & CAP Int. Inst. Biol. Contr.  121 p.


Bennett, F. D., D. J. Schuster, K. A. Hoelmer, L. S. Osborne & G. Evans.  1990.  Survey of the sweetpotato whitefly parasitoids in cultivated and wild hosts in Florida and the Neotropics, p. 75-6.  In:  Sweetpotato Whitefly- Mediated Vegetable Disorders in Florida.  Proc. Univ. Florida IFAS Workshop, Homestead, FL., Feb. 1990.


Cherry, R. & R. V. Dowell.  1979.  Predators of citrus blackfly (Hom.: Aleyrodidae).  Entomophaga 24:  385-91.


Costa, A. C.  1976.  Whitefly- transmitted plant diseases.  Annu. Rev. Plant Path. 14:  429-49.


Drea, J. J., Jr.  1956.  A biological analysis of the California Chilocorini  (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).  Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Calif., Berkeley, CA.


Gerling, D.  1990.  Natural enemies of whiteflies:  predators and parasitoids, p. 147-85.  In:  D. Gerling (ed.), Whiteflies:  Their Bionomics, Pest Status and Management.  Intercept Press, Andover, U.K.  348 p.


Gold, C. S. & M. A. Altieri.  1989.  The effects of intercropping and mixed varieties of predators and parasitoids of cassava whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Colombia.


Gordon, R. D.  1985.  The Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of America north of Mexico.  J. New York. Ent. Soc. 93:  1-912.


Hagen, K.  1962.  Biology and ecology of predaceous Coccinellidae.  Annu. Rev. Ent. 7:  289-326.


Hamon, A. B. & V. Salguero.  1987.  Bemisia tabaci, sweetpotato whitefly, in Florida.  Ent. Circ. N-292.  Div. Plant Ind., Florida Dept. Agr. & Consumer Serv.  2 p.


Hoelmer, K. A. & L. S. Osborne.  1990.  Biological control of sweetpotato whitefly in Florida with predators and parasitoids, p. 77-8.  In:  Proc. Workshop on Sweetpotato Whitefly Mediated Vegetable Disorders in Florida.  Homestead, FL. Feb. 1990, IFAS, Univ. Florida.


Hoelmer, K. A., L. S. Osborne & R. K. Yokomi.  1991.  Association of foliage disorders in Florida with feeding by sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.  Florida Ent. 74:  162-66.


Johnson, M. W., N. C. Toscano, H. T. Reynolds, E. S. Sylvester, K. Kido & E. T. Natwick.  1982.  Whiteflies cause problems for southern California growers.  Calif. Agr. 36:  24-6.


Lopez-Avila, A.  1986.  Natural enemies, p. 27-35.  In:  M. J. W. Cock (ed.), Bemisia tabaci - a Literature Survey on the Cotton Whitefly with an Annotated bibliography.  FAO & CAB Int. Inst. Biol. Contr.  121 p.


Malausa, J. C., E. Franco & P. Brun.  1988.  Acclimatation sur la Cote D'Azur et en Corse de Serangium parcesetosum (Col.: Coccinellidae) predateur de l'aleurode des citrus, Dialeurodes citri (Hom.: Aleyrodidae).  Entomophaga 33:  517-19.


Muma, M. H.  1956.  Life cycles of four species of ladybeetles.  Florida Ent. 39:  115-18.


Russell, L.  1975.  Collection records of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius in the United States.  U.S. Dept. Agr. Coop. Econ. Insect Rept. 25:  229-30.


SAS Institute.  1982.  SAS User's Guide:  Statistics.  SAS Inst., Cary, North Carolina


Savoiskaya, G. I.  1960.  Morphology and taxonomy of coccinellid larvae from southeast Kazakhstan.  Ent. Rev. (USSR) 39:  80-8.


Schuster, D. J., T. F. Mueller, J. B. Kring & J. F. Price.  1990.  Relationship of the sweetpotato whitefly to a new tomato fruit disorder in Florida.  Hortscience 25:  1618-20.


Schuster, D. J., J. B. Kring & J. F. Price.  1991.  Association of the sweetpotato whitefly with a silverleaf disorder of squash.  Hortscience 26:  155-56.


Smith, H. D., H. L. Maltby & E. J. Jimenez.  1964.  Biological control of the citrus blackfly in Mexico.  US. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1311.


Stegner, B. L. & A. Bostrom.  1984.  CRISP Interactive Statistical Package, Crunch Software.


Timofeeva, T. V. & H.-D. Nyaun.  1978.  Morphological and biological characteristics of the Indian coccinellid Serangium parcesetosum (Sicard) (Coleop., Coccinellidae) a predator of the citrus whitefly in Adzharia.  Ent. Rev. 15:  210-14.


Yokomi, R. K., K. A. Hoelmer & L. S. Osborne.  1990.  Relationships between the sweetpotato whitefly and the squash silverleaf disorder.  Phytopath. 80:  895-900.