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302

301a (300b). Pronotum large and almost conical, collar not delimited by an edge (e.g., Figs.A-B) or, if only moderately large then with distinct median line on rear slope (e.g., Fig.C) and inner eye margins much diverging in lower half (Fig.D); thorax dorsally densely pitted and hairy; scutellum regularly densely hairy but without outstanding longer bristles; [fore or hind femora, or both, often distinctly thickened] ....... A

 

307

301b. Pronotum short or, if large (rarely), then with collar anteriorly delimited by transverse edge, always without median line, inner orbits not unusually diverging in lower half; thorax mostly with different sculpture; scutellum often posteriorly with 2 frenal bristles, sometimes with additional pairs of conspicuous setae anteriorly

 

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302a (301a). Scutellum with distinct, though sometimes fine, sublateral grooves (Fig.A); inner orbits often parallel; antennal formula mostly 11173; ovipositor protruding ....... A.... Pteromalidae (Colotrechninae) (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 35)

 

303

302b. Scutellum without sublateral grooves; otherwise also partly different

 

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303a (302b). Propodeum medially short, with deep petiolar notches in form of an inverted V (Fig.A); petiole long and almost conical to pear-shaped, round in cross section, with some thin long hairs but without ridges or coarse sculpture; body with unusually long but not thickly hairy; femora slender; ovipositor protruding (Fig.B) .... A....... Pteromalidae (Nefoeninae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

304

303b. Propodeum without deep petiolar notches; petiole, if rarely evident, of quite different form and bare; body without long sparse hairs; femora often thickened; ovipositor protruding or not

 

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304a (303b). Males only: Head with distinct occipital carina; (back of head with hypostomal areas meeting below foramen); hind coxa fairly large; forewing with marginal vein very long but the stigmal short or unusually knobbed (see Fig.A). non-Pteromalidae ........ A .. Torymidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 59)

 

305

304b. Males & Females: Occipital carina indistinct

 

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305a (304b). Scutellum with frenal groove and this bearing on either side a conspicuous long bristle (Fig.A) ...... A ........ Pteromalidae (Coelocybinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

306

305b. Scutellum without distinct frenal line, without frenal bristles

 

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306a (305b). Pronotum dorsally rounded or at least without transverse edge, medially often with smooth strip or raised longitudinal line; hind margin only moderately notched; thorax usually pitted (Figs.A-B). ....... A ........ Pteromalidae (Cleonyminae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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306b. Pronotum with collar dorsally separated by an edge (Fig.A), sloping medially without any line, hind margin rather deeply notched; thorax sculpture irregularly rugulose (= wrinkled) but rather densely haired ....... Pteromalidae (Ditropinotellinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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307a (301b). Notauli incomplete and wide apart; marginal vein widened in basal part (Fig.A); dorsum of thorax reticulate, almost bare, without bristles; female antennae 11173 (Figs.B-E) ........ A ......... Pteromalidae (Pteromalinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

308

307b. Notauli mostly clearly complete, if incomplete (some Diparinae and Coelocybinae, also Eunotopsia) thenmarginal vein not widened in basal half, etc.

 

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308a (307b). Second dorsal plate of petiolate abdomen very large, covering most of dorsum, dorsally somewhat fused with the 1st dorsal plate; head with no temple (Fig.A), gena posteriorly produced into a lamina; antenna thick club, all preclub segments of flagellum obviously at right angles to longitudinal axis; scutellum anteriorly with 2 deep pits.... A ........ Pteromalidae (Asaphinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

309

308b. Second dorsal plate never covering most of abdomen; abdomen often sessile; temple and antenna different; scutellum without double deep pit at base

 

310

309a (308b). First dorsal plate greatly enlarged, convex, non-collapsing (Figs.A-B), covering more than 1/3rd (often much more, but only 1/4th in male Austrosystasis) of abdomen; antennal sockets usually close to each other; often not metallic ... A.

 

314

309b. First dorsal plate never bell-shaped, not so convex and large; if covering over 1/3rd of abdomen then either itself collapsing from base or whole abdomen dorsally caving in; antennal sockets usually rather wide apart

 

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310a (309a). Antennae with 13 segments; hind coxa inserted unusually high (Figs.A-B), its outer face often with longitudinal sculpture; short-winged or wingless females common; either vertex and/or thorax dorsally with paired dark bristles and gena posteriorly rounded, or bristles absent (Fig.C) and then gena ridged in lower part, in latter case antenna long, 11173 ......... A Pteromalidae (Diparinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

311

310b. Antennae with 12 segments, with 1 ring segment and 6 funicular segments; gena posteriorly mostly ridged

 

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311a (310b). Thorax with coarse and deep hairy pits, hairs not placed on papillae (Fig.A); abdomen almost sessile, somewhat compressed laterally, high, eurytomid-like, 1st dorsal plate reduced on sides; hind coxa long, inserted high .... A ...... Pteromalidae (Austrosystasinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

312

311b. Thorax mostly with much finer or sparse sculpture or, if densely hairy then hairs arising from elevated papillae (in Herbertia); hind coxae not inserted very high

 

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312a (311b). Petiole long, with longitudinal ribs; pronotum fairly large and at right angles to longitudinal axis; clypeal margin arcuately produced, mandibles long and curved, teeth 2:3..East Asiatic ......... Pteromalidae (Elatoidinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

.313

312b. Petiole at right angles to longitudinal axis, often concealed; pronotum short; clypeal margin not produced; mandibles short, different

 

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313a (312b). First dorsal plate with longitudinal grooves; head and thorax dorsally often with paired bristles (Fig.A); postmarginal vein shorter than stigmal, or even absent ....... A ....... Pteromalidae (Erotolepsiinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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313b. First dorsal plate without distinct longitudinal grooves; head including large eyes, thorax dorsally and wings regularly densely hairy, never with paired bristles (Fig.A); postmargina vein much longer than stigmal ... Pteromalidae (Herbertiinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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314a (309b). Scapula produced backwards outside the rectangular outer corner of axilla, axilla fully 2X as long as broad; mid tarsus with 4 segments, unusually long (Fig.A), first segment as long as rest; prepectus unusually small (Fig.B) ...... A ....... Pteromalidae (Macromesinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

315

314b. Scapula not produced backwards outside of axilla, latter mostly much shorter; all tarsi with 5 segments, shorter; prepectus usually larger, different

 

316

315a (314b). Scutellum with obvious paired bristles, at least 2 frenal ones present in posterior corners (Figs.A-B), often with additional pairs on scutellum or even posteriorly on scutum; antennae inserted low on face, sockets rather far apart (Fig.C); body mostly not metallic ...... A.

 

317

315b. Scutellum without any pairs of obvious bristles, thorax generally either with rather regular hairiness or almost bare; in other respects also partly different

 

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316a (315a). Fore wing densely pubescent, even basally; marginal vein very long (Fig.A), about 5X as long as the stigmal, latter with long uncus; propodeum with long hairs which medially converge towards median line; antennae with 6 almost equal funicular segments and one (often indistinct) ring segment; hind margin of 1st dorsal plate usually bent down; abdomen sometimes petiolate; hind tibial spur very small. non-Pteromalidae ....... A .. Tetracampidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 68)

 

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316b. Fore wing somewhat bare in basal 1/3rd (in regional species); marginal vein relatively much shorter, mostly much less than 4X as long as the stigmal, stigmal uncus short; propodeum extensively bare; antennae different, often clubbed with basal or all flagellar segments shortened (e.g., Fig.A); hind margin of 1st dorsal plate flat; abdomen sessile; hind tibial spurs often stout ......... Pteromalidae (Coelocybinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

318

317a (315b). Occipital carina distinctly developed

 

320

317b. Occipital carina absent

 

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318a (317a). Axillae very much advanced (Fig.A); abdomen almost sessile; base of short stigmal vein thickened, postmarginal vein hardly as long as stigmal (Fig.B); gena posteriorly finely ridged ....... A ....... Pteromalidae (Parasaphodinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

319

318b. Axillae not or only slightly advanced; abdomen usually different, also venation different

 

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319a (318b). Abdomen almost sessile; pronotum long, cubical, with edged collar (Fig.A), fully as long as mesoscutum, dull with transverse rugose (= wrinkled) pits; gena broadly rounded; mesopleuron with reticulate depression similar to that of Pteromalinae ........ A .......... Pteromalidae (Keiraninae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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319b. Abdomen petiolate, petiole with longitudinal ribs (Fig.A); pronotum at right angles to longitudinal axis, anteriorly rounded; gena posteriorly usually ridged; mesopleuron with large peculiar pits (Fig.B) ....... Pteromalidae (Asaphinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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320a (317b). Pronotum broad, almost rectangular (Figs.A-B), shiny, even if densely pitted, often anteriorly ridged; clypeus very broad, lower margin somewhat produced but antennae at center of face; mandibles long, crescent-shaped, 2-toothed (Fig.C); mouth corners angular, with malar depression, mouth margin in corners ridged; antennae 11173, club symmetric; abdomen short, often on sculptured petiole; [thorax often shiny, axillae close to each other medially] ....... A. ...... non-Pteromalidae ........ Perilampidae (Chrysolampinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig 52)

 

321

320b. Pronotum mostly different, or, if almost rectangular then dull with dense sculpture (Ditropinotella, Fig.A); clypeus not broad, not produced; mouth corners notched, not angular, not conspicuously ridged; at least right mandible with 3 teeth; abdomen almost always sessile

 

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321a (320b). Pronotum with collar edge or ridge, hind margin deeply notched, sides rather long; thorax densely pitted and hairy, gaps between densely wrinkled-reticulate; propodeum with median ridge and extensive hairy; [in female hypopygium ending near tip and often sheaths protruding and upturned (Fig.A)] ....... A ........ Pteromalidae (Ditropinotellinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

322

321b. Pronotum rounded dorsally, different; if thorax sometimes similar to previously described, then propodeum not extensively hairy

 

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322a (321b). Males only: Antennae with tiny indistinct ring segment, 7 funicular and 2 club segments; mandibles with 4 teeth; notauli complete and deep, thorax rather shiny ........ Pteromalidae (Pireninae) (rare forms) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

323

322b. Females or if Males then club 3-segmented or undivided, mandibles different, in other respects also partly different

 

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323a (322b). Males only: Head and thorax usually dull metallic, densely hairy and with regular pitted and wrinkled sculpture; antennae mostly 11173, or club undivided, rarely funicle shortened (some Anastatus); propodeum mostly with fine median ridge; axillae distinctly separated by short but squared base of scutellum; mid tibial spur usually enlarged, longe than spur of hind tibia. ...... non-Pteromalidae, Eupelmidae (Eupelminae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Figs. 3 & 65)

 

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323b. Males & Females: Thorax usually not metallic, sculpture either longitudinally wrinkled or rather fine, hairiness rather sparse, often very sparse; propodeum often without median ridge; axillae usually close to each other; mid tibial spur not enlarged ............ Pteromalidae (Ormocerinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

325

324a (299b). Antennae with 12-13 segments including at least 2 ring segments (sometimes 3-4);notauli complete or incomplete

 

331

324b. Antennae with fewer than 12 segments and often with only 1 ring segment; notauli always complete

 

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325a (324a). Scutellum in dorsal view with distinct sublateral grooves or lines which posteriorly mostly curve outwards (Fig.A); if grooves are placed more towards sides, then antennae with 4 short ring segments; [axillae often advanced; notauli complete or incomplete] ........ A ....... Pteromalidae (Colotrechinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

326

325b. Scutellum mostly without sublateral lines or, if such lines are visible on sloping sides then they are straight and/or incomplete (e.g., Figs.A-C); antennae with 2-3 short ring segments, or segments after 2nd ring segment short but gradually increasing in size

 

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326a (325b). Scutellum posteriorly with a pair of conspicuous bristles, at lateral ends of frenal line (Fig.A), its sculpture never raised-reticulate; body mostly without metallic tinge; [antennae with 13 segments, often clubbed and short, with several or most segments after pedicel at right angles to longitudinal axis, club often asymmetric ...... A .......... Pteromalidae (Coelocybinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

327

326b. Scutellum without frenal bristles, or if with 2 thicker hairs posteriorly then whole scutellum has raised net-like sculpture and/or metallic hue.

 

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327a (326b). Antennae inserted in lower 1/3rd of face, very rarely with 13 segments, usually 11-12 segments, with 1-2, mostly very small, ring segments (Fig.A); mandibles with 4 teeth; clypeus conspicuous, convex, its sides converging, lower margin produced (as in Fig.B), even in forms with 13-segmented antennae ..... A ........ Pteromalidae (Pireninae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

.328

327b. Antennae mostly inserted near to or even above center of face, but if below center than with 13 segments, with 2-3 ring segments (very rarely more segments ring-shaped); clypeus always different from previously described

 

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328a (327b). Axillar grooves anteriorly somewhat meeting (Figs.A-B) so that scutellum does not reach or only narrowly reaches mesoscutum; body without regular reticulation, mostly regulose, without metallic hue; abdomen sessile; propodeal spiracles mostly unusually large; antennae with 12-13 segments ......... A .......... Pteromalidae (Ormocerinae) (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

329

328b. Axillar grooves wide apart so that scutellum broadly borders on mesoscutum; most other aspects also different

 

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329a (328b). Antennae with 12 segments, with 2 distinct ring segments and 5 funicular segments (Fig.A); clypeus almost rectangular, flat, not produced, dorsally with deep tentorial pits; notauli very deep, complete; abdomen sessile .......... Pteromalidae (Ormocerinae) (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

330

329b. Antennae different, with 13 segments, mostly with 2-3 ring segments; clypeus mostly different from previous; notauli often incomplete; thorax usually with raised reticulation; abdomen often petiolate

 

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330a (329b). Clypeal margin with deep median incision and asymmetric teeth (Figs.A-B); antennae inserted below ocular line; notauli (in regional species) complete but posteriorly often very shallow; propodeum convex in median 1/3rd, mostly with indicated ridge; marginal vein slender (Fig.C ........ A ....... Pteromalidae (Miscogasterinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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330b. Clypeal margin symmetric, with or without teeth; antennae only rarely inserted below ocular line; mostly some of other characters also different ......... Pteromalidae (Pteromalinae and some Miscogasterinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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331a (324b). Gena posteriorly ridged (rarely only with angular edge, in Scutellista); between pedicel and club only 4 (mainly males) or 5 segments (most females) first of which may be shortened, ring-shaped (as in Fig.A); thorax hairiness mostly replaced by distinct and sparse bristles (Fig.B), rarely uniformly hairy (Scutellista, Fig.C); clypeal margin not produced .......... .A.. ......... Pteromalidae (Eunotinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

332

331b. Gena without ridge or edge; antennae different; either 2 or more rounded, segments ring-shaped or with at least 6 segments between pedicel and club (Figs.A-B); thorax always without stout bristles; clypeal margin mostly produced

 

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332a (331b). Pronotum large, almost rectangular, with almost parallel sides, anteriorly ridged or rounded (Figs.A-B); antennae always with 6 segments between pedicel and club, 1st segment sometimes ring-shaped; club asymmetric owing to a collapsing area of tiny hairs; face shiny; [abdomen hardly ever collapsed, mostly very convex, often with produced ovipositor] ........ A ........ Pteromalidae (Chromeurytominae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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332b. Pronotum at least medio-dorsally very short and usually rounded, rarely collar separated by blunt edge or ridge (Fig.A), but then it is less than 1/6th the length of mesoscutum; antenna with 1 small ring segment and often 5 (female) of 6 funicular segments (male), or funicular segments reduced in number and size (Pireninae) in extremes only 2 short segments between pedicel and club, latter mostly symmetric .......... Pteromalidae (Pireninae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

NOTE:

 

Illustrations were simplified, corrected and/or updated to suit the present key.

However, please refer to cited authors for greater detail.

 

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