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201a (200a).    Front legs not raptorial



201b.    Front legs raptorial (Figs.A-C) .... A ....... (Neuroptera)  Mantispidae  <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



202a (201a).    Fore wing with 2 or more branches of R-s arising from the apparently fused stems of R-1 and R-s



202b.    Fore wing with all branches of R-s arising from a single sector



203a (202a).    Antennae moniliform in both sexes; ocelli absent; ovipositor not exserted



203b.    Antennae pectinate in males; ocellus-like tubercle present; ovipositor exserted ........ (Neuroptera)  Dilaridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



204a (203a).    Fore wing with 3 or more branches of R-s present, veins R-4 and R-5 arising separately, some costal veins forked (Fig.A) (general predators) ...... A ......  (Neuroptera)  Hemerobiidae  <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



204b.    Fore wing with apparently 2 radial sectors (R-s), one of which is R-2+3 and the other R4+5 .......... (Neuroptera)  Sympherobiidae



205a (202b).    Large moth-like species; costal area of fore wing very broad; the S-c, R-1 and R-s are closely parallel....... (Figs.A-B) ...... A ….. (Neuroptera)  Psychopsidae  <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



205b.    Not as previously described



206a (205b).    Ocelli absent



206b.    Ocelli present (Figs.A-B) ...... A ….... (Neuroptera)  Osmylidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



207a (206a).    Humeral cross vein forming a recurrent vein; discal area of wings distinct from costal and marginal areas by series of cross veins; S-c and R-1 fused apically (Fig.A) ....... .A....... (Neuroptera)  Polystoechotidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



207b.    Humeral cross vein not forming a recurrent vein; discal area of wings not differentiated from marginal area



208a (207b).    Vertex (= top of head)  flattened



208b.    Vertex convex (Fig.A) ....... A .......... (Neuroptera)  Sisyridae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



209a (208a).    Costal cross veins not forked



209b.    Costal cross veins forked



210a (209a).    Wings of nearly equal width, fore wing with all branches of R-s arising from a single sector (Figs.A-E). ........ A ......... (Neuroptera)  Chrysopidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



210b.    Fore wing distinctly wider than hind wing (Fig.A) ........ (Neuroptera)  Apochrysidae  <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



211a (209b).    Fore wing with S-c and R fused before wing tip; seed-like scales often present on wings (Figs.A-B) ....... A ....... (Neuroptera)  Berothidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



211b.    Fore wings with S-c and R not fused apically; hairs of body and wing conspicuously  long (Fig.A) ........ (Neuroptera)  Trichomatidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



212a (199b).    Wings about 1/3rd as wide as long; costal area wide (Fig.A) ..... A .....  (Neuroptera)  Myiodactylidae   <Habits>; Adults> & <Juveniles>



212b.    Wings much narrower than above



213a (212b).    Antennae quite distinctly club-like or flattened, subcostal cell without cross vein



213b.     Antennae elongated cylindrical; subcostal area with many cross veins (Figs.A-B)  …. A ...... (Neuroptera)  Nymphidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



214a (213a).    Antennae about as long as head and thorax



214b.    Antennae longer, slender and strongly clubbed (Figs.A-B) ..... A ....... (Neuroptera)  Ascalaphidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



215a (214a).    Antennae weakly clubbed, knobbed, or flattened apically; abdomen long and slender; body and wings pubescent ....... (Figs.A-D) ...... A ....... (Neuroptera)  Myrmeleontidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



215b.  Antennae strongly clubbed; abdomen and wings shiny. ........ (Neuroptera)  Stilbopterygidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



216a (195b).    Ocelli present (Fig.A) .......... A. ........... (Neuroptera)  Raphidiidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



216b.    Ocelli absent (Fig.A) .......... (Neuroptera)  Inocellidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>


Major Families of Adult Entomophagous Strepsiptera:


(Adults)  (Immatures)


Males (for Females go to 222) <Separate Key>


<General Characteristics>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>  [Latest Classification]



217a (5a & 73b).    Tarsi with fewer than 5 segments and clawless



217b.    Tarsi with 5 segments and clawed (Fig.A) ...... A ......... (Strepsiptera)  Mengenillidae (Mengeidae)



218a (217a).    Tarsi with 4 segments



218b.    Tarsi with 2-3 segments



219a (218a).    Antennae with less than 7 segments



219b.    Antennae with 7 segments (Fig.A) ....... A ..... (Strepsiptera)  Myrmecolacidae



220a (219a).    Third and 4th antennal segments laterally fan-like........ (Strepsiptera)  Callipharixenidae



220b.    Only 3rd antennal segment laterally fan-like (Figs.A-C). .,,… A ...... (Strepsiptera)  Stylopidae



221a (218b).    Tarsi with 2 segments; antennae with 4 segments (Figs.A-B) ....... A  .........  (Strepsiptera)  Elenchidae



221b.    Tarsi with 3 segments; antennae with 7 segments (Figs.A-D) ........... (Strepsiptera)  Halictophagidae



222a (58a & 76a).    Adult stage partially endoparasitic, without legs, antennae or eyes



222b.    Adult stage free-living, with legs, antennae and eyes (Figs.A-B) .....  A.   (Strepsiptera)   Mengenillidae (Mengeidae)


Females (for Males go to 217)


<General Characteristics>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>  [Latest Classification]



223a (222a).    Cephalothorax (= head + thorax) without hook-like projections behind spiracles



223b.    Cephalothorax with hook-like projections behind spiracles ......… (Strepsiptera) . Stichotrematidae



224a (223a).    Cephalothorax with single pair of spiracles; thoracic segments not well defined



224b.    Cephalothorax greatly elongated, with 2 pairs of spiracles, or with head and thoracic segments distinct .......... Strepsiptera)  Callipharixenidae



225a (224a).    Parasitoids of Homoptera or Gryllidae



225b.    Parasitoids of Hymenoptera .......... ( Strepsiptera)  Stylopidae



226a (225a).    Brood-passage opening a narrow, linear or oblong slit; thorax prominent .....

( Strepsiptera)  Halictophagidae



226b.    Brood-passage opening broad and semicircular; thorax reduced and ring-like in back of brood-passage opening. ............ (Strepsiptera)  Elenchidae


Major Families of Adult Entomophagous Lepidoptera:



227a (10a, 38a, 48a & 80a).    Antennae simple or modified, but usually not swollen apically; hind wing with frenulum (= bristle or group of bristles arising at humeral angle);  ocelli often present ........... (Lepidoptera)  (Heterocera)   <General Characteristics>  [Latest Classification]



227b.    Antennae knobbed at tip; hind wing without a frenulum; ocelli absent (Figs.A-D) …… A .….... (Lepidoptera)  (Rhopalocera)  Lycaenidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



228a (227a).    Wings absent or greatly reduced in size



228b.    Wings normally developed.



229a (228a).    Moth does not develop in a sac constructed by the larva



229b.    Moth develops in and often never leaves sac constructed by the larva (Fig.A) (also see couplets 233, 235 & 236) .......... A ....... (Lepidoptera)  Psychidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



230a (229a).    Proboscis absent or vestigial (Figs.A-B) (also see couplet 238) ...... A .... (Lepidoptera)  Pyralididae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



230b.    Proboscis present (Figs.A-D) (also see couplets 237 & 238) …... ( Lepidoptera)  Noctuidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



231a (228b).    Hind wing with 3 anal veins; fore wing usually with 1st anal vein reaching wing margin



231b.    Hind wing with 2 anal veins, rarely with 1



232a (231a).    Hind wing with veins S-c+R-1 and R-s widely separate beyond discal cell



232b.    Hind wing with veins S-c+R-1 and R-s fused or closely parallel between discal cell and wing tip



233a (232a).    Fore wings with radial (accessory) cell



233b.    Fore wings without radial cell (Fig.229b-A) (also see couplets 229, 235 & 236) ..... A ...... (Lepidoptera)  Psychidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



234a (233a).    Proboscis vestigial



234b.    Mouthparts usually developed, with scaled proboscis



235a (234a).    Tibial spurs short or absent (Fig.A) ....... A ...... (Lepidoptera)  Epipyropidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



235b.    Hind tibia with 2 pairs of spurs (Fig.229b-A) (also see couplets 229, 233 & 236) ........ (Lepidoptera)  Psychidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



236a (231b).    Fore wing with single complete anal vein



236b.    Fore wing with anal veins almost fused or connected by a crossvein so as to end as a single vein (Fig.229b-A) (also see couplets 229, 233 & 235) … A ..... (Lepidoptera)  Psychidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



237a (236a).    Shaft of antennae tapering evenly from base to tip



237b.    Antennae thickened before tip, usually ending in a down curved hook  (Figs.230b-A-D) (also see couplets 230 & 238) ....... A. ...... (Lepidoptera)  Noctuidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



238a (232b & 237a).    Hind wing with S-c usually free from R-s along the cell, though sometimes extending near it (also see couplet 230)…(Lepidoptera)  Pyralidae (Chrysauginae, ......... Phycitinae, Pyraustinae)   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



238b.  Hind wing with Sc fused with Rs for short distance before the middle of cell ..... .. Noctuidae



239a (234b).    Maxillary palpi straight and extend forward horizontally, or vestigial



239b.    Maxillary palpi conspicuous, folded in resting position…..... (Lepidoptera)  Oinophilidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



240a (239a).    Basal segment of antenna simple, though often with scales, hairs, or bristles



240b.    Basal segment of antenna enlarged and concave beneath, forming an eyecap  (Fig.A (also see couplet 247) ....... A …... (Lepidoptera)  Blastobasidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



241a (240a).    Hind wing with well-developed anal region; venation almost complete



241b.    Hind wing narrow-lanceolate or linear; venation often reduced.



242a (241a).    Hind wing with anal vein not distally forked



242b.    Hind wing with 3rd anal vein distally forked (Figs A-B) ...… A ....... (Lepidoptera)  Cyclotornidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



243a (242a).     Upper side of hind wing with fringe of long hairs on basal part of Cu …... (Lepidoptera)  Olethreutidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



243b.    Hind wing without long hairs on basal part of Cu (Fig.A) ...... A ....... (Lepidoptera)  Tortricidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



244a (241b).    Fore wing with discal cell formed



244b.    Fore wing without closed cell (Fig.A) (also see couplet 245 ….... A ...... (Lepidoptera)  Heliodinidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



245a (244a).    Hind tarsi without evident groups of bristles



245b.    Hind tarsi with somewhat distinct groups of bristles near the ends of the several segments (Fig.244b-A) (also see couplet 244) ......... A .......... (Lepidoptera)  Heliodinidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



246a (245a).    Fore wing with discal cell set obliquely, the end distinctly closer to the hind margin than to costa; vein Cu-2 very short and usually extending directly back to wing margin



246b.    Fore wing with discal cell axial and central; vein Cu-2 normally long and continuing parallel with median veins (also see couplet 247) ....... (Lepidoptera)  Lavernidae &  Cosmopterygidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



247a (246a).    Fore wing with blunt discal cell; veins R-2 and Cu arising from the end of discal cell (Fig.240b-A) (also see couplet 14) ........ A ......... (Lepidoptera)  Blastobasidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>



247b.    Fore wing without stigma; vein R-2 arising distinctly before end of discal cell (Fig.A)  (also see couplet 246) ............ (Lepidoptera)  Cosmopterigidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>


248.  Major Families and Some Subfamilies of Adult Chalcidoidea:


<Overview>; <General References>


Generalized drawings of Chalcidoidea morphology by Noyes & Valentine (1989) are

 Presented in Figs.A-G.


For greater detail on specific geographic areas also please refer to Regional Keys as follows:





248a (123b).    Hind femur enlarged, with ventral teeth, either a few large or many small ones (saw-like) (Fig.A); hind tibia not quite equal to femur and arched; specimens usually 5-15 mm, broad bodied, rarely <1-2 mm ...... A.



248b.    Hind femur not enlarged, ventral teeth, if present, 2 or less, or ventral edge serrated  (Fig. A); hindtibia straight (rarely half length of femur); specimens usually 1-10 mm., robust to fragile



249a (248a).   Prepectus reduced or fused (Fig.A), not readily apparent, of if so, not triangular in outline (Fig.A) ..... A



249b.    Prepectus in the form of a triangular plate (Fig.A)



250a (249a).    Ovipositor directed horizontally [in most species not extended beyond tip of abdomen]; tegula almost an oval disc; fore wing not folded longitudinally; posterior gena with distinct ridge; body often large but not usually metallic (Figs.A-D) ...... A .....  Chalcididae  <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>   (also Fig. 56)



250b.    Ovipositor curved upwards over abdomen (Fig.A); male abdomen covered by pitted hard  covering of fused dorsal plates (Fig.A ); tegula narrowly extended forward, ladel-like; fore wing often folded longitudinally; body large, wasp-like, with fore wing longitudinally folded as in Vespidae, frequently with black and yellow pattern (Figs.B-D) .......  Leucospidae   <Habits>; <Adults> & <Juveniles>   (also Fig. 45)


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