FILE: <insect6.htm> Bibliography Bibliography #2 Terminology [Navigate to MAIN MENU ]


Return to Page 1 [Interactive Key Print-out]



251a (2 251a). Frons projects as 2 "horns" (surrounding antennae) in dorsal view (Fig.A); petiole on abdomen, not long but with distinct dorsal ridges; ventral edge of hind femur with smoothly arched comb of minute teeth (Figs.B-C) ...... A ....... Chalcididae (generalized) (Dirhininae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> < [also Fig. 56 & fly-par.htm ]



251b. Frons not modified as "horns," mostly flat in dorsal view (Fig.A); hind tibia almost perpendicularly squared at tip; 2 hind tibial spurs ...... Chalcididae (Haltichellinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 56)



251c. Frons not modified as "horns," mostly flat in dorsal view; hind tibia obliquely squared at tip (Fig.A); either 1hind tibial spur or spur not apparent; abdominal petiole eitherconcealed or much shorter than 1/2 length of abdomen and not striated longitudinally ............ Chalcididae (Chalcidinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



252a (249b). Eyes diverge ventrally; antennae inserted low on face; ovipositor not protrudin (Figs.A-B) .........=A ........ Pteromalidae (Chalcedectini: Cleonyminae) (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [also Figs. 69 & 294]



252b. Eyes nearly parallel; antennae inserted near middle of face; ovipositor protruding (Figs.A-C) ....... Torymidae (generalized) (Podagrionini: Monodontomerinae) (part) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 59)



253a (248b). Antennae with 5-7 segments between pedicel and club; tarsi usually with 5 segments (if with 4, then males of Tetracampidae, or tiny specimens with long antennae and characteristic wings, (see Mymaridae illustrations) (Fig.A) .......... A .... <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 51)



253b. Antennae with 0-4 segments between pedicel and club; tarsi with 3, 4, or 5 segments (Fig.A); or specimens 0.2-1 or 2 mm. long and such characters hard to see (many tiny fragile specimens)



254a (253a). Hind wing without stalk, expanded as shown; forewing venation ends beyond basal 1/3rd (postmarginal present, stigmal elongated to sessile) (Fig.A); specimens usually >2 mm ......... A



254b. Hind wing stalked and elongated (rarely reduced to only a short stub, hooked at tip); fore wing venation linear, ending in basal 1/3rd (postmarginal vein absent, stigmal rudimentary), or seemingly absent; specimens usually <2 mm



255a (254b). Abdominal petiole with distinct 2 segments and very thin; fore wing reticulate (= net-like); both fore and hind wings narrow at base into a linear stalk (Fig.A); mandibles with teeth exodont (extended outwards); antennal sockets closer to eyes than to each other (rare in North American collections) .......... A ......... Mymerommatidae (= Callimomidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 41)



255b. Abdominal petiole with 1 segment or none; fore wing membrane smooth, hind wing membrane not reaching base, but reduced to a linear stalk formed by submarginal vein (Fig.A); frons with H-shaped impressed lines (Fig.A ); antennal sockets much closer to eyes than to each other; egg parasites (common in North American collections) .... (Figs.B-H). ... Mymaridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 51)



256a (254a). Mesopleuron concave; midtibial spur thin and like a spine (Fig.A)... ......A



256b. Mesopleuron convex (bulging); midtibial spur relatively thick (Fig.A)



257a (256a). Head projects forward, female mandible with rasplike appendage; female scape always distinctly widened but irregular in shape (Fig.A), 3rd antennal segment not ring-like but extended mesodorsally into a thick spine (Fig.A); eyes very small or vestigial, celli mostly absent; at least hind tibia shorter than femur; male wingless (much modified) or short-winged, wing stumps often as short filaments, rarely with narrow wing blade; body yellowish to dark brown or black, with shortened spiny tibiae, tarsal segments often very reduced; not parasitic and collected from fig fruits (Figs.B-F) ...... A ..... Agaonidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



257b. Head projects downward,female without appendage on mandible; hind tibia at least as long as femur, usually longer; male similar to female ,,, (Fig.A)



258a (257b). Antennal insertion definitely more than one socket diameter above free margin of clypeus; if doubtful, then either eyes diverge ventrally or side of head ("cheeks") ridged (carinate) ...... A . (Fig.A)



258b. Antennal insertion less than one socket diameter above free margin of clypeus; if doubtful, side of head without ridges ....... (Fig.A)



259a (258b). Antennae arise at side and below free margin of clypeus; thorax with some distinct pits or wrinkles, often also head; scutellum without sublateral lines but often with pitted frenal line (Fig.A ); fore wing membrane flat, pubescent, without a tuft of scales; frons with median pitted groove; abdominal petiole longer than wide; body black or slightly metallic (Figs.B-D) (common in North American collections) ...... A .. Pteromalidae (Spalangiinae) .... <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [also see 294 and fly-par.htm ]



259b. Antennae arise slightly above free margin of clypeus; abdominal petiole not visible (Fig. A) (rare in North American collections) ........ Pteromalidae (Ceinae) [also see Asaphinae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> & Eunotinae] <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



260a (258a). Fore wing stigma enlarged (Fig.A), longer than stigmal vein, and projects toward hind margin of wing; ovipositor sheaths always protruding; antennae with 7 funicle segments; thorax with rather sparse and usually outstanding conspicuous hairs, always without short hairs; body often somewhat yellow and rarely metallic (Figs.B-C) ....... A ........ Torymidae (Megastigminae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 59)



260b. Fore wing stigma not enlarged, shorter than stigmal vein (stigma at times surrounded by pigmented tainlike area); ovipositor and antenna variable (Fig.A)



261a (260b). Scutellum with submedian grooves that meet prescutal sutures and outline a median rectangular area (ra) or stigmal vein long and almost at right angle to marginal vein (Figs.A-B) (rare in collections from fig fruits in Florida .... A ..... Torymidae (Sycophaginae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 59)



261b. Scutellum without submedian grooves, prescutal sutures separated from scutellum by axilla (= triangular or rounded sclerite on side of scutellum and mostly just back of the base of front wing); either stigmal vein ling and angled off of marginal vein or short (Fig.A) (common & widespread in North America)



262a (261b). Hind coxa much longer and wider than forecoxa by 2-3 times; if doubtful, then prescutal sutures absent or weak and female with protruding ovipositor (Fig.A ........... A.



262b. Hind coxa nearly same size as fore coxa; if doubtful, then prescutal sutures well developed and female ovipositor not protruding (Fig.A)



263a (262a). Ovipositor at least a little protruding; both sexes: abdomen without pits; propodeum postero-laterally angled and does not project over hind coxa (dorsal view); cerci of last dorsal plate elongated or 4-sided and with long setae (not as apparent in male as female); pronotum mostly long, often almost conical; prepectus almost equal to tegula; hind tibial spurs thin; male abdomen collapsed or convex, in latter case at least as high as broad, without lateral edge (Figs.A-E) ....... A ...... Torymidae.. <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>. (Subfamilies: 264) (also Fig. 59)



263b. Ovipositor not protruding; both sexes: pronotum relatively short; abdomen with pits and always heavily sclerotized; propodeum postero-laterally rounded and projects over hind coxa (dorsal view); cerci of last dorsal plate reduced to low plates (like a disk); prepectus much smaller than tegula; hind tibial spurs thickened (Figs.A-B) ........... Ormyridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



264a (263a). Metapleuron with straight anterior margin; stigmal vein much shorter than breadth of coastal cell, stigma at most only slightly knobbed (Fig.A ); head and thorax always metallic or slightly so in Australian species; hairs on thorax usually dense and short ........ A ........ Torymidae (Monodontomerinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



264b. Metapleuron with anterior margin angled or protruding forward (Fig.A ), so that metapleuron forms a distinct lobe; antennae of Australian species always with 1 anellus (ring segment) and 7 funicular segments (Fig.B) ...... Torymidae (Toryminae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



265a (262b). Pronotum rectangular in dorsal view, about as wide as scutum, sides parallel and flat laterally; body black, yellow, or mixed black & yellow, but rarely faintly metallic; thorax mostly with coarse hairy pits; abdomen usually oval in crossview and compressed laterally (Figs.A-D) ........ A ..... Eurytomidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (Subfamilies: 266) (also Fig. 61)



265b. Pronotum in dorsal view narrowed to a transverse (= at right angles to longitudinal axis) strip, or not visible (if elongated, then narrower at base than apex and sides concave to accomodate front femora (rare, some Cleonyminae); body often metallic blue or green, rarely black; abdomen usually keel-shaped (triangular in cross view) and somewhat compressed dorsally (Fig.A)



266a (265a). Prepectus (p) as large or larger than tegula; antennae at most with 12 segments (Fig.A ), with only 1 ring segment and this often almost fused with first funicular A segment; apical segments mostly fused into a club (Fig.B) ........ Eurytomidae (Eurytominae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 61)



266b. Prepectus smaller than tegula (Fig.A)



267a (266b). Scutellum with projection; tegula sculptured (Fig.A). .....A. ...... Eurytomidae (Heimbrinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



267b. Scutellum without projection; tegula smooth; antennae with 13 segments (Fig.A), the segments after pedicel either not differentiated or proximal 3 segments of flagellum shortened and then almost anelliform (= ring-like) ........ Eurytomidae (Rileyinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



268a (265b). Pronotum not visible in dorsal view, covered by distinctly arched scutum; sculpture on thorax often coarse; abdomen like a rudder, on long petiole; marginal vein usually very long, but sometimes poorly defined; mandibles often sickle-shaped, narrow (Fig.A ); marginal vein unusually long in some species (Figs.B-E) ... Eucharitidae ...A . (= Eucharidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (Subfamilies: 269) (also Figs. 40 p & 57)



268b. Pronotum visible in dorsal view, scutum not heavily arched; abdomen usually elongated and petiole usually not visible.... (petiolate forms occur) (Fig.A)



269a (268a). Prepectus fused to pronotum (Figs.A-B) .... A ....... Eucharitidae (Eucharitinae) (= Eucharidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Figs. 40 p & 57)



269b. Prepectus not fused to pronotum (Fig.A) .......... Eucharitidae (Oraseminae) (= Eucharidae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Figs. 40 p & 57)



270a (268b). Abdomen covered by first two dorsal plates (or seemingly covered by single plate); prepectus often fused with side panel of pronotum (Fig.A), if prepectus clearly separated than face with discernible supraclypeal area and strong mandibles only 2-toothed (Fig.A); prescutal sutures always complete; body short and squat; head with well defined clypeus and at least 1 mandible with 2 teeth; body metallic to black, thorax mostly with coarse hairy pits (Figs.B-C) ...... A ....... Perilampidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (Subfamilies: .. 271) (also Fig 52)



270b. Abdomen with 3 or more readily visible dorsal plates; body usually elongated; head variable but usually with inconspicuous clypeus and small mandibles with 3-4 teeth; either prescutal sutures incomplete or antenna with 13 segments (Figs.A-B) .......... Pteromalidae ... <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (Subfamilies: 272 & 294) (also see Fig. 69)



271a (270a). Prepectus not fused to pronotum; suture clearly visible (Fig.A)..... A..... Perilampidae (Chrysolampinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig 52)



271b. Prepectus fused to pronotum (suture absent or barely visible) (Figs.A-D) ............. Perilampidae (Perilampinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig 52)



272a (270b). Axillae (ax) advanced far forward of scutellum or cuts a distinct angle into side lobe of scutum (Fig.A) ......... A



272b. Axillae not extended forward of scutellum, or if slightly advanced, does not cut a distinct angle into side lobe of scutum .... (Fig.A)



273a (272a. Axillae enlarged, nearly meeting medially; body covered with white, scale-like setae (Fig.A) .... A ..... Pteromalidae (Eutrichosomatinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



273b. Axillae not enlarged, not close medially; body without white, scale-like setae (Fig.A)



274a (273b). Scutellum posterior without triangular "projection" and with parallel dorsal grooves; ovipositor often protruding (Fig.A) ...... A ..... Pteromalidae (Colotrechninae) .... <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [also see 294]



274b. Scutellum posterior with triangular "projection" (is part of metanotum) and without apparent dorsal grooves; scapula extends backwards outside the rectangular outer corner of axilla, axilla 2X as long as broad; mid tarsus with 4 segments, unusually long (Fig.A), first segment as long as rest; prepectus unusually small Pteromalidae (Macromesinae). <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [also see 294]



275a (272b). Head in dorsal view with posterior ocelli touching sharp occipital (= dorsal posterior) edge, gena usually posteriorly ridged; clypeal margin not extended; thorax A hariness mostly replaced by sparce bristles (Figs.A-C) ...... Pteromalidae (Eunotinae) .... <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [also see 294]



275b. Head in dorsal view with posterior ocelli distant from rounded occipital margin; if doubtful, then head with curved black spines (Fig.A)



276a (275b). Head with projection between antennae, visible both from above and side (antennae not shown) (Fig.A); body and antennae shiny, latter usually always without anelli (= ring segments); wings, if not reduced, without conspicuous hariness but with fine long marginal fringe, sometimes with a tuft at stigma; marginal vein usually long, but postmarginal and stigmal veins short; body yellowish to blackish, rarely metallic. ......... .A ..... Pteromalidae (Cerocephalinae) .... <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [also see 294]



276b. Head without interantennal projection (Fig.A) ...,,,,... A



277a (276b). Head and thorax dorsally with black, curved spines; antennae with 13 segments; hind coxae with fine longitudinal ridges and inserted unusually high (Fig.A), its outer face often with longitudinal sculpture; short-winged or wingless females common ......... A ....... Pteromalidae (Diparinae) .... <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [also see 294]



277b. Head and thorax may have setae, but not black spines; hind coxae sculptured or smooth, without longitudinal ridges ........... (Fig.A)



278a (277b). Body typically elongated (1-2 cm.); head with ridged, raised areas (crests) between eye and scrobal basin; pronotum in dorsal view about 2X as long as broad, also petiole, legs and wings unusually long and slender (Fig.A); ovipositor protrudes, long; antennae with 13 segments without ring segments; very rare in NorthAmerica) ...... A. ....... Pteromalidae (Leptofoeninae) .... <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [also see 294]



278b. Body less elongated (usually less than 1 cm.); head without ridged, raised area between eye and scrobal basin (Fig.A) (commonly collected in North America) .......... A.



279a (278b). Eyes divergent ventrally, parallel dorsally; pronotum often, though not always, longer than wide, dorsally rounded and medially often with smooth strip or raised longitudinal line; thorax usually pitted (Figs.A-C) ....... A ....... Pteromalidae (Cleonyminae) .... <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [also see 294]



279b. Eye margins mostly parallel; pronotum always wider than long (Fig.A)



280a (279b). Either eyes, head, and thorax densely covered with setae, or scutellum largely A ........ .polished and with only 2 pairs of bristles (rare in North American collections) (Fig.A)



280b. Eyes not densely covered with setae, head and thorax occasionally so; scutellum rarely with paired bristles, but if so there are 3 or more pairs and they are inconspicuous (Fig.A)



281a (280a). Eyes, head and thorax densely covered with setae; first dorsal plate without distinct longitudinal grooves; head including large eyes, thorax dorsally and wings regularly densely hairy, never with paired bristles (Fig.A); postmarginal vein much longer than stigmal. ....... A ...... Pteromalidae (Herbertinae) .... <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [also see 294]



281b. Eyes not covered with setae; scutellum largely polished and with 2 pairs of prominent bristles; male antennae with 6 conspicuous segments between pedicel and club (Fig.A), rarely 5 (Fig.A); marginal vein at least 4X as long as stigmal vein (Fig.A), fore wing mostly very densely hairy, including basal 1/3rd; in females antenna with 6 distinct funicular segments and sometimes with 1 ring-like segment (Fig.A); female propodeum often very hairy (Figs.A-C) ......... Tetracampidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



282a (280b). Sides of head ("cheeks") laterally ridged, temple absent (Fig.A), gena posteriorly produced into a lamina; antenna clubbed, all preclub segments of flagellum at right angles to longitudinal axis; scutellum anteriorly with 2 deep pits; second dorsal plate of petiolate abdomen very large, covering most of dorsum, dorsally somewhat fused with the 1st dorsal plate. ...... A ....... Pteromalidae (Asaphinae) .... <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [also see 294]



282b. Sides of head rounded laterally; notauli (= longitudinal sutures of the mesonotum separating the median area from the lateral area) incomplete and wide apart; marginal vein widened in basal part (Fig.A); clypeal margin often with deep incision and asymmetric teeth; dorsum of thorax reticulate, almost bare, without bristles (Fig.B) ..... Pteromalidae (Pteromalinae / Miscogasterinae) .......... <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [also see 294]



283a (256b). Cercus at tip of abdomen; fore and midcoxae separated (midcoxa posterior to midpoint of mesopleuron); axillae (ax) do not meet medially (if so, at least as long as wide); marginal vein longer than stigmal or postmarginal (Fig.A) ........ A



283b. Cercus anterior to tip of abdomen; fore & mid coxae nearly touching (mid coxa anterior to middle of mesopleuron) (Fig.A); flagellum with at most 9 segments (occasionally one very small ring-like segment); axillae transverse (= at right angle with longitudinal axis), often meeting in midline (Fig.A); marginal vein often shorter than stigmal or postmarginal; mesoscutum convex and short; prescutal sutures absent or indicated by superficial lines converging to meet at the pointed front end of scutellum (Figs.B-Z) ......... Encyrtidae <Habits>; <Adults-1> & <Adults-2>; & <Juveniles> [also see fly-par.htm ]



284a (283a). Prescutal sutures mostly invisible, do not meet; prepectus flat, not projected flagellum with 7-8 segmented funicle plus club; mid coxae much closer to hind coxae than to fore ones (Fig.A); axillae not obviously at right angles with longitudinal axis and mostly wide apart so that scutellum is only rarely pointed anteriorly; marginal vein always much longer than stigmal vein (Figs.B-F) ...... A ...... Eupelmidae... <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (Subfamilies: 285)



284b. Prepectus swollen, in dorsal view protruding forwards as conspicuous shoulders (Fig.A), prescutal sutures meet medially; pronotum very short; always fully winged, stigmal vein fairly long but shorter than marginal (Fig.A); antennae with 12 segments; tropical and phytophagous (not parasitic) .......... Tanaostigmatidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



285a (284a). Lack membranous area anterior to mid coxal insertion (Fig.A) .......A ........ Eupelmidae (Metapelmatinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Figs. 3 & 65)



285b. With membranous area anterior to midcoxal insertion (Fig.A)



286a (285b). Scutum wider than pronotum, with anterolateral shoulders produced (Fig.A) ........ A. ......... .Eupelmidae (Calosotinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Figs. 3 & 65)



286b. Scutum not much wider than pronotum, with anterolateral shoulders indistinct (Figs.A-B) ......... Eupelmidae (Eupelminae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Figs. 3 & 65)



287a (253b). Usually 1 mm. or longer; body often metallic or dark in color; abdomennarrowly joined at propodeum (petiole may or may not be apparent); tarsi always with 4 segments; postmarginal vein present or absent (Fig.A) ........... A.



287b. Usually 1 mm or less in length; body mostly pale yellow to white, sometimes with dark markings or wholly dark, but not metallic; abdomen broadly joined to propodeum; postmarginal vein absent; tarsi usually with 3-5 segments (if 4 segments, then club large and undivided or wing fringed with long setae, or middle tarsi with only 4 segments) (Fig A)



288a (287a). Hind coxa greatly enlarged; posterior scutellum with triangular, usually translucent flap overhanging propodeum; hind tibia with irregular, linear, or diamond-shaped patterns of setae; prescutal sutures indistinct; tarsi with 4 segments; fore wing very narrow, wedge-shaped and almost completely hairy, without outstanding bristles; male antenna with 3 branches.......... (Fig.A); general appearance (Figs.A-E) ...... .A ...... Elasmidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Figs. 12 & 53)



288b. Hind coxa not greatly enlarged (normal); posterior scutellum without overhanging triangular flap; hind tibia without irregular setal patterns; body ranges from minute to medium size (Figs.A-D) (up to 6 mm long) .......... Eulophidae .... <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (Subfamilies: 289) (also Fig. 63)



289a (288b). Scutellum usually with 1 pair of setae; submarginal vein with 2 dorsal bristles (except some Neotropical genera with more); stigmal vein always very short and postmarginal even shorter than stigmal; face usually with scrobal and facial grooves; notaular grooves abruptly directed sideways and before the bend at least shortly interrupted; fully winged (Fig.A) ......... A ...... Eulophidae (Entedoninae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 63)



289b. Scutellum with 2 pairs of setae (rarely 3 or more); submarginal with 3 or more setae (rarely with 1 or 2); face usually without distinct grooves



290a (289b). Fore wing with bare area posterior to marginal vein with single row of setae; usually with 2-3 "lines of setae" radiating from stigmal vein; scutellum in dorsal view entire, without longitudinal grooves, axillae on its sides separated by a depression which is not visible dorsally (Fig.A); female abdomen with 2 dorsal plates after the 6th (spiracle bearing), these loose or only partly fused ....... A ....... Eulophidae (Euderinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 63)



290b. Fore wing usually evenly setose posterior to marginal vein without row of setae; rarely with any "lines of setae" radiating from stigmal, when present, usually only one (Fig.A)



291a (290b). Postmarginal vein usually absent or rudimentary; shiny scutellum often with paired submedian grooves that divide the scutellum into 3 distinct pieces (Figs.A-B) ....... .A. ...... Eulophidae (Tetrastichinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 63)



291b. Postmarginal vein present, stigmal vein usually moderately long; submarginal vein at distal end usually smooth curving into stigma (Fig.A); scutellum without submedian grooves, rarely with lateral grooves, when present at extreme lateral margins, scutellum usually with 2 or more pairs of setae (Fig.A), in some species with additional hairiness .......... Eulophidae (Eulophinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 63)



292a (287b). Tarsi with 3 segments, all segments elongated and almost of same length (Fig.A); setae on wings usually arranged in rows; stigmal vein usually elongated, postmarginal vein absent (Fig.A); antennae short (5-9 segments) (Fig.A) and with few discernible funicular segments, male with elongated antennal "setae."; body minute, rarely exceeding 1 mm in length, never metallic (Figs.B-C); egg parasites ........ A ........ Trichogrammatidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniiles> (also Fig. 46)



292b. Tarsi with 4-5 segments; setae on wings largely absent, evenly covering wings, or with only a few bare spots or rows present; stigmal vein short and not obviously divergent from wing margin; antennae variable, but usually with discernible funiclar segments (if not, then with large undivided club) (Fig.A)



293a (292b). Propodeum without median triangular area; scutellum (sc) not transverse (anterior, posterior sides not parallel), axillae (ax) distinct from scutellum, rarely meeting medially; club of antenna almost always segmented (a few species here have antennae like Signiphoridae). Axillae (ax) do not meet medially, generally widely separated; prescutal sutures (n) present and mostly far apart, complete (Fig.A) and abdomen broadly sessile; fore wing post marginal vein mostly absent; (antennal club in Eretmocerus large and undivided, tarsi with 4 segments); body usually less than 1 mm long, rarely 1.7 mm, always not metallic (Figs.B-H) ......... A ....... Aphelinidae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 62)



293b. Propodeum with triangular median area (Fig.A); scutellum (sc) transverse (sides parallel), fused with axillae and forming a narrow cross-belt or widely separated; prescutal sutures complete but fine, linear; thorax smooth; club of antenna elongated and not segmented; male antennae simple; fore wing not especially narrow, basal 13rd mostly bare but with several very prominent bristles; body small, hardly ever >1mm long, usually black and depressed dorsally, always winged, abdomen broadly sessile (Figs.B-C) ........ Signiphoridae <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> (also Fig. 35)


Subfamilies of Pteromalidae (especially Australasian species):



294a (252a, 259a, 270b, 274a,b; 275a, 276a, 277a, 278a, 279a, 281a, 282a,b). Stigmal vein arising at almost right angle (Fig.A) and longer than postmarginal vein (dwarfed) sometimes with rudimentary wings); body not metallic, usually yellowish or blackish, thorax along median line almost smooth and bare except for paired setae (rarely more setae sublaterally), including rare shortwinged forms; oral depression on back of head much constricted or separated from foramen magnum (= opening on posterior side of head) by postgenal bridge (as in Fig.B); [tarsi sometimes with 4 segments; antenna sometimes with one ring segment, number of other segments variable] ...... A...... non-Pteromalidae, Agaonidae (Epichrysomallinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



294b. Stigmal vein at acute angle or, if rarely approaching right angle (e.g., some Ormocerinae), then stigmal vein shorter than postmarginal and thorax dorsally with distinct sculpture and extensively hairy even in median line; back of head usually broadly open between oral depression and foramen magnum; mostly quite different from that previously described; winged or wingless



295a (294b). Narrowed base of antennal scape about 4X as long as broad (Fig.A), sockets wide apart but close to mouth, antennal formula 1125(3); face collapsing so that eyes come close together; body and appendages very slender, ovipositor long; marginal vein at least 8X as long as the very short stigmal vein, but postmarginal vein long (Fig.B) ....... A ......... Pteromalidae (Louriciinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



295b. Narrowed base of scape hardly ever longer than broad (exceptionally 2X so in Storeya), antennae different, also body and venation different



296a (295b). Antennal sockets situated on lower margin of head (Fig.A-B), overhanging the mouth; antenna 1171, (= with 7 funicular segments but no ring segments); head prognathous (= projecting forward) or almost; abdomen on distinct petiole; marginal vein very long, stigmal and postmarginal veins short. ......... A.



296b. Sockets located at least slightly above mouth margin; antennal formula usually different or venation different



297a (296a). Body mainly yellowish; head and thorax almost smooth; scutellum with fine out-curving sublateral lines; disc of fore wing convex and almost bare, at stigma a group or tuft of black scales (Fig.A); frons without median groove ........ A. ..... Pteromalidae (Storeyinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



297b. Body black or slightly metallic; at least thorax with some distinct pits or wrinkles, often also head; scutellum without sublateral lines but often with pitted frenal line (Fig.A); fore wing disc flat, pubescent, without a tuft of scales; (frons with median pitted groove) (Figs.B-C) ........ Pteromalidae (Spalangiinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles> [also see fly-par.htm ]



298a (296b). Head almost prognathous or globose (Figs.A-B), with large ridge or tooth between antennae, and with conspicuous occipital carina (= ridge on dorsal posterior head); body and antennae shiny, latter without ring segments (one exception: (Fig.C); wings, if not rudimentary, then not obviously hairy but with fine long marginal fringe, sometimes with a tuft at stigma, marginal vein fairly long but postmarginal and stigmal veins short; [body yellowish to blackish, rarely with metallic gloss] ..... A ......... .Pteromalidae (Cerocephalinae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



298b. Head either quite different, most orthognathous, (= with mouth directed ventrad), or antennae and wings different from previous


299a (298b). Antennae with not more than one ring segment and at least 12 segments (as in Fig.A, club counted as 3); sometimes proximal flagellar segments gradually, even extensively shortened, almost ring-like, but otherwise not different from distal ones (Figs.B-D). ......... A.



299b. Antennae either with at least 2 true ring segments (these clearly different from larger following segments which bear sensilla), or with fewer than 12 segments (club sometimes undivided but counted as 3 segments)



300a (299a). Head somewhat cube-like and with toothed parascrobal crests (Fig.A); pronotum in dorsal view about 2X as long as broad, also petiole, legs and wings unusually long and slender (Fig.B); ovipositor protruding, long; antennae with 13 segments, without ring segments ......... A ......... Pteromalidae (Leptofoeninae) <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



300b. Head at right angles to longitudinal axis and mostly without toothed parascrobal crests, or other characters at least partly different than previous



Key continues with <insect7.htm>