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                                AND INSECT IDENTIFICATION 1

                                                                        (Contact)     Dedication


                                    The Biological and Integrated Control of Pest Arthropods, Weeds, Molluscs and Vertebrates

                                             Emphasizing the Classical Approach by the Use of Imported Natural Enemies


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          GENERAL INDEX        Database List       Major Categories     Biological Control Topics        [Other Web Sites]


















Mycology (Bacteria, Slime Molds, Fungi)


Images of Beneficial Species













Insect Pollination


Invertebrate Zoology








Integrated Pest Management




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GLOSSARY (Scientific Terms)     Beneficial Species: Photos/Drawings          Invading Species In California





Introductory Biological Control       ENTOMOLOGY (An Introduction)       University of California


            E. F. Legner Publications           List of Indexes




       Biological control as a discipline had its significant beginnings in the 19th Century and continues to grow in scope and achievements.  The importance of natural enemy components in effective agroecosystem management is increasingly recognized.  This first organization of a textbook focuses on natural enemies to provide a sound foundation for those pursuing biological and integrated control professionally, particularly with emphasis on those aspects which have yielded the greatest number of control successes:  the acquisition, culture, establishment and manipulation of new natural enemy species: Classical Biological Control. 


       Text accompanying each section is paraphrased from cited references.  No claim is made that the bibliography associated with each subject is complete; citations are not meant to include all material published on a particular subject;  however, cross-referencing should access over 95% of the known literature.  Early literature is also stressed because the natural enemies and techniques developed offer viable pest control strategies in the wake of the eclipse on biological control wrought by several decades of broad-spectrum pesticide deployment and diversion to genetic manipulation.  Research on host or prey organisms that is pertinent to a fuller understanding of natural enemies and their culture is included.  Scientific names are temporarily those used in cited references, while an up-dating effort is still in progress.  A great quantity of material has been compiled in this work, and its wide scope should meet the needs of the most exacting practitioner.  The categories selected for this First Edition may be changed in succeeding editions, and pertinent references for each category will be included as they are found in the literature.  Ideas expressed herein that are attributable to cited authors shall be noted as such and duly credited to them.  The General Index will serve to link the various categories.  For additions and corrections to this database please contact the following for consideration


       The following researchers, who through the middle of the 20th Century untiringly inspired the goals of biological control and made significant original contributions to a solid foundation for this field, are gratefully acknowledged:  Professors D. P. Annecke, A. P. Arthur, R. R. Askew, B. R. Bartlett, E. C. Bay, B. P. Beirne, F. D. Bennett, E. Biliotti, F. S. Bodenheimer, D. W. Clancy, C. P. Clausen,  H. Compere, H. C. Coppel, P. H. DeBach, E. I. Dietrich, R. L. Doutt, S. E. Flanders, C. A. Fleschner, J. M. Franz, M. A. Ghani, A. T. Gukasjan, D. J. Greathead, K. S. Hagen, I. M. Hall, D. E. Hardy, I. Harpaz, P. Harris, A. M. Heimpel, I. Hodek, J. K. Holloway, C. P. Hoyt, C. B. Huffaker, B. Hurpin, A. Jimenez-Jimenez, E. F. Knipling, A. Krieg, M. Laird, J. J. Lipa, E. Mellini, P. S. Messenger, M. H. Muma, E. S. Narayanan, A. J. Nicholson, P. Nuorteva, D. Pimentel, V. P. Rao, E. Rivnay, D. Rosen, G. Salt, E. I. Schlinger, F. Silvestri, F. J. Simmonds, H. W. Simmonds, W. A. Smirnoff, H. S. Smith, M. E. Solomon, P. Starý, E. A. Steinhaus, E. Swirski, M. D. Tadi,  M. Tanaka, T. H. C. Taylor, N. A. Telenga, C. Vago, R. van den Bosch, G. Viggiani, G. A. Viktorov, D. F. Waterhouse, J. Weiser, S. K. Wiackowski, F. Wilson, G. N. Wolcott, B. J. Wood,  J. B. Woolley, and K. Yasumatsu.


       Further acknowledgment and appreciation are made to Professors M. T. AliNiazee, L. Andrés, R. C. Axtell, R. Baronowski, T. S. Bellows, D. M. Benjamin,  J. S. Bernal, L. E. Caltagirone, K. P. Carl, D. A. Chant, L. D. Charlet, A. Chiri, B. A. Croft, D. L. Davis, J. J. Drea, A. T. Drooz, A. El-Heneidy, L. E. Ehler, F. M. Eskafi, K. Fabritius, B. A. Federici, T. W. Fisher, D. C. Force, B. Freier, S. Frommer, R. Garcia, C. Geden, D. Gerling, U. Gerson, R. D. Goeden, D. Gonzalez, G. Gordh, S. Gothilf, R. R. Granados, P. D. Greany,  S. A. Hassan,  B. A. Hawkins, D. H. Headrick, Y. Hirose, M. M. T. Hokkanen, M. A. Hoy, J. Huber, C. M. Ignoffo, M. W. Johnson, H. Kajita, R. Klunker, M. Kogan, J. Lasalle, L. M. LeBeck, S. Long, R. F. Luck,  J. C. Luhman, M. Mackauer, C. W. McCoy, J. A. McMurtry, J. W. Mertins, P. B. Morgan, B. A. Mullens, Y. Murakami, S. Nagarkatti, E. R. Oatman, R. S. Patterson, W. Peet, J. J. Petersen, R. L. Pienkowski, D. Pimentel, G. O. Poinar, Jr., H. Pschorn-Walcher, H. T. Reynolds, R. Ripa.-Schaul, D. A. Rutz, R. B. Ryan, M. F. Schuster, H. H. Shorey, A. Silveira-Guido, R. Stouthamer, S. N. Thompson, P. H. Timberlake,  T. Tretiakova, S. V. Trjapitzin, M. Tyndale-Biscoe,  T. R. Unruh, J. C. van Lenteren, R. L., Ridgway, J., Ridsdill-Smith, S. B. Vinson, M. Wallace, L. Walters, R. M. Weseloh, G. Wylie, M. Wysoki, H. S. Yu, and G. Zinna for their encouragement and counsel.   The assistance of the Beneficial Insectary & Rincon-Vitova Insectary was also vital in the acquisition and storage of data.  In particular, the encouragement of Everett Dietrick, Sinthya Penn and Glenn Scriven was crucial.  Max Badgley created many of the photographic illustrations.


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       Files were created in Microsoft Word 2000.   Italics are represented in underlined or true italics format.  Non-English references are given in English whenever possible, or in French, German, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese, each with characteristic letters and accents.  The Czech alphabet, because of its phonetic quality, is used to cite references in Slavic languages.  This database is progressively  corrected, updated, distributed free of charge; and should not be reviewed, abstracted or quoted without agreement of the cited authors and or publishers.






     This site is an international, intergovernmental, not-for-profit database coordinated by researchers in the University of California and associated agencies worldwide.  Its mission is to facilitate the dissemination, application and generation of knowledge in support of sustainable solutions to problems in agriculture, forestry, human health and the management of natural resources, and with particular attention to the needs of developing countries. Contentious published material is included for discussion and evaluation, and is not part of formal curricula at the University of California. There are no restrictions on the use and dissemination of information, as long as it is for non-profit educational purposes.  This is a self-contained database with a minimum of links outside its limits.  Independent Internet searches are encouraged for greater detail on a particular subject.  All information contained herein is for general public use according to the rules set by the Creative Common Deed.