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202

201a (200a).    Front legs not raptorial

 

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201b.    Front legs raptorial (Figs.A-C) .... A ....... (Neuroptera)  Mantispidae  <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

203

202a (201a).    Fore wing with 2 or more branches of R-s arising from the apparently fused stems of R-1 and R-s

 

205

202b.    Fore wing with all branches of R-s arising from a single sector

 

204

203a (202a).    Antennae moniliform in both sexes; ocelli absent; ovipositor not exserted

 

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203b.    Antennae pectinate in males; ocellus-like tubercle present; ovipositor exserted ........ (Neuroptera)  Dilaridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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204a (203a).    Fore wing with 3 or more branches of R-s present, veins R-4 and R-5 arising separately, some costal veins forked (Fig.A) (general predators) ...... A ......  (Neuroptera)  Hemerobiidae  <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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204b.    Fore wing with apparently 2 radial sectors (R-s), one of which is R-2+3 and the other R4+5 .......... (Neuroptera)  Sympherobiidae

 

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205a (202b).    Large moth-like species; costal area of fore wing very broad; the S-c, R-1 and R-s are closely parallel....... (Figs.A-B) ...... A ….. (Neuroptera)  Psychopsidae  <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

206

205b.    Not as previously described

 

207

206a (205b).    Ocelli absent

 

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206b.    Ocelli present (Figs.A-B) ...... A ….... (Neuroptera)  Osmylidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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207a (206a).    Humeral cross vein forming a recurrent vein; discal area of wings distinct from costal and marginal areas by series of cross veins; S-c and R-1 fused apically (Fig.A) ....... .A....... (Neuroptera)  Polystoechotidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

208

207b.    Humeral cross vein not forming a recurrent vein; discal area of wings not differentiated from marginal area

 

209

208a (207b).    Vertex (= top of head)  flattened

 

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208b.    Vertex convex (Fig.A) ....... A .......... (Neuroptera)  Sisyridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

210

209a (208a).    Costal cross veins not forked

 

211

209b.    Costal cross veins forked

 

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210a (209a).    Wings of nearly equal width, fore wing with all branches of R-s arising from a single sector (Figs.A-E). ........ A ......... (Neuroptera)  Chrysopidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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210b.    Fore wing distinctly wider than hind wing (Fig.A) ........ (Neuroptera)  Apochrysidae  <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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211a (209b).    Fore wing with S-c and R fused before wing tip; seed-like scales often present on wings (Figs.A-B) ....... A ....... (Neuroptera)  Berothidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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211b.    Fore wings with S-c and R not fused apically; hairs of body and wing conspicuously  long (Fig.A) ........ (Neuroptera)  Trichomatidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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212a (199b).    Wings about 1/3rd as wide as long; costal area wide (Fig.A) ..... A .....  (Neuroptera)  Myiodactylidae   <Habits>; Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

213

212b.    Wings much narrower than above

 

214

213a (212b).    Antennae quite distinctly club-like or flattened, subcostal cell without cross vein

 

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213b.     Antennae elongated cylindrical; subcostal area with many cross veins (Figs.A-B)  …. A ...... (Neuroptera)  Nymphidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

215

214a (213a).    Antennae about as long as head and thorax

 

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214b.    Antennae longer, slender and strongly clubbed (Figs.A-B) ..... A ....... (Neuroptera)  Ascalaphidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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215a (214a).    Antennae weakly clubbed, knobbed, or flattened apically; abdomen long and slender; body and wings pubescent ....... (Figs.A-D) ...... A ....... (Neuroptera)  Myrmeleontidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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215b.  Antennae strongly clubbed; abdomen and wings shiny. ........ (Neuroptera)  Stilbopterygidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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216a (195b).    Ocelli present (Fig.A) .......... A. ........... (Neuroptera)  Raphidiidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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216b.    Ocelli absent (Fig.A) .......... (Neuroptera)  Inocellidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

Major Families of Adult Entomophagous Strepsiptera:

 

(Adults)  (Immatures)

 

Males (for Females go to 222) <Separate Key>

 

<General Characteristics>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>  [Latest Classification]

 

218

217a (5a & 73b).    Tarsi with fewer than 5 segments and clawless

 

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217b.    Tarsi with 5 segments and clawed (Fig.A) ...... A ......... (Strepsiptera)  Mengenillidae (Mengeidae)

 

219

218a (217a).    Tarsi with 4 segments

 

221

218b.    Tarsi with 2-3 segments

 

220

219a (218a).    Antennae with less than 7 segments

 

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219b.    Antennae with 7 segments (Fig.A) ....... A ..... (Strepsiptera)  Myrmecolacidae

 

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220a (219a).    Third and 4th antennal segments laterally fan-like........ (Strepsiptera)  Callipharixenidae

 

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220b.    Only 3rd antennal segment laterally fan-like (Figs.A-C). .,,… A ...... (Strepsiptera)  Stylopidae

 

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221a (218b).    Tarsi with 2 segments; antennae with 4 segments (Figs.A-B) ....... A  .........  (Strepsiptera)  Elenchidae

 

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221b.    Tarsi with 3 segments; antennae with 7 segments (Figs.A-D) ........... (Strepsiptera)  Halictophagidae

 

223

222a (58a & 76a).    Adult stage partially endoparasitic, without legs, antennae or eyes

 

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222b.    Adult stage free-living, with legs, antennae and eyes (Figs.A-B) .....  A.   (Strepsiptera)   Mengenillidae (Mengeidae)

 

Females (for Males go to 217)

 

<General Characteristics>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>  [Latest Classification]

 

224

223a (222a).    Cephalothorax (= head + thorax) without hook-like projections behind spiracles

 

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223b.    Cephalothorax with hook-like projections behind spiracles ......… (Strepsiptera) . Stichotrematidae

 

225

224a (223a).    Cephalothorax with single pair of spiracles; thoracic segments not well defined

 

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224b.    Cephalothorax greatly elongated, with 2 pairs of spiracles, or with head and thoracic segments distinct .......... Strepsiptera)  Callipharixenidae

 

226

225a (224a).    Parasitoids of Homoptera or Gryllidae

 

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225b.    Parasitoids of Hymenoptera .......... ( Strepsiptera)  Stylopidae

 

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226a (225a).    Brood-passage opening a narrow, linear or oblong slit; thorax prominent .....

( Strepsiptera)  Halictophagidae

 

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226b.    Brood-passage opening broad and semicircular; thorax reduced and ring-like in back of brood-passage opening. ............ (Strepsiptera)  Elenchidae

 

Major Families of Adult Entomophagous Lepidoptera:

 

228

227a (10a, 38a, 48a & 80a).    Antennae simple or modified, but usually not swollen apically; hind wing with frenulum (= bristle or group of bristles arising at humeral angle);  ocelli often present ........... (Lepidoptera)  (Heterocera)   <General Characteristics>  [Latest Classification]

 

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227b.    Antennae knobbed at tip; hind wing without a frenulum; ocelli absent (Figs.A-D) …… A .….... (Lepidoptera)  (Rhopalocera)  Lycaenidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

229

228a (227a).    Wings absent or greatly reduced in size

 

231

228b.    Wings normally developed.

 

230

229a (228a).    Moth does not develop in a sac constructed by the larva

 

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229b.    Moth develops in and often never leaves sac constructed by the larva (Fig.A) (also see couplets 233, 235 & 236) .......... A ....... (Lepidoptera)  Psychidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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230a (229a).    Proboscis absent or vestigial (Figs.A-B) (also see couplet 238) ...... A .... (Lepidoptera)  Pyralididae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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230b.    Proboscis present (Figs.A-D) (also see couplets 237 & 238) …... ( Lepidoptera)  Noctuidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

232

231a (228b).    Hind wing with 3 anal veins; fore wing usually with 1st anal vein reaching wing margin

 

236

231b.    Hind wing with 2 anal veins, rarely with 1

 

233

232a (231a).    Hind wing with veins S-c+R-1 and R-s widely separate beyond discal cell

 

238

232b.    Hind wing with veins S-c+R-1 and R-s fused or closely parallel between discal cell and wing tip

 

234

233a (232a).    Fore wings with radial (accessory) cell

 

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233b.    Fore wings without radial cell (Fig.229b-A) (also see couplets 229, 235 & 236) ..... A ...... (Lepidoptera)  Psychidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

235

234a (233a).    Proboscis vestigial

 

239

234b.    Mouthparts usually developed, with scaled proboscis

 

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235a (234a).    Tibial spurs short or absent (Fig.A) ....... A ...... (Lepidoptera)  Epipyropidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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235b.    Hind tibia with 2 pairs of spurs (Fig.229b-A) (also see couplets 229, 233 & 236) ........ (Lepidoptera)  Psychidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

237

236a (231b).    Fore wing with single complete anal vein

 

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236b.    Fore wing with anal veins almost fused or connected by a crossvein so as to end as a single vein (Fig.229b-A) (also see couplets 229, 233 & 235) … A ..... (Lepidoptera)  Psychidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

238

237a (236a).    Shaft of antennae tapering evenly from base to tip

 

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237b.    Antennae thickened before tip, usually ending in a down curved hook  (Figs.230b-A-D) (also see couplets 230 & 238) ....... A. ...... (Lepidoptera)  Noctuidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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238a (232b & 237a).    Hind wing with S-c usually free from R-s along the cell, though sometimes extending near it (also see couplet 230)…(Lepidoptera)  Pyralidae (Chrysauginae, ......... Phycitinae, Pyraustinae)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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238b.  Hind wing with Sc fused with Rs for short distance before the middle of cell ..... .. Noctuidae

 

240

239a (234b).    Maxillary palpi straight and extend forward horizontally, or vestigial

 

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239b.    Maxillary palpi conspicuous, folded in resting position…..... (Lepidoptera)  Oinophilidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

241

240a (239a).    Basal segment of antenna simple, though often with scales, hairs, or bristles

 

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240b.    Basal segment of antenna enlarged and concave beneath, forming an eyecap  (Fig.A (also see couplet 247) ....... A …... (Lepidoptera)  Blastobasidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

242

241a (240a).    Hind wing with well-developed anal region; venation almost complete

 

244

241b.    Hind wing narrow-lanceolate or linear; venation often reduced.

 

243

242a (241a).    Hind wing with anal vein not distally forked

 

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242b.    Hind wing with 3rd anal vein distally forked (Figs A-B) ...… A ....... (Lepidoptera)  Cyclotornidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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243a (242a).     Upper side of hind wing with fringe of long hairs on basal part of Cu …... (Lepidoptera)  Olethreutidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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243b.    Hind wing without long hairs on basal part of Cu (Fig.A) ...... A ....... (Lepidoptera)  Tortricidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

245

244a (241b).    Fore wing with discal cell formed

 

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244b.    Fore wing without closed cell (Fig.A) (also see couplet 245 ….... A ...... (Lepidoptera)  Heliodinidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

246

245a (244a).    Hind tarsi without evident groups of bristles

 

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245b.    Hind tarsi with somewhat distinct groups of bristles near the ends of the several segments (Fig.244b-A) (also see couplet 244) ......... A .......... (Lepidoptera)  Heliodinidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

247

246a (245a).    Fore wing with discal cell set obliquely, the end distinctly closer to the hind margin than to costa; vein Cu-2 very short and usually extending directly back to wing margin

 

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246b.    Fore wing with discal cell axial and central; vein Cu-2 normally long and continuing parallel with median veins (also see couplet 247) ....... (Lepidoptera)  Lavernidae &  Cosmopterygidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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247a (246a).    Fore wing with blunt discal cell; veins R-2 and Cu arising from the end of discal cell (Fig.240b-A) (also see couplet 14) ........ A ......... (Lepidoptera)  Blastobasidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

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247b.    Fore wing without stigma; vein R-2 arising distinctly before end of discal cell (Fig.A)  (also see couplet 246) ............ (Lepidoptera)  Cosmopterigidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>

 

248.  Major Families and Some Subfamilies of Adult Chalcidoidea:

 

<Overview>; <General References>

 

Generalized drawings of Chalcidoidea morphology by Noyes & Valentine (1989) are

 Presented in Figs.A-G.

 

For greater detail on specific geographic areas also please refer to Regional Keys as follows:

 

 

 

249

248a (123b).    Hind femur enlarged, with ventral teeth, either a few large or many small ones (saw-like) (Fig.A); hind tibia not quite equal to femur and arched; specimens usually 5-15 mm, broad bodied, rarely <1-2 mm ...... A.

 

253

248b.    Hind femur not enlarged, ventral teeth, if present, 2 or less, or ventral edge serrated  (Fig. A); hindtibia straight (rarely half length of femur); specimens usually 1-10 mm., robust to fragile

 

250

249a (248a).   Prepectus reduced or fused (Fig.A), not readily apparent, of if so, not triangular in outline (Fig.A) ..... A

 

252

249b.    Prepectus in the form of a triangular plate (Fig.A)

 

 

250a (249a).    Ovipositor directed horizontally [in most species not extended beyond tip of abdomen]; tegula almost an oval disc; fore wing not folded longitudinally; posterior gena with distinct ridge; body often large but not usually metallic (Figs.A-D) ...... A .....  Chalcididae  <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>   (also Fig. 56)

 

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250b.    Ovipositor curved upwards over abdomen (Fig.A); male abdomen covered by pitted hard  covering of fused dorsal plates (Fig.A ); tegula narrowly extended forward, ladel-like; fore wing often folded longitudinally; body large, wasp-like, with fore wing longitudinally folded as in Vespidae, frequently with black and yellow pattern (Figs.B-D) .......  Leucospidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>   (also Fig. 45)

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