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301a (300b). Pronotum large and almost conical, collar not delimited by an edge (e.g., Figs.A-B) or, if only moderately large then with distinct median line on rear slope (e.g., Fig.C) and inner eye margins much diverging in lower half (Fig.D); thorax dorsally densely pitted and hairy; scutellum regularly densely hairy but without outstanding longer bristles; [fore or hind femora, or both, often distinctly thickened] ....... A



301b. Pronotum short or, if large (rarely), then with collar anteriorly delimited by transverse edge, always without median line, inner orbits not unusually diverging in lower half; thorax mostly with different sculpture; scutellum often posteriorly with 2 frenal bristles, sometimes with additional pairs of conspicuous setae anteriorly



302a (301a). Scutellum with distinct, though sometimes fine, sublateral grooves (Fig.A); inner orbits often parallel; antennal formula mostly 11173; ovipositor protruding ....... A.... Pteromalidae (Colotrechninae) (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 35)



302b. Scutellum without sublateral grooves; otherwise also partly different



303a (302b). Propodeum medially short, with deep petiolar notches in form of an inverted V (Fig.A); petiole long and almost conical to pear-shaped, round in cross section, with some thin long hairs but without ridges or coarse sculpture; body with unusually long but not thickly hairy; femora slender; ovipositor protruding (Fig.B) .... A....... Pteromalidae (Nefoeninae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



303b. Propodeum without deep petiolar notches; petiole, if rarely evident, of quite different form and bare; body without long sparse hairs; femora often thickened; ovipositor protruding or not



304a (303b). Males only: Head with distinct occipital carina; (back of head with hypostomal areas meeting below foramen); hind coxa fairly large; forewing with marginal vein very long but the stigmal short or unusually knobbed (see Fig.A). non-Pteromalidae ........ A .. Torymidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 59)



304b. Males & Females: Occipital carina indistinct



305a (304b). Scutellum with frenal groove and this bearing on either side a conspicuous long bristle (Fig.A) ...... A ........ Pteromalidae (Coelocybinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



305b. Scutellum without distinct frenal line, without frenal bristles



306a (305b). Pronotum dorsally rounded or at least without transverse edge, medially often with smooth strip or raised longitudinal line; hind margin only moderately notched; thorax usually pitted (Figs.A-B). ....... A ........ Pteromalidae (Cleonyminae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



306b. Pronotum with collar dorsally separated by an edge (Fig.A), sloping medially without any line, hind margin rather deeply notched; thorax sculpture irregularly rugulose (= wrinkled) but rather densely haired ....... Pteromalidae (Ditropinotellinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



307a (301b). Notauli incomplete and wide apart; marginal vein widened in basal part (Fig.A); dorsum of thorax reticulate, almost bare, without bristles; female antennae 11173 (Figs.B-E) ........ A ......... Pteromalidae (Pteromalinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



307b. Notauli mostly clearly complete, if incomplete (some Diparinae and Coelocybinae, also Eunotopsia) thenmarginal vein not widened in basal half, etc.



308a (307b). Second dorsal plate of petiolate abdomen very large, covering most of dorsum, dorsally somewhat fused with the 1st dorsal plate; head with no temple (Fig.A), gena posteriorly produced into a lamina; antenna thick club, all preclub segments of flagellum obviously at right angles to longitudinal axis; scutellum anteriorly with 2 deep pits.... A ........ Pteromalidae (Asaphinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



308b. Second dorsal plate never covering most of abdomen; abdomen often sessile; temple and antenna different; scutellum without double deep pit at base



309a (308b). First dorsal plate greatly enlarged, convex, non-collapsing (Figs.A-B), covering more than 1/3rd (often much more, but only 1/4th in male Austrosystasis) of abdomen; antennal sockets usually close to each other; often not metallic ... A.



309b. First dorsal plate never bell-shaped, not so convex and large; if covering over 1/3rd of abdomen then either itself collapsing from base or whole abdomen dorsally caving in; antennal sockets usually rather wide apart



310a (309a). Antennae with 13 segments; hind coxa inserted unusually high (Figs.A-B), its outer face often with longitudinal sculpture; short-winged or wingless females common; either vertex and/or thorax dorsally with paired dark bristles and gena posteriorly rounded, or bristles absent (Fig.C) and then gena ridged in lower part, in latter case antenna long, 11173 ......... A Pteromalidae (Diparinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



310b. Antennae with 12 segments, with 1 ring segment and 6 funicular segments; gena posteriorly mostly ridged



311a (310b). Thorax with coarse and deep hairy pits, hairs not placed on papillae (Fig.A); abdomen almost sessile, somewhat compressed laterally, high, eurytomid-like, 1st dorsal plate reduced on sides; hind coxa long, inserted high .... A ...... Pteromalidae (Austrosystasinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



311b. Thorax mostly with much finer or sparse sculpture or, if densely hairy then hairs arising from elevated papillae (in Herbertia); hind coxae not inserted very high



312a (311b). Petiole long, with longitudinal ribs; pronotum fairly large and at right angles to longitudinal axis; clypeal margin arcuately produced, mandibles long and curved, teeth 2:3..East Asiatic ......... Pteromalidae (Elatoidinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



312b. Petiole at right angles to longitudinal axis, often concealed; pronotum short; clypeal margin not produced; mandibles short, different



313a (312b). First dorsal plate with longitudinal grooves; head and thorax dorsally often with paired bristles (Fig.A); postmarginal vein shorter than stigmal, or even absent ....... A ....... Pteromalidae (Erotolepsiinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



313b. First dorsal plate without distinct longitudinal grooves; head including large eyes, thorax dorsally and wings regularly densely hairy, never with paired bristles (Fig.A); postmargina vein much longer than stigmal ... Pteromalidae (Herbertiinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



314a (309b). Scapula produced backwards outside the rectangular outer corner of axilla, axilla fully 2X as long as broad; mid tarsus with 4 segments, unusually long (Fig.A), first segment as long as rest; prepectus unusually small (Fig.B) ...... A ....... Pteromalidae (Macromesinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



314b. Scapula not produced backwards outside of axilla, latter mostly much shorter; all tarsi with 5 segments, shorter; prepectus usually larger, different



315a (314b). Scutellum with obvious paired bristles, at least 2 frenal ones present in posterior corners (Figs.A-B), often with additional pairs on scutellum or even posteriorly on scutum; antennae inserted low on face, sockets rather far apart (Fig.C); body mostly not metallic ...... A.



315b. Scutellum without any pairs of obvious bristles, thorax generally either with rather regular hairiness or almost bare; in other respects also partly different



316a (315a). Fore wing densely pubescent, even basally; marginal vein very long (Fig.A), about 5X as long as the stigmal, latter with long uncus; propodeum with long hairs which medially converge towards median line; antennae with 6 almost equal funicular segments and one (often indistinct) ring segment; hind margin of 1st dorsal plate usually bent down; abdomen sometimes petiolate; hind tibial spur very small. non-Pteromalidae ....... A .. Tetracampidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 68)



316b. Fore wing somewhat bare in basal 1/3rd (in regional species); marginal vein relatively much shorter, mostly much less than 4X as long as the stigmal, stigmal uncus short; propodeum extensively bare; antennae different, often clubbed with basal or all flagellar segments shortened (e.g., Fig.A); hind margin of 1st dorsal plate flat; abdomen sessile; hind tibial spurs often stout ......... Pteromalidae (Coelocybinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



317a (315b). Occipital carina distinctly developed



317b. Occipital carina absent



318a (317a). Axillae very much advanced (Fig.A); abdomen almost sessile; base of short stigmal vein thickened, postmarginal vein hardly as long as stigmal (Fig.B); gena posteriorly finely ridged ....... A ....... Pteromalidae (Parasaphodinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



318b. Axillae not or only slightly advanced; abdomen usually different, also venation different



319a (318b). Abdomen almost sessile; pronotum long, cubical, with edged collar (Fig.A), fully as long as mesoscutum, dull with transverse rugose (= wrinkled) pits; gena broadly rounded; mesopleuron with reticulate depression similar to that of Pteromalinae ........ A .......... Pteromalidae (Keiraninae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



319b. Abdomen petiolate, petiole with longitudinal ribs (Fig.A); pronotum at right angles to longitudinal axis, anteriorly rounded; gena posteriorly usually ridged; mesopleuron with large peculiar pits (Fig.B) ....... Pteromalidae (Asaphinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



320a (317b). Pronotum broad, almost rectangular (Figs.A-B), shiny, even if densely pitted, often anteriorly ridged; clypeus very broad, lower margin somewhat produced but antennae at center of face; mandibles long, crescent-shaped, 2-toothed (Fig.C); mouth corners angular, with malar depression, mouth margin in corners ridged; antennae 11173, club symmetric; abdomen short, often on sculptured petiole; [thorax often shiny, axillae close to each other medially] ....... A. ...... non-Pteromalidae ........ Perilampidae (Chrysolampinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig 52)



320b. Pronotum mostly different, or, if almost rectangular then dull with dense sculpture (Ditropinotella, Fig.A); clypeus not broad, not produced; mouth corners notched, not angular, not conspicuously ridged; at least right mandible with 3 teeth; abdomen almost always sessile



321a (320b). Pronotum with collar edge or ridge, hind margin deeply notched, sides rather long; thorax densely pitted and hairy, gaps between densely wrinkled-reticulate; propodeum with median ridge and extensive hairy; [in female hypopygium ending near tip and often sheaths protruding and upturned (Fig.A)] ....... A ........ Pteromalidae (Ditropinotellinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



321b. Pronotum rounded dorsally, different; if thorax sometimes similar to previously described, then propodeum not extensively hairy



322a (321b). Males only: Antennae with tiny indistinct ring segment, 7 funicular and 2 club segments; mandibles with 4 teeth; notauli complete and deep, thorax rather shiny ........ Pteromalidae (Pireninae) (rare forms) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



322b. Females or if Males then club 3-segmented or undivided, mandibles different, in other respects also partly different



323a (322b). Males only: Head and thorax usually dull metallic, densely hairy and with regular pitted and wrinkled sculpture; antennae mostly 11173, or club undivided, rarely funicle shortened (some Anastatus); propodeum mostly with fine median ridge; axillae distinctly separated by short but squared base of scutellum; mid tibial spur usually enlarged, longe than spur of hind tibia. ...... non-Pteromalidae, Eupelmidae (Eupelminae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Figs. 3 & 65)



323b. Males & Females: Thorax usually not metallic, sculpture either longitudinally wrinkled or rather fine, hairiness rather sparse, often very sparse; propodeum often without median ridge; axillae usually close to each other; mid tibial spur not enlarged ............ Pteromalidae (Ormocerinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



324a (299b). Antennae with 12-13 segments including at least 2 ring segments (sometimes 3-4);notauli complete or incomplete



324b. Antennae with fewer than 12 segments and often with only 1 ring segment; notauli always complete



325a (324a). Scutellum in dorsal view with distinct sublateral grooves or lines which posteriorly mostly curve outwards (Fig.A); if grooves are placed more towards sides, then antennae with 4 short ring segments; [axillae often advanced; notauli complete or incomplete] ........ A ....... Pteromalidae (Colotrechinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



325b. Scutellum mostly without sublateral lines or, if such lines are visible on sloping sides then they are straight and/or incomplete (e.g., Figs.A-C); antennae with 2-3 short ring segments, or segments after 2nd ring segment short but gradually increasing in size



326a (325b). Scutellum posteriorly with a pair of conspicuous bristles, at lateral ends of frenal line (Fig.A), its sculpture never raised-reticulate; body mostly without metallic tinge; [antennae with 13 segments, often clubbed and short, with several or most segments after pedicel at right angles to longitudinal axis, club often asymmetric ...... A .......... Pteromalidae (Coelocybinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



326b. Scutellum without frenal bristles, or if with 2 thicker hairs posteriorly then whole scutellum has raised net-like sculpture and/or metallic hue.



327a (326b). Antennae inserted in lower 1/3rd of face, very rarely with 13 segments, usually 11-12 segments, with 1-2, mostly very small, ring segments (Fig.A); mandibles with 4 teeth; clypeus conspicuous, convex, its sides converging, lower margin produced (as in Fig.B), even in forms with 13-segmented antennae ..... A ........ Pteromalidae (Pireninae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



327b. Antennae mostly inserted near to or even above center of face, but if below center than with 13 segments, with 2-3 ring segments (very rarely more segments ring-shaped); clypeus always different from previously described



328a (327b). Axillar grooves anteriorly somewhat meeting (Figs.A-B) so that scutellum does not reach or only narrowly reaches mesoscutum; body without regular reticulation, mostly regulose, without metallic hue; abdomen sessile; propodeal spiracles mostly unusually large; antennae with 12-13 segments ......... A .......... Pteromalidae (Ormocerinae) (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



328b. Axillar grooves wide apart so that scutellum broadly borders on mesoscutum; most other aspects also different



329a (328b). Antennae with 12 segments, with 2 distinct ring segments and 5 funicular segments (Fig.A); clypeus almost rectangular, flat, not produced, dorsally with deep tentorial pits; notauli very deep, complete; abdomen sessile .......... Pteromalidae (Ormocerinae) (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



329b. Antennae different, with 13 segments, mostly with 2-3 ring segments; clypeus mostly different from previous; notauli often incomplete; thorax usually with raised reticulation; abdomen often petiolate



330a (329b). Clypeal margin with deep median incision and asymmetric teeth (Figs.A-B); antennae inserted below ocular line; notauli (in regional species) complete but posteriorly often very shallow; propodeum convex in median 1/3rd, mostly with indicated ridge; marginal vein slender (Fig.C ........ A ....... Pteromalidae (Miscogasterinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



330b. Clypeal margin symmetric, with or without teeth; antennae only rarely inserted below ocular line; mostly some of other characters also different ......... Pteromalidae (Pteromalinae and some Miscogasterinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



331a (324b). Gena posteriorly ridged (rarely only with angular edge, in Scutellista); between pedicel and club only 4 (mainly males) or 5 segments (most females) first of which may be shortened, ring-shaped (as in Fig.A); thorax hairiness mostly replaced by distinct and sparse bristles (Fig.B), rarely uniformly hairy (Scutellista, Fig.C); clypeal margin not produced .......... .A.. ......... Pteromalidae (Eunotinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



331b. Gena without ridge or edge; antennae different; either 2 or more rounded, segments ring-shaped or with at least 6 segments between pedicel and club (Figs.A-B); thorax always without stout bristles; clypeal margin mostly produced



332a (331b). Pronotum large, almost rectangular, with almost parallel sides, anteriorly ridged or rounded (Figs.A-B); antennae always with 6 segments between pedicel and club, 1st segment sometimes ring-shaped; club asymmetric owing to a collapsing area of tiny hairs; face shiny; [abdomen hardly ever collapsed, mostly very convex, often with produced ovipositor] ........ A ........ Pteromalidae (Chromeurytominae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



332b. Pronotum at least medio-dorsally very short and usually rounded, rarely collar separated by blunt edge or ridge (Fig.A), but then it is less than 1/6th the length of mesoscutum; antenna with 1 small ring segment and often 5 (female) of 6 funicular segments (male), or funicular segments reduced in number and size (Pireninae) in extremes only 2 short segments between pedicel and club, latter mostly symmetric .......... Pteromalidae (Pireninae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>







Illustrations were simplified, corrected and/or updated to suit the present key.

However, please refer to cited authors for greater detail.


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